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age crop," "uncommonly good," "abundant crop, exceeding that of last year," &c.
In the central counties, on the upper branches of the Susquehanna, it is said to have been “ 30 per cent. better than in 1843, the season being more favorable." And still further north, and towards the northwest section of the State, the estimate of increase is placed as high as one-third more than in the previous year.
The crop of oats in Pennsylvania for 1844, compared with that of 1843, which was a falling off from the preceding year, seems, therefore, to have been at least 25 per cent. better.
Some complaint is found of the drought, as affecting the oat crop in Ma. ryland; and in the central part of the State, bordering on the Chesapeake, it is even thought to have been “not more than half a crop," owing to the dry May. By others, the injury from the drought is estimated to be about 20 per cent. Probably it did not vary much from 15 to 20 per cent.
Virginia is a large producer of oats; and, so far as we have been able to ascertain, the reports respecting this crop during the last season are highly favorable. The general estimate seems to be, that the crop is a “full average one;" “ very good, both in quantity and quality,” owing to a favorable season. In the central southern section, bordering on North Carolina, the estimate reaches even to “100 per cent. advance on the crop of 1843," which is accounted for from the timely seeding in good order, and a moist May and June. In Bedford county, also, it is said to have been an uncommonly plentiful one.
In the western part of the State, also on the Kanawha river and vicinity, it is thought to have been 10 per cent. better than the year previous, which fell off
' 10 per cent. from that of 1842. On the whole, we feel warranted, taking into view all the causes which might influence the increase, to place it at about 15 per cent.
In some parts of North Carolina, the drought affected the oat crop unfavorably, so that it probably fell off one-third from the crop of 1843. Such is the estimate with regard to the southern central section, bordering on South Carolina. In the south west, too, a similar complaint is heard, and the product is thought to have been less. In the north western section, however, the reports are more encouraging, and the crop is spoken of as being a "good one.” Similar, too, is the judgment of our informants respecting some of the northwestern countiese
; and it is believed to have been “an average crop.” It is probable that there was an average advance of from 5 to 10 per cent., thronghout the whole State.
The same cause (the drought) affected the progress of this crop still more in South Carolina, and probably lessened it at least 20, if not 25 per cent.
Indeed, by some it is estimated to have fallen off one-third, in consequence of the very dry spring which was experienced.
Thus a public journal in Greenville says: “The oat crop on upland is almost entirely destroyed by the drought." Again : "Oats were seriously injured by dry weather; but we should suppose that fully two-thirds of the usual quantity has been harvested in this district.”
Similar unfavorable reports reach us from Georgia. Great complaint is made of injury to this crop by the drought. By some the crop is considered as about an average one.
Such is the estimate for the central western section. In the northwestern, however, the language is : “Short, on account of drought in the spring ;'
“the grain crops have fallen short of what they were last year;" «decreased 50 per cent., on account of their being no price;" “the season was against oats; consequently, we raised a less quantity ;" “ 25 per cent. short of the crop of last year, owing to the cold and wet in January and February, and drought in March, April, July, and August; I speak now per acre.”
The falling off, as it is seen, was thus very considerable, and probably announted to 20 or 25 per cent., compared with the crop of 1843.
Of the oat crops of Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Arkansas, we know but little, there being but a small yield, compared with the more prominent and staple products of these States. So far as we can form an estimate, it is favorable; and we place the crop at a slight advance, perhaps 10 per cent. above that of 1843.
In Tennessee, we are informed, that there was a decrease in some cases it is estimated at 10, and in others at 25 per cent. less than the crop of 1843. It may be set down at about 15 per cent., on the whole. An agricultural paper, published in this State, mentions that in the Tennessee valley oats are “nearly a failure.”
The oat crop of Kentucky, so far as we can judge from partial notices, was a better one than usual. Our informant, speaking of the northern central section, says that it was “very heavy and well-saved, like the crop of 1843, and equal to it.” Another : “ The crop was very large, and the product uncommonly abundant.” In the southern central counties, the estimate is given of an advance on the crop of 1843 of one-sixth. The average increase for the whole State may therefore be fairly estimated at 20 per cent.
With a single exception, our information respecting the crop of oats in Ohio, which ranks the third in its production of this grain of all the States, is most favorable. In some of the southeastern counties it is said to have been injured by rust.
Of the eastern central counties it is said: “ The oat crop is unusually good, and at least 25 per cent. greater than it was last year, or than it has usually been.” In the central section the increase is estimated at “10 per cent."
In the northeast, "the crop is good. Last year it was very small. No doubt it is doubled this year, if not more. Last year, the weather was very unfavorable; this year, very favorable, and perhaps it is even more than doubled.” On the northwest, and bordering on the lake, it is likewise thought to have been an advance of " 50 per cent.," which is attributed mainly to the early rains in April, which were congenial to its growth. In the south western section, towards the centre, along the Miami valley, the report is, that “this crop will not vary materially from that of last year. The season was favorable, and the yield was very good.” Still further in the same direction towards the south west, the oat crop is viewed as about a “ usual one."
Reviewing the different information, and comparing it with that of the year 1843, we are confident that we shall not overrate the average increase of the oat crop for the whole State of Ohio, at 25 per cent. Perhaps it should even be placed as high as 30 per cent., as nearer the truth.
We must allow as large if not a larger advance for the oat crop of Indiana, which appears to have been unusually good. Beginning in the southeast counties, on the Ohio river, towards the south, we are told that it was “an average crop;" lower down, and bordering on Kentucky and Ohio, in the southeast, it is considered to have been “an abundant crop.” Proceeding in a direction which will include the counties of Union, Fayette, and Wayne, &c., the oat crop was about there as in the previous year.” In the central section, in the vicinity of Indianapolis, the crop was only " a medium one, and injured by wet weather in the spring." In the north section of the State, it seems likewise to have declined, so that it is said to have been three-fourths of the crop of 1843. From all that we can gather, therefore, we believe that we may safely allow 25 per cent. for the average increase of the oat crop in 1844, over that of 1943.
A very large crop of oats was gathered in Illinois. The statements which we have received are, without exception, of an important advance. In the southwest, there are said to have been “fine crops.” In the same direction, bordering on the Mississippi, the oat crop is estimated to have been a gain of one-third or more; north of this it is estimated at " 25 per cent. better than in 1843."
In the central and northern counties, it was a very good crop. The same is the view taken of the crop on the Wabash river and back. In an agricultural paper published at Chicago, we perceive it stated that there was a good crop; and it is even said that it was three times as good as the year previous, in middle Illinois. On the whole, we judge that the advance over the crop of 1843 deserves to be ranked as high as 25 or 30 per cent. The oats of Missouri are said to have been a first rate crop; and in Michigan, where it is a favorite crop, it is stated to have been a "good crop-one-third per cent. at least better than that of 1843;" “unusually good this year, and yielded more than an average crop.” The oat crop of Michigan may theretore be set down as an advance of 25 to 30 per cent. In Iowa and Wisconsin, it is regarded as likewise a fair advance, so that an increased crop has been raised; probably it was 15 or 20 per cent. better.
With such statements, drawn from a variety of sources, we feel authorized to put the crop considerably higher than that of the previous year. The aggregate crop of oats for the United States, therefore, amounts to 172,247,000 bushels.
This crop, although raised in all the States, yet ranks in its amount least of all the grains, except buckwheat. There is considerable variation in the estimates made respecting it for the year 1844.
In Maine, in some of the upper counties, the estimate is that it was 10 per cent. more than in 1840. Another well-informed correspondent writes, from the central section of the State : “ But little of this grain has been cultivated during the past year. The crop proved good, but there is not much in market, on account of the small amount cultivated.” As the crop for 1843 fell off, it is believed that 10 per cent. advance on that crop would be a fair average estimate, through the whole State, for the crop of 1844.
In New Hampshire, in the lower section of the State, it is thought by our informant that it was diminished one-half, in consequence of the drought. In the upper counties of this state, the season has been remarkably fruitful, and the crop is pronounced to have been above a common average. In the southwestern section, the crop was about the same as in 1843. In the Farmers' Monthly Visiter we find the following general statement respecting the rye of New Hampshire : "The crop of rye on all our light lands
where not injured by the frosts of last winter, has been very good; and even tolerable on fields early in the season supposed to be nearly ruined by winter-killing. Rye sown as early as the 1st of September, double the crop sown on the 1st of October, and four times as great as that sown in the middle of October.” The crop of the previous year having fallen off, and the one for 1844 having been a decided gain on that, it is believed that 10 per cent. advance will not be too great for the crop thus noticed above.
But little information has reached us respecting this crop in Vermont; but, so far as we can form a judgment, there seems to have been a slight gain, perhaps 5 to 10 per cent. It is described as there having been no material variation, and the crop equal to an average.
In Massachusetts, in the central counties south, it was “about the same as in 1843.” 'In the northern ones, towards the east, it is thought to have been“ 25 per cent. better than in 1843;" while still further to the northeast, and bordering on the ocean, we are told, “rye has been hardly an average crop; the straw was heavy, but the kernel was not so well filled. The multicole rye did not head at all; probably it is a winter grain. If sown in the fall, success might follow." The crop is said to have been “ 50 per cent. less” than in former years. Take the whole together, and with reference to the effect of the weather, there was a gain of about 10 per cent. for the whole State.
There is no material difference between this and the other New England States. If any thing, there was a better crop in Connecticut, as it is described as being a good crop; and in the central part of the State, it is said, “rye an abundant yield, and the quality very superior.” As the crop of 1843 fell off from the previous year, that of 1844 may be set at 15 to 20 per cent, advance, since more of this grain is raised in Connecticut than in any other of the New England States.
The information respecting this crop in the State of New York is favorable--more so than for the previous year. In some parts of the State, having been raised principally for distillation, it has been lessened within a few years. Thus, in one of the central counties, our informant says: “Rye, none raised; cold water times drown it out.” Such is the general report from the central section of the State ; there is a small crop, and no material variation from the previous year.
In the vicinity of Utica, an agricultural paper says, in August : “ The rye harvest has been progressing for several days; it commenced somewhat earlier than usual; the crop will be full an average one.”
In the northern part of the State it is said to have been “a good crop.” In Schoharie county, and towards the south, “ the crop of rye was large; the yield, individually, however, is very small, and is always so; the average is seldom over fifteen bushels to the acre, and this of a grain which should produce twenty-five bushels.” In Rensselaer county it was an “excellent crop;" along the river counties an “average" one; and a correspondent in Orange county says: “ Rye is grown by our farmers pretty extensively, as the soil of some parts of our county is peculiarly adapted to it. The crop this year is poor, a considerable part of the grain having been . blasted, it is supposed, in consequence of the storms of the early part of the season, when the rye was in its blossom; and the crop is probably onethird less than the average one.” As there are no inducements to produce any increase of growth, it seems to follow, froin the above informa
tion, that the crop through the whole State could not have varied much from that of the previous year, the falling off in some sections having been somewhat overbalanced by the gain of others; and an allowance of 10 per cent. advance will be about a fair average estimate for the crop of 1944.
A similar estimate may be allowed to New Jersey.
Pennsylvania produces the most rye of any State in the Union, and the general report is favorable. It is variously estimated, as being “a good crop,” “average,” « pretty good,” “ very good,” though in some parts the
, crop is said to be a " light one, having been injured by the frost in June;"> and in others it is said ihere was much less sown than formerly. This crop being so much less cultivated than wheat, it attracts comparatively little attention ; and hence the information contained in the papers, or in the replies of correspondents, is not as ample. Small patches are here and there cultivated, but these are scarcely observed by the passer-by, and cannot come into a general estimate so well as when large tracts are laid down to any kind of crop. There was, on the whole, probably an ad'vance of 10 per cent. over the crop of 1843.
There is, comparatively, very little rye raised in the Middle or Southern States. In Virginia, in the section where it is cultivated, it appears to have been a common one, and probably the increase may be rated, in comparison with the crop of 1813, at 10 per cent.
Kentucky raises considerable rye, compared with most of the Western States; and though the production of it is said to be diminished in some parts 5 per cent. per acre, yet the crop was a fair one in quality, and unusual in quantity. The increase may have been 5 to 10 per cent.
In Tennessee, there is said to have been less seeded, and the crop was probably some 5 or 10 per cent. less than in 1843.
The crop in Ohio is but little noticed, but, so far as heard from, it seems to have been at least an “average” one, and in some cases it is even estimated in the central counties as high as “ 20 per cent. increase.” An informant, speaking of the vicinity of the Miami river, in the southwest section of the State, says: “On account of the low price which rye brought in 1843, but little was sown for this year. The vield was excellent; but the comparative quantity produced this year, I have no means of ascertaining." Taking into consideration the fact just mentioned, that less was sown, in connexion with another, that in 1843 the yield fell off some 10 per cent., it may be perhaps no unfair estimate to allow a small increase, from the excellence of the crop, of from 5 to 10 per cent., for the average one for the whole State, over the crop of 1843.
In Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Michigan, and the other remaining States, rye forms a very unimportant crop. On the whole, the crop appears to have done well in the first of these States, and was about an average one, and we may allow it 5 per cent. increase over that of 1843.
The reports from Illinois and Michigan are yet more favorable, and the crop is “good.” " In the western part of Illinois, it is even estimated in one section as high as“ 25 per cent. more than last year ;' and, likewise, in the western section of Michigan, it is stated to have been “unusually good," and that it “will yield more than an average crop.” We put the increase in both these States at 10 per cent. over the crop of 1843.
With regard to the remaining States and Territories, there is scarcely any information; and the only means of estimating the crop is from the crop of 1843, together with the information respecting the season, and the