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As we advance from these counties towards the centre of the State, there is great complaint of rust; and the injury is said to be so severe that in some fields not more than three bushels to an acre has been harvested. In some central counties, also, the mildew and rust lessened the crop at least one-half.
In the central part of the State, in the counties hordering on the upper branches of the Susquehannah, the crop is estimated to have been onethird less than that of the year 1843, owing to the rust. It is stated, that a few weeks before harvest “ the wheat crop promised to be very abundant; but about that time it was struck with the rust, particularly the wheat on the river bottoms and in the valleys, which iujured it at least 50 per cent."
The same complaint of rust meets us as we pass to the eastern section towards the northeast, where the winter wheat is said to have been somewhat injured by the rust," but to have yielded an average crop.
Towards the southeast, on the Susquehanua, and in the vicinity of Har. risburg, the rust is also said to have much damaged the crop, so that it yielded not more than two-thirds as much as in 1843.
Still further on towards Philadelphia, we are told that in the rich county of Lancaster the crop was “an average one, both in quantity and quality.” In Chester county, "the early so wil was good, the late sown suffered by rust.” In the vicinity of Philadelphia, the crop, on the whole, was pretty good.” From the best calculations we can make, we think that the crop in general fell off from 10 to 15 per cent. in Pennsylvania.
In tracing out the progress of the wheat erop of Virginia, the next in order, a similar diversity in the various sections meets lis. The carlier accounts of its appearance, so far as they have fallen under our notice, are quite promising. Thus we find it said of the crop in the viciuity of Wheeling, in the latter part of May: "Crops never looked better, or promised a more abundant harvest.?'
In counties bordering on the Potomac, also under the same date, the wheat crop is said to be “promising.” In the vicinity of Winchester, early in June, the crops are described as “turning out well, though there may be, in some cases, partial failures.” And, again, the remark is made of the wheat-growing counties generally, that there is the “prospect of an abundant crop," "a fine season for harvesting, and the crop itself “unusually healthy and advanced." There is some complaint of the fly; but the injury both in eastern and western Virginia is considered oniy partialconfined to some sections. In the vicinity of Staunton the crop is stated to be “good,” and but little complaint is made of any injury there sus. tained. Under date of Wellsburg, July 3, a writer also says, that “the crops in the upper part of the county are promising.
There are some exceptions; for one account from Frederick county speaks of the wheat being “much shrunk, because of an excess of wet weather;" and an articie in the Wheeling Gazette thus mentions the state of the wheat crop in that neighborhood : “The wheat fields in this vicinity, in harvest, presented a most promising appearance, and it was supposed at that time that we would have a harvest rich and abundant beyond all former precedent. As soon, however, as the farmers commenced threshing out their grain, the discovery was made, that the flatiering indications of an abundant yield above referred to were deceptive; there was, to be sure, an unusual amount of straw, but the yield of grair fell far short of the reasonable expectations of our worthy agriculturists. And it was
also discovered that a great deal of the wheat was light and shrivelled, some of it requiring five pecks, in measure, to make a bushel of the standard weight. We also regret to learn that many fields were injured by the rust. Notwithstanding all these drawbacks, we are inclined to believe that the aggregate amount of wheat obtained this season in the agricultural region of the country adjacent to our city will fall but little, if any, short of the average yield of former seasons; for we are assured that much more wheat was sown last fall and spring than usual; and many of our farmers have, undoubtedly, harvested unusually fine crops.'
Referring to later accounts, also from various sections, since the harvest, we gather the following particulars, which, in some parts, are less promising:
“On the southeast, embracing several counties, including the Isle of Wight, Sussex, Norfolk, &c., there has been, it is thought, an increase of 20 per cent. over the previous year.
« This is owing to the favorable effects resulting from the use of marl in that region--more attention having been directed to this object than before.”
From this point, towards the centre, it is judged that there has been san increase of 25 per cent., owing, among other reasons, principally to the growing of a more forward kind of wheat and a more favorable spring."
On the east, from the centre of the State, in several counties bordering the Potomac and its vicinity, there seems to have been “scarcely an average crop;" while on the southern central section of the State, bordering on North Carolina, the wheat crop is represented as having "fallen off at least 50 per cent., on account of rust, caused by its coming up badly and a moist warm June." North of this last section, however, the injury seems not to have been much felt, as the crop is pronounced to have been, “ both in quantity and quality, an average one.” Further west, in the counties on the Kanawha river, it was likewise “an average crop:
Taking all the information within our reach into the account, we seem to be authorized to estimate the crop in Virginia in 1844 to be an increase of about 20 per cent. over that of 1843.
The notices respecting the wheat crop in Indiana, in May and June, are of various kinds. Complaints, even at that early date, are made of the fly; but the principal injury seems to have been occasioned by the severe rains, which deluged portions of the wheat-growing sections of the State. Thus we find accounts like the following:
A person, near Goshen, Indiana, writes : “I am almost discouraged ; the weather is very unfavorable for farming; very wet and rainy. The fly is taking the wheat here at a dreadful rate, destroying some pieces entirely. The crop here presents a most unfavorable appearance. Some fields have been ploughed up, and corn planted therein."
Again : speaking of the prospect of the crop in the valley of the Wabash, especially the bottom lands, it is said : “ There is every appearance of a bad crop.
Other accounts, however, at this period, are more favorable. Thus the Indiana (Rising Sun) Blade, of the 18th of May, says: “ The prospect of this portion of the country for abundant crops is favorable. The wheat is unusually forward, and we are informed by farmers that, from present indications, it will be ready to harvest by the middle of Jupe, some two or three weeks earlier than usual.”
And again : the Madison (Indiana) Banner, of June 5th, after noting
the bad condition of crops on the Wabash bottom lands, says: “In Jefferson and Jennings, and all this region of the State, the wheat crop is more promising than it has been at the same time in any former year within the memory of man."
From another statement we gather the following:
Michigan City, (Indiana,) June 4.-—“Wheat still commands 65 cents; but small quantities coming in. It is now considered that the frost we had about the 20th May did but little injury to the wheat; the fly has injured some fields, but the prospect now is of a fair crop."
In July the remark is made, that “the wheat crop, in various sections, has suffered from the fly.” A similar diversity also exists in the later reports. In the central counties of the State, the accounts are favorable, and “ a large crop is spoken of.” In the counties lying in a southeasterly direction from the centre, and reaching on to the Wabash, the crop is estimated to have “ fallen short 33 per cent., on account of the rust.” North of these, however, another statement gives the opinion that the crop is greater than an average one, and exceeds that of 1843 by 25 per cent. As we proceed still north, on the upper waters of the Wabash, “the rains proved so severe, as has been mentioned, that the crop is reckoned at “not more than half of that of 1843.” In the southeast, inclining to the central south, bordering on the Ohio river, including the counties of Washington, Scott, Jefferson, and some of the neighboring ones, there is more than usual complaint of rust; and the crop has been estimated at “not half a crop, and less than that of 1843." Northeasterly from these counties, and bordering on Kentucky and Ohio, in Dearborn, Ripley, Switzerland, and Franklin counties, and some others, there was likewise "a small crop;" and the same cause, the “rust," is assigned as the reason. Still further north, and bordering on Ohio, and back towards the centre, the crop is estimated at 66 30 per cent in advance of that of 1843."
It must be taken into view, however, that a large quantity of seed was sown on a greater breadth of land than had been done the previous year; and, when we consider this fact, it seems probable that, if we estimate the whole
crop at about 20 or 25 per cent. less than in 1843, we shall not vary greatly from the true state of the case. We are inclined to think that the difference, either side, cannot be more than 5 per cent.
Respecting the wheat crop of Illinois, our earlier notices are somewhat more sull; and these, as well as the later ones, lead us to the conclusion that this crop, though promising at first, suffered even more than in Indiana. Thus, in May, we are informed that "the fly is doing great injury in many parts of the State.” And, early in the month, the Chicago Journal says: T6 The Hessian fly has made its appearance on Hickory creek, in Will county. Several entire fields of wheat, both winter and spring, have been destroyed. The loss, however, occasioned by this insect is confined, thus far, to small sections of country. The wheat crop, as a general thing never appeared more promising in northern Illinois than at present."
Again, speaking of this and other States, the Prairie Farmer, publisha ed at Chicago, says: “If there be not a larger wheat crop in the United States this season, or in the West at any rate, than ever before, we shall be disappointed. In our rambles through Illinois, we have seen and been informed that more wheat was sown last fall than isual ; that, almost with out exception, as far as we have been able to learn, it has been uninjured by the weather. The early opening of the spring will hasten its growth, so that
there will be little danger from rust; and this being the chief cause of fear for wheat in this region, we think the prospect is good for a large crop.”
At a short period after, however, we find the accounts more discouraging, and early in June the prospects of the wheat crop in Illinois are men. tioned as “unfavorable.” In à St. Louis paper of June 1st, the fly is said to be “doing great injury" near Fox river, in Illinois.
Again, we have the following notice :
“ Little Fori, (Illinois,) June 5.--After a rain of nearly six weeks, we have got a glimpse of the sun, and things begin to move. The season has been very unpropitious for putting in the spring crops, and, in this section of country, there will not be so much spring wheat raised as in the preceding year. There is, however, an abundance of wheat in the country; but the roads are so bad that very little gets to market. We are paying how 62 to 65 cents for winter, and 50 to 55 cents for spring. The crops in the ground look well, and every thing, promises well.”
Again, the Quincy (Illinois) Whig of the 3d instant says: “ The rains of last week, it is feared, will have a serious effect upon the crops. Many of the farmers had commenced cutting their wheat, but were obliged to suspend their operations in consequence of the wet weather. Although the prospect, some weeks since, was very fair for a large yield, the continued wet weather has operated most disastrously, in many instances, upon the prospects of the farmers. Whole fields, we are informed, in this and adjoining counties, will yield little or nothing. The prospect for corn is even worse than for wheat, and, unless more favorable weather intervene soon, there is every probability of a failure in the crop.”
Under date of June 3d, in Warren county, an informant writes us: “The season in this section is rather unfavorable. The wheat crop, I think, will be short of the expectations of all; the growth is most rapid-it is already beginning to head; but, whether from early frosts last fall, or the immoderate and cold rains this spring, I cannot say. On inspection by myself and some of my neighbors, it appears to be about one-third or one half less; our wells, ranging from 14 to 20 feet deep, are full to the top; the ground appears to be so much saturated with water, one would think it would never dry; the rains have been so numerous, that, before the ground was suficiently dry to plough, another rain would follow.”
The Prairie Farmer of July says that “the wheat crop is in some places luxuriant, but has suffered severely in various sections by the fly.” And the same agricultural journal, of September, speaks of it having “promised well," but that "it did not yield half a crop in middle Illinois ;” and that “ much of it was not cut, on account of the wet and rust."
In Warren county, it is stated that the crop "fell far short of last spring's promise. The rains were so incessant and immoderate since last March, that much fall wheat has been more or less injured by rust or scab.” Spring wheat, likewise, is said to be injured. Much of the wheat brought to market is stated to be " of a poor quality;" and the same complaint is heard of injury by long-continued wet.
The following estimates have been received since the harvest has been gathered :
In southern Illinois, one person considers the crop “as good as that of 1843.". In the southwest tier of counties lying along on the Mississippi, on the other hand, it is stated that it did not reach to more than two-thirds of the crop of the previous year; and the “wet weather, and rust before
the harvest,” are assigned as the cause of this decline. North of this, reaching up to the centre, as compared with the crop of 1843, that of 1844 is placed as high as “100 per cent, increase;" as “ the crop of 1843 was very small, and that of 1844 was a remarkably good one. In the southeast counties, on the Wabash, and running back towards the centre, the crop is pronounced to have been “a very indifferent one,” having “suffered much from long-continued rains ;" while in the central counties, and on towards the north, we are informed that “the wheat fair in the spring to be an uncommon yield; but, owing to the unusual floods of June, it ran too much to straw, and rust injured the crop. Some fields were entirely destroyed, and most of them injured in quality.” Owing, however, to the large quantity sown, the crop may have turned out "an average one.” In the northern part of Illinois, it is thought by one to be “a good crop," and towards the south more injured by rust.” A good judge, speaking of the wheat crop in this State, says: “ The wheat crop in the vicinity of Chicago was a fair crop, though in quality it was poor, shrunk, and with a larger than usual growth of straw. It promised finely in the early season, but ran too much to straw.' It was also injured in some of the counties of northern Illinois by rust and the fly, and was about the same as in 1843. From these various accounts of the crop in different parts of the State, we are inclined to believe that a decrease of 25 to 30 per cent, should be allowed for the whole crop.
The wheat crop of Michigan has gained largely for two or three years past. This is one of those States where, owing to new lands being brought under cultivation, and a large increase of population by immigration, a greater extent of field is sown from year to year. Had there been nothing to injure the crop, the increase on that of 1843 would have been a large one. The earlier notices of the wheat crop in Michigan were somewhat unfavorable. A specimen of this appears in the following:
“ St. Joseph's, (Michigan,) May 31.—Last week we mentioned the fact, that the fly was making sad havoc with the wheat crop in this vicinity. Since then, we have noticed that this enemy of the farmer infests different parts of this and the adjoining States. Still, the ravages of the fly appear not to be suficiently extensive to affect materially the general crop.”
In June we find this account of the prospect, and the causes at work to influence the decrease of the
6 While at the east and south the weather during the whole spring has been unusually warm and pleasant, and vegetation far in advance of the season, with us, throughout the whole west, we believe, there has been almost continuous rain. Our streets seldom present a worse surface in the early spring, and the roads in the interior, we are told, are in many places almost impassable.
“ The effect of the heavy rain upon the wheat and spring crops has been exceedingly unfavorable; but whether so much so as to injure materially the harvest, cannot yet, we imagine, be determined. We hear, too, that the Heșsian fly is doing much injury in some quarters. We fear, therefore, that the wheat crop, especially, is less promising in this State than it has been for several preceding years."-Detroit (Michigan) Advertiser of June 7th.
As an exception to this, it is said: “We are gratified to learn from the Oakland Gazette that the wheat crop looks well in that county, especially in the northern part."