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ter in those soils in which the proportion of humus,* or vegetable mould, is the greatest. As to the physical properties, the most superior soil for the growth of the madder root is that which is specifically the lightest in proportion to its bulk; that which will take up most water, and in which evaporation is the slowest ; that which adheres the least to the tools in working it, and which, being dry, adheres least together. There are two ways of cultivating the madder root : 1st. Cultivation on the small scale, which is done by hand, and on small patches of ground; 2d. Cultivation on the large scale.

Cullivation on the small scale.-When a person has a piece of ground which is suitable to the growth of madder, he should first of all break it up to the depth of a metre,f unless it should lately have been worked to some depth. This is generally done by the spade. The operation should take place during the winter; the rain and frost break up the clods, which, on the approach of spring, will become pulverized. It should be done when the ground is in such a state that, although there is sufficient humidity in it, it will not adhere to the implements made use of. Manure should be carte upon it during the whole winter. There are some lands upon wbich the quantity of manure to be employed might (as we may say) be unlimited, and they would produce a crop of roots in proportion to the quantity thrown on; but it must be understood that it is only upon porous, light, fresh soils, that the experiment of putting on such a superabundaat quantity of manure should be attempted. When the manure has been well spread over the ground, it must be ploughed in crosswise, so as to cover it lightly, and then harrowed, to make the surface even.

The furrows in which the madder seeds are to be sown are then traced out with a small band plough. The furrows ought to be five feet and a half in width, with a space between them of about fourteen inches; thus the lines would be traced at six feet eight inches distance from each other. This operation being completed, a man takes a hand-furrow, and hollows out a deeper furrow along each ridge; he is followed by a woman or child, who throws the seed into the surrow. From 400 to 450 pounds of seed to every hectare will be the necessary quantity. The seeds should be regularly distributed, at not more than one and a half inch distance from each other, and in every direction; they should not be sown in lines. When the man has completed his furrow, he will, on returning, open another alongside of it-ihe earth turned up for which will serye to cover the seed which has been sown upon the first; the woman still follows him, and sows the seed in the new furrow; and so on, till they come to the sixth, which remains without being sown, and which forms the interval between the first and second ridges.

As soon as the madder makes its appearance above the ground, imme. diate care should be taken to have it properly weeded, in which the agriculturist cannot be too particular; and this must be repeated whenever fresh weeds begin to show themselves. This weeding is to be done by hand. The women and children must go on their knees, in the space

between the surrows, and pluck out with great care the roots and filaments of every weed. This should be followed, in every instance, by covering the

Woody fibre, in a state of decay, is the substance called humus.--(See Liebig's Agricultural Chemistry, chap. 3 ; published by J. Winchester, New York.)

A metre is 394 inches, English. # A hectare is 2 acres 1 rood and 35 perches, English ; or 11,960 square rods.

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madder plants with a light layer of earth, taken from between the furrows; and this is for the purpose of making the ground firm around them, and to replace that which the pulling up of the weeds may have removed. The weeding must be repeated more or less often, in proportion to the propensity of the ground to produce weeds; and one ought to calculate upon three weedings being sufficient during the first summer, equal to 22 days' work of a woman upon each hectare, every time it is done, upon such lands as produce weeds only in moderate quantities; but the quantity may be much more considerable in soils where vegetation is particularly vigorous. In the month of September, the furrows should be covered two or three inches deep with earth ; and in this state the madder passes the winter. At the time the top of the plant will have begun to wither from the effects of the cold nights, and will soon after become dry, the question is not so much to defend it from the frost, which it withstands well, as to oblige the plant to form new roots in the earth with which it is covered, to the end that it may show itself above ground. The first vegetation in the spring is so vigorous, that it pierces through the layer with rapidity, and the new stem shows itself as soon as the first warmth of spring is felt

. During the second year the weeding must be continued ; but if it has been carefully done during the first, the madder plants, having taken firm hold of the soil, would not allow the growth of many extraneous weeds. The plants are lightly earthed up after every weeding, as before. However, there are many persons who do not take this precaution after the first year, pretending, with some show of reason, that the pulling up of the weeds cannot affect the madder plants, which then have become firmly rooted. When the stem is in flower, it is cut for fodder, or it is left to run to seed. Opinions are divided as to these two methods. Many persons think that the mowing compels the plant to push forth a new shoot, which impoverishes the root; but, on the other hand, it may be argued that allowing the stem to come to maturity will impoverish the plant, and rob it of all its succulency.

As to the fodder, it is of an excellent quality-almost as much esteemed as lucerne. It is well known that it has the property of turning red the bones of animals which feed upon it--a circumstance often remarked in countries where the madder grows.

Experienced cultivators can judge from the produce of the first year's fodder what will be the produce of the roots themselves; for it has been found that they are equal in weight to the fodder cut the first year, and double that of the second.

The third year does not require any other labor than the mowing of the stems; and finally, in the month of August or September, as soon as the rains have sufficiently penetrated the ground so as to render it easy to be worked, the taking up of the roots themselves is proceeded in. It is ne. cessary that this should be completed before any fears can be entertained of frost, which might prove very injurious to the quality of the roots while they are laid out to dry. To do this, men are placed on every furrow; and sometimes two on each, if the ground be very stiff, and require much labor. With their spades they turn up the ground before them, and keep digging down as long as they perceive any filaments of the roots. Before each laborer is placed a cloth, into which he throws the madder as he gathers it. Whenever this is full, it is carried to the area upon which the crop is to be

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spread, for the purpose of drying it; it is turned over with a pitchfork, to clear it from the earth and dust which may adhere to it. It is then conveyed to some dry place, for humidity would render it liable to become mouldy, and would completely deteriorate its quality. After that, all that is necessary is to pack it up for market. Statement of the expenses for a hectare (about two and a half acres) of madder land, cultivated by spade labor, in the department of Vaucluse.

First year.–For breaking up the ground, 44 days' labor in the winter, and 20 loads of manure; ploughing up two furrows to cover the manure, and harrowing the land ; 450 lbs. of seed per hectare; 8 days' work of a man and woman in sowing; weeding three times, 66 days' work of a woman ; earthing up three times, 15 days' work of a man.

Second year.-Weeding, in all, 22 days; earthing up once ; earthing up for the winter.

Third year.--Taking up the roots, 166 days' work of men and women.

Produce. Fodder obtained the first year, 8,600 lbs.; second year, 4,300 lbs.; madder roots, 8,600 lbs.

Cultivation on a large scale.--In the cultivation on a large scale, no manure is employed. The first work of breaking up the earth is done with a strong plough; all the other labor of the intermediate years is done by hand,

as in the small cultivation. The work of turning up the roots is done also with a strong plough, the mould-board of which is more turned up than usual, to prevent the earth from falling back into the furrow; its handle is of wood, but all the rest of wrought iron. It is constructed altogether upon the principle of the plough called contrier. There are, however, two small wheels attached to it, as a sort of fore-carriage, to render its progress more steady. The agriculturist should take care to have a double set of the principal parts of the plough, to prevent delays in case of accident.

To this plough is generally first yoked a pair of oxen, and before them are placed as many horses as the tenacity of the ground may require. The calculation is generally made for six pairs of horses, beside the oxen, for lands of ordinary stiffness. With these means, about half a hectare may be ploughed in a day. The ground should be opened to the depth of about twenty inches.

When such a considerable strength in cattle cannot be obtained, the furrows must be ploughed over twice ; and in this way it may be managed with tbree pairs of cattle, which would do the same work, but take double the time to perform it.

To take up the roots, 20 men and women would be required to each plough, when the madder is not very thick, as is usually the case in the compact soils of which we are speaking.

If the crop prove very good, it would be necessary to increase, propor. tionately, the number of women to be employed. The width of the field is divided into twenty equal distances, by means of stakes driven in; one man and one woman are appointed to each of these divisions, The men have each an iron rake, and they spread the earth, as it is turned over by the plough, along their division. The women gather up the roots in baskets, and then deposite them in cloths, which are placed at equal distances. The other operations are performed in the manner stated in the preceding article.

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Statement of expenses for a hectare of madder land, cultivated on a large

scale.

First year.—Breaking up of the land, 2 days' work for 7 pairs of cattle; 6 days' work of men who drive the plough and attend the cattle; crossploughing after winter; 450 lbs. of seed ; sowing after the plough ; weeding; earthing up three times, and for the winter. Second year.—Earthing up once, for the winter.

Third year.Ploughing up the roots, 2 days' work for 7 pairs of cattle; 46 days' work for men, and 40 for women, drying and picking up.

Produce.--Fodder obtained the first year, 5,625 lbs.; second, 2,812 Ibs.; madder roots, 5,625 lbs.

MADDER SEED.The very high prices which the madder dyes of France and Holland have attained are sufficient to excite the attention of our intelligent agriculturists. It is only necessary to take into consideration the immense quantity of madder consumed in the various manufactories of the United States, to be convinced that the cultivation of this plant would be attended with great advantages, and that it may be undertaken with certainty of profit.

The madder root can be cultivated in almost every climate. The sands of Silesia, the marshes of Zealand, the arid soils of the south of France and Persia, produce it, and of almost equally good quality. It is well known that atmospheric influences make but little impression upon a root, the valuable part of which grows beneath the surface of the soil; and what a powerful guaranty does this circumstance afford to the cultivator of the madder. It protects him from all varieties of temperature which so frequently destroy crops of a different nature. For those who cultivate the root, a crop is assured as soon as the seed which they have put into the ground begins to germinate.

A special report upon the cultivation of this plant was laid before the Academy of Sciences at Paris, and a prize awarded to the author. It was written by M. de Gasparin, Peer of France, member of the Institute, and formerly Minister of the Interior. The above extract is made from it, which is itself sufficient to instruct all who wish to direct their attention to this new branch of cultivation in this country. French madder seed, obtained from last year's crops, may be had of the subscribers, who have received a consignment of a considerable quantity.

J. M. THORBURN & Co.,

15 John street, New York.

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CULTIVATION OF MADDER.No. 1.

For the American Agriculturist. The great depression in every kind of agricultural produce makes it the duty of patriotic citizens to point out any new vegetable products wanting in the practical arts. Of these, there are some five or six, hitherto imported from foreign countries, that can just as well be grown by our farmers as by foreigners. These are madder, indigo, Sicilian sumach, (rhus coriaria,) Italian sumach, (rhus cotinus,) weld, (resede lutiola,) and woad.

I undertook to bring these articles to the attention of our agriculturists some fifteen years since, but the then high price of produce paralyzed the effort. I will again bring them to their notice, and, I hope, with better effect. Gibson quotes a wise maxim from the Zendavesta : “He who sows the ground with care and diligence acquires a greater stock of religious merit than he could gain by a repetition of ten thousand prayers.”

I shall, in this article, treat of the cultivation of madder. The consumption of it is very large, and would require many thousands of acres to supply the home market. I believe the cultivation of madder has been successfully prosecuted, on a small scale, in the neighborhood of Utica, State of New York, for some years past. About the year 1816, I bought some dried roots in the market of Cynthiana, Kentucky, that I found of very good quality. I have tested some roots brought from South America, where, I am informed, it grows wild, and it proved superior to any European madder I ever used. Mrs. Madison made a report to the Philosophical Society of Philadelphia, many years since, on madder raised under her direction; and the report was accompanied with a sample of cotton dyed an Adrianople red, that has never been exceeded in color by any European dyer.

D'Ambourgue informs us that the roots taken from the ground, and washed, will, by using four pounds for one, produce all the effect of the best prepared. This fact is highly important to manufacturers, as it points out to them an easy and cheap way of obtaining the article for their own consumption, at less than half the price paid by them for the foreign article.

These facts will prove incontestably that our soil and climate are admirably adapted for the cultivation of madder. The only impediment to our success lies in the fact that it requires froin two to three years to realize a crop, and our farmers are ever impatient for quick returns. I shall commence by describing the mode of culture, and then give the process of drying and grinding for distant markets.

Preparation for the crop.-It will be necessary to plough the land deeply for madder, before the winter, into high ridges, in order that it may be exposed to the action and influence of the frosts and the atmo. sphere. Early in the spring these ridges should be well harrowed down by a heavy long-tined harrow, and then ploughed again in the contrary direction to a good depth ; and after this, when the land is not perfectly clean from weeds, or not rendered sufficiently fine and mellow, another ploughing and another harrowing should be given. In the last operation the ground should always be left in as level and even a state as possible. It is then ready for the reception of the plants.

Sowing and planting.-The sets or plants may then be obtained either by sowing the seeds upon a bed of earth which is rich, and made perfectly fine by digging and raking in the spring, and then lightly covering it, or from offsets or suckers from the old plants. In the first method, on the plants appearing, they should be made perfectly clean by weeding, and be set out at the distance of three inches in the beds by the hoe; in this way, by keeping the ground quite clean, and well stirred about the plants, they will be ready to set out in the second autumn, though it will be mostly better to deler the business till spring. It requires about thirty thousand

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