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severe frosts within a few days. Fortunately, they began grinding this
season very early, so that a larger portion than usual of the crop has been
secured; but still the loss is estimated at from 10,000 to 15,000 hogsheads.
Notwithstanding this, however, the crop will not be less than 150,000 hogs-
heads, and many estimate it at 180,000. The price is very low; prime
quality from 4 to 41 cents, and from that down to 3 cents, according to

In the American Agriculturist for December, 1844, we have the follow-
ing account of an improved method of making sugar by an hydraulic
press, which is said to possess some important advantages :

Improvements in sugar making.--We find in some of the late num-
bers of Simmons's Colonial Magazine, that a patent has been taken out
for the application of hydraulic pressure in extracting the juice from the
cane. Two presses, each capable of bearing a strain of 1,400 tons, are
worked alternately by one set of pumps, which pumps may be worked
either by manual labor, by means of double-ended lever handles, or, where
manual labor is scarce, by two mules, or a small steam engine of two-
horse power. These presses are calculated to turn about 6,000 gallons of
cane juice per day of ten hours, which is more than can be effected by a
roller mill, even when driven by a steam engine of twelve or fourteen-
horse power.

“ The advantages of this system of hydraulic pressure are stated to be
1. The juice in the cane (generally 18 per, weight of saccharine mat-
ter) can be wholly extracted; thereby saving about 8 parts now left in the
megass. 2. The juice can be rapidly filtered when cold, as discharged from
the mill or hydraulic press, if by the latter it should be needful. 3. The tem-
pering can be effected properly and uniformly. 4. The juice can be defe-
cated promptly as it runs from the mill, hydraulic press, or filter; thereby
avoiding the deteriorating effects produced by remaining in receivers. 5.
The cleansing and evaporating of the defecated liquor (rendered purer by
previous operations) can be effected in steam pans, without discharging
from one into the other.

6. The evaporated sirup may be decolored and
filtered through animal charcoal, which can be revivified on the estate. 7.
The final concentration of the sirup can be more rapidly accomplished than
by the present mode, in an open pan or trench, at the low temperature of
170° to 180° Fahrenheit, or at about 80° to 100° below the usual tempera-
ture of the strike when boiled by the common method. 3. The concen-
trated mass can be properly crystallized and effectually cured, and the pot-
ting avoided, by the use of vessels into which the strikes are discharged
consecutively; and the sugar so cured will not drain during the voyage.
9. The molasses can be converted into sugаr nearly equal to that of the
first production; and sugar can also be made of as good quality, in all re-
spects, as muscovado (and by this peculiar method only) from the molasses
that drains from the sugar of the second quality. 10. The megass may
be used for manure, if the various operations are performed by the agency
of steam. 11. The machinery, apparatus, &c., are simple in their con-
struction and management, and much less costly than others."

In appendix No. 14 will also be found a letter from Mr. Rielleux, of New Orleans, respecting his method of manufacturing sugar, to which allusion was made in a previous report.

Maple sugar still continues to be manufactured in large quantities in many of the States; and the probability is, that it forms a considerable


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portion of the supply in many towns in the States where it is usually made. It is said that not less than 10,000 tons are annually sold in the city of New York. The season, on the whole, was a more favorable one for the manu. facture of this article in 1844 than in the year 1343 ; and, in some of the States, a large increase is noted.

In Vermont, which stands foremost among the New England States with respect to the manufacture of sugar, there is some diversity of opinion. In the county of Chittenden, it is said that "the product of maple sugar will not exceed one-half of the usual quantity, owing altogether to the unfavorable season for the manufacture of the article." It should be recollected, however, that there was a falling off, in the year 1843, of not less than 50 per cent.; so that the crop of 1944 was, vo doubt, in advance of that year. The whole quantity reported for that county is 88,500 pounds; for Grand Isle, 3,600 pounds. In the other counties there was, it is thought, an increase of 50 per cent. over the crop of 1843, and 10 per cent. over that of 1842. From some of the lower counties our information is, that it is about an average quantity, being four times what was made in 1843, and equal to 1842. From all that we can gather, considering the great falling off the last year, the sugar crop of 1844, in Vermont, was at least 75 per cent, more than that of the year 1843.

New Hampshire also raises a large quantity of sugar, and this is said to be yearly increasing in quantity, and much improving in quality. The year 1843 was a very poor year; and it fell off so much that an equal advance now, as well as in Vermont, should be allowed. We have already stated, at an earlier place in this report, that the figure denoting millions in this crop in New Hampshire, was somehow dropped in 1841, and has been continued so till this time. How the mistake occurred, we have no means of knowing now; but it has been corrected in our table for 1844. We suppose the season has been equally favorable in the other New England States.

In New York a similar increase must be made, as it is variously estimated, in the notices we have gathered, at from 30 to 100 per cent increase.

In Pennsylvania the crop is thought, for the most part, to have been a large advance on the crop of 1843, which suffered very greatly from the depth of snow, which prevented the manufacture.

From the Western States, with the exception of Ohio, the report respecting the sugar crop for 1844 is quite favorable, and ranges from 25 to 30 per cent. increase. In Michigan it reaches as high as 75 to 100 per cent. One young man in Kent county, it is stated, made not less than 700 pounds from 100 trees.

Some interesting statements respecting the manufacture of maple sugar will be found in appendix No. 15.

Corn-stalk sugar.-We have received a number of communications relating to this subject. A successful experiment on the manufacture of this article was made by Mr. John Beal, of New Harmony, Indiana, who ob. tained above 300 pounds from the quantity of stalk used—which was about at the rate of 500 pounds to the acre. Some communications on this subject may be found in appendix No. 16. In the same appendix, also, are added some other papers relating to the subject. The letter of Dr. Jackson, and one addressed to him, are important, showing that crystallization can be effected.

It is believed that the results already obtained warrant the conclusion that, as attention is more and more devoted to it, the apparent difficulties


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will all be obviated, and the article will yet be manufactured in large

It is now said, also, that sugar can be manufactured in great amount
from potatoes. The statement in an English journal is, that three tons of
the raw material will make one ton of potato sugar.

An account of the process will be found extracted from Dr. Ure's Die tionary, in appendix No. 17.

By the following extract, it appears that watermelons have been turned to good account in the production of sirup:

"Sugar from watermelons.-Uriah Johnston, a citizen of Carolina, says he has extracted from watermelons a sirup equal to molasses, which would produce sugar of good quality. The sirup is obtained by boiling the juice three hours in a common iron pot-eight gallons making one gallou of excellent sirup. He thinks one acre of common sand hill land would produce watermelons enough to make 200 gallons of sirup equal to the best molasses. The refuse of the melons makes capital food for hogs; and so nothing is lost.”

This might be quite valuable in some sections of our country where this fruit is raised in large quantities; still it does not promise to be of very extensive use.

We give a statement here of the amount of beet sugar inade in France for a year. It will be recollected that the manufacture of sugar from the beet is of comparatively recent date; and this shows what may be expected, should the facts on the subject of the corn stalk be fully sustained:

“ The manufacture of beet-root sugar in France, for the year ending July 4, 1844, was 28 millions of kilograms, (325 manufactories,) and the duties levied amounted to nearly five millions of francs."

The whole amount of sugar produced in the United States in 1844, both from the cane and maple, is 201,107,000 pounds.

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Wine is so little made an object by the culture of the grape, that it is almost impossible to form any estimates respecting this crop; and therefore it has been omitted altogether in the columns of the tabular estimate. The culture of the grape for the table is increasing, and promises to be a source not merely of pleasant luxury, but, in many parls of our country, of very considerable profit.

On a review of the crops for 1844, it appears, that notwithstanding there has been a lessening in some important ones, still there is a sufficiency for man and beast; and our country may yet afford a surplus for foreign markets.

We shall next advert to certain productions of the soil, and connected with agriculture, which furnish inducements to some of our citizens to di. rect to their cultivation a portion of their enterprise.

In the last report some mention was made of madder, as offering inducements to some of the agriculturists, in sections of our country to embark in the enterprise of its cultivation. It is believed, that the more the attention is turned to it, the more feasible the project will be regarded. There is a very considerable demand for it abroad. The prices for madder, according to a late price current in Liverpool, ranged from £3 to £4 per cwt.; and for madder roots, from £4 88. 10 £4 10s. There are some parts

of the country to which this product is well adapted. In a late number of the Southwestern Farmer, we find a communication, said to be from a gentleman of respectability, who speaks of having met, in New Orleans, a German who had come to this country with the express purpose of raising madder, and urging some one to enter upon the experiment. The statement is therefore made, from this experienced individual, that in any part of Mississippi 3,000 pounds per acre of dried madder, or madder fully prepared for the market, could be produced. This, at 15 cents per pound, (the minimum rate in New York or Boston,) would produce $450, in three years, to the acre, and $4,500 for 10 acres. In appendix No. 18 we have a full account of the mode of cultivation, the kind of soil adapted to it, and such other remarks as may be useful, taken from an agricultural journal. In Burger's Manual of Agriculture, we find it stated that, according to the experiments made by Messrs. Von Moro, at Victringen, in Carinthia, during the years 1835 and 1836, the common opinion, that one year's roots will not color so lasting or dark colored a red, is not correct. In Avignon, the roots are suffered to remain in the ground two years; iv Holland, England, and the East, three. He also mentions that, in France, madder is sometimes cultivated for 12 to 15 years, successively, in the same field. In the Transactions of the Agricultural Society of Carinthia for 1834, 1835, and 1836, Messrs. Von Moro have given an account of their mode of culture of madder, which, Burger says, deserves the attention of all cultivators of the article. We translate here a few sentences of Burger's description of the same :

“ They take up the roots every year, at the end of April or the beginning of May, because, in this experiment, though they obtained less weight of root at a time than by two years, yet, in the two successive yearly gatherings, they secured more."

In Veit's Husbandry, also, another German work, we find it stated that the cultivation of madder is best conducted in a moist, warm climate, and those regions where flax and hemp are most successful; the soil should be moist, loose, and a strong loam. He recommends that, in the first year, while the plants are small, the wide spaces between be used for the culture of low beans, and other vegetables which do not grow to any great height, and so will not impede the growth of the madder.

The report of M. De Gasparin to the French Academy of Sciences, on this product, is said to have effected quite a revolution in its successful culture. Wé subjoin, also, in appendix No. 18, some extracts from this document, published in a circular of J. M. Thorburn & Co., of New York, who say they have a large quantity of choice seed. M. De Gasparin's observations apply better to France, where labor is low, than to our own country. Still, it is useful. Some madder seed will form part of the seeds to be distributed this season from the Patent Office.

Another product, which deserves more attention than has yet been given to it, is mustard. The demand for mustard seed is large, and the price it commands is sufficient to remunerate the expense and labor of raising it. We have endeavored to obtain some estimate of the quantity imported; but there are no returns of the same in the reports of the Treasury Department. An informant, however, furnishes us with the following conclusions. He says that the amount used is probably as much as there is of Sumatra pepper, especially when the fact is taken into consideration, that mustard is used for the sick, also, in the form of sinapisms and baths

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He allows, however, that, for the table, there is only one pound of mustard for two pounds of pepper; and then the amount is quite large.

Mustard seed is now principally imported from England and Holland. Recently, some lots have come from the south Pacific, in whale ships; but, from the samples, it is said that this article is not good in its quality. The English manufacturers have recently been supplied, to some extent, with seed from Calcutta. A manufacturing house in this country, from whom we have principally derived our information, tell us that they have seen but two lots of Calcutta mustard seed, both of which were injured by being shipped too green, and heated in the voyage. From a late price current, it appears that white mustard seed is most in demand, and commands the best price abroad. This, it is stated, has not been the case for a number of years before. The market, it is believed, will bear a very considerable increase of production, and yet the raising of the article prove profitable. It is also stated, that if the manufacturers could rely on a supply of the seed-even if it were one cent per pound, or fifty cents per bushel, over the cost of importation—no orders for foreign seed would be sent out. The American seed is thought to be so much superior to the English, that it is believed, were it once tried, it would be preferred even abroad; and the opinion is expressed, that the demand would rather exceed the production than the contrary. In appendix No. 19 may be found some further information respecting this product, mode of culture, &c., taken from the Farmers' Cyclopedia.

We have likewise subjoined in the same appendix, from the Farmers' Cabinet and Ohio Cultivator, accounts of a crop of brown mustard raised by J. H. Parmelee, of Ohio; which shows that, if properly cultivated, it may prove profitable. A further letter of Messrs. Fell & Brother, of Philadelphia, may also be found in appendix No. 19. These gentlemen, from their situation as manufacturers in a large city, are well qualified to judge correctly on this subject.

A crop to which the attention of portions of the Southern country may yet be profitably directed, (as it formerly was,) from the over-production of cotton, is indigo. This article commands a good price in the market, and considerable quantities are imported every year, to supply the consumption of this country. Formerly, it was an article of export; and but for the increased attention to cotton, it is probable the quantity now raised might be large. In order to aid in the object, should the attention of any, whose lands and climate are well adapted to its culture, be turned to its cultivation, we have subjoined, in appendix No. 20, some extracts respecting this product, from the Farmers' Cyclopedia.

It is said that our conimon garden purslain will also furnish a good dye, which may answer the same purpose as indigo. As this plant abounds in many sections of our country, it may be useful to add here the recipe which we find for this purpose in some of our agricultural papers, where it is said to have been furnished by Mr. L. Ellsworth, of Napierville, Illinois :

“Take two bushels of purslain, (portulacea,) known as “pursley," add a sufficient quantity of water to cover it when pressed down into the kettle, and boil until thoroughly cooked—then strain off the liquor; also, one pound of ground logwood, boiled separately; dissolve one-quarter of a pound of alum in a sufficient quantity of water to cover four pounds of wool or cloth; then boil the wool or cloth in the alum water two hours;

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