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this matter in the face, and provide for it by a change of system, the better it will be for them. We hope they will take these observations kindly, for they are kindly meant.

"There is a partial, if not complete, remedy for this evil, which I take the liberty of suggesting through your pages. Let every cotton planter make it a rule, and adhere strictly to it, to make no more cotton than he can make clear of his plantation expenses; that is, let him pay all his plantation expenses by other crops, and make only so much cotton as will support his family, pay his debis, and add to his property. Many planters, I dare say, will answer, that they would be glad to make enough cotton to

, pay their debts and support their families. This may be true as to some; but, in general, it would be more pert than true. Even those who are hardest run, purchase corn, salt, negro clothes, &c., with “cotton' money. I doubt if there is any planter who could not produce enough for market, besides cotton, to pay for all these things and all plantation expenses. Some are so situated that they could sell corn alone sufficient for the purpose. Let them increase their corn crop, then, to that amount, and diminish cotton. Others, again, if the corn could not be sold, might fced it to stock, and sell that. It will bear transportation; and there is a great deal of foreign beef and bacon sold in the cotton region. Wheat and flour, in the middle and upper country, could be made to pay these contingencies. Rice will grow at the foot of the mountains, and command a good price; and so will tobacco. Many could pay these expenses by cutting timber and making shingles, staves, &c. In siiort, there are few planters in the whole cotton region who might not, by a little diversion of labor, manage to make what cotton they do clear of the expense of production, and do so profitably. Let each planter look around him, and see what his resour

I do not invite him to make his own shoes, hats, blankets, clothes, salt, and iron. In most cases, others, who are in these lines, can make these things and bring them to his door cheaper than he can make them himself. But he can follow the business he understands, or at least is best prepared to carry on, and make something else besides cotton to pay for them. I know the folly of recommending any measure to planters requiring their combined action. I recommend this to cach planter, for his own individual advantage, as well as for the sake of the whole. While it will diminish the aggregate crop, if it curtails but a bale, it will teach each man to be independent, to a certain extent, of cotton speculators, open his eyes to his own resources, and gradually prepare the way for that change of culture which is inevitable and at hand for all those who cannot make a heavy bale to the acre. And I would add, that every planter should, as speedily as possible, reduce his culture to such land only as will make a heavy bale per acre. If he has none such, let him make it.' Manure will soon do it. Cut down the cotton, increase the corn and pea crops, pen hogs, cattle, and every thing else, on straw, muck, weeds, &c., and he will soon have as much land that will raise him a bale to the acre as he wants, if he makes no more cotton than he makes clear.'

“ I preach no more than I practise. I am a middle-aged planter, and have nearly always made my cotton crop clear. I have suffered my share in the hard times, and have met, I think, more than my average of losses : yet I kept aboveboard, without any stringent economy, mainly because I have paid plantation expenses by selling corn, peas, oats, &c. My expenses have been as heavy as any planter's of the same force, and my land

ces are.

probably as poor ; yet I have kept up chiefly, I think, because I did not have to pay ihenu in a lump at the end of the year out of my cotton, which would have left me so small a surplus that probably I should not have thought it worth taking care of. The balance would have been mere odds and ends, which few know how to make tell. I have made corn, &c., supply my odds and ends of cash, and appropriated them, as they came to -hand, to pay current expenses; and when my cotton came in, I could do something with my little lump of clear money. Let me say, also, that, after next year, I shall not plant an acre but will (or, at least, ought to) yield'me 400 pounds of clean cotton—not one; and not many, I trust, next year. Yet my land, in its best natural coudition, will not average half that much. What I adopt for my own good, and experience has proved to me is for the good of every planter, both individually and collectively, I recommend others to try.”

{ Suggestions like these deserve to be pondered. There are various products which may be substituted, some of which will be more particularly considered further on. Among these are madder, indigo, raising of sheep, of the alpacca, making of silk, &c.

It is stated, in an agricultural address delivered in Mississippi, that Judge Bry, of Louisiana, who has for fisieen years been engaged in raising silk, says that he could produce silk on bis plantation to the value of several thousand dollars, without planting one stalk of cotton less, or interfering perceptibly with the cotton crop. Whether or not this is so, there can be no doubt that the silk culture is admirabiy adapted to the South, and that it might supply a fine outlet for unprofitable labor in the overproduction of cotton.

The alarm is now so great, that conventions have been called in Mississippi and some of the other States, to take suitable measnres to reduce the aniount of cotton raised, as long as demand is comparatively less in proportion to the supply. The following resolution was adopted in the House of Representatives in Alabama, and referred to a select committee of mine members:

Resolved, that the increased production and diminished price of the principal staple of this State admonish us of the propriety of seeking new sources for the employment of labor and the investment of capital; and that, as preparatory thereto, it be referred to a special committee, to report as to the expediency of providing, by bill, for an accurate and full geological survey of this State.”

This measure will no doubt prove very bencficial, as it will tend to develop the resources of the State. Another benefit would be, the establishment and steady support of an agricultural journal, which may bring within reach of the agricultural population those features of culiivation and kinds of products which are best adapted to their circumstances. The introduction of improvenienis and comforts will always keep pace with the kuowledge on the subject which is obtained. By the investigatious into the nature of the soil, and the proper means of culture, the most excellent crops may be produced, and an article that will alivays find a ready inarket at an advanced price. The attempt to discourage the production by mutual promises not to cultivate will scarcely be found more sniceessful than former oues have been. Jealousies and individual interests will more or less be seen to clash with such a project; but the working up and applying more of the article in various forius on their own plantations, or in

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the vicinity, with the distribution of a portion of their laboring force towards other objects, forms the surest remedy on which to rely. Dearbought experience, however late, will at last unite all the planters in this conviction, and then a brighter day may dawn on the great cotton-growing St es. Their lands are rich, and means still further to enrich and improve them lie fully within their own reach. The variety of products which may minister to their own comfort as food or clothing may readily be obtained from their soil and domestic industry, when once inventive genius shall put still further into operation the physical strength and local advantages which invite them to convert their crops yet more directly among themselves to the supply of all their necessities.

RICE. In tracing the progress and result of the rice crop, we are mostly confined to a single State; for although this product is raised in some of the other States, yet the very large proportion of the crop which is grown in South Carolina is so great, comparatively, that the indications of it are to be traced from its appearance in this State.

From all that we can learn respecting the rice crop of 1844, it is an unusually fine crop-probably from 20 to 25 per cent. better than in 1843. The following are it few of the notices which have been gathered from the public journals in South Carolina, Georgia, and Louisiana, respecting the growth of this crop :

« The crops in this neighborhood,” says the Winyah (S. C.) Observer, of the 6th July, “ look quite as well as usual, and the rice crop is more forward than we have known it. On the 28th ultimo we saw an ear of rice taken from a field of Mr. Reuben Pringle, on Black river. The field was planted on the 18th of March, and by to-day must be shooting out generally. The rice will be certainly ready for harvest by the second week in August, which is unusually early."-Charleston Patriot.

The rice crop.-We saw a few heads of rice on Saturday last from a plantation adjacent to this city, which looked exceedingly well for the season, though perhaps not quite as forward as last year. It was the opinion of intelligent rice planters that the crop promised to be a fair average one, and that the harvesting would commence about the 20th to the 22d of August.”Savannah Republican of 24th July.

The seuson and the rice crop.The Winyah (Georgetown) Observer, of the 14th July, says: “From the 7th to 18th of the month we have had a succession of northeast winds and rain, which suspended the harvest for the time, and kept the planters in suspense as to a gale. On Wednesday the weather cleared up, and the harvest was again resumed, and is going on

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From the Savannah Republican of July 25. The new rice crop.-We saw a few heads of rice on Saturday last from a plantation adjacent to this city, which looked exceedingly well for the season, though perhaps not quite as forward as last year. It was the opinion of the gentleman (Rev. Mr. Godfrey) who showed us the specimen, and of other intelligent rice planters present, that the crop promised to be a fair average one, and that the harvesting would commence about the 20th to the 22d of August.”

. The Winyah (S. C.) Observer, speaking of the rice and other crops, says: “The rice crops in the neighborhood are equal to an average, and on some

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places better; and the general belief is, that a full average crop will be made. We saw a head or two yesterday, from Mr. Gilliard's plantation, 13 inches in length, well grained, which he thinks will be ready for the hook about the 18th of next month.

“ The upland crops in the neighborhood, which were planted early, and well worked in the early drought in June, will yield an average harvest also; but, from the back parts of this district, and many of the adjacent ones, accounts as to the corn and potato crops are unfavorable ; so much so, that in some neighborhoods not half a crop will be made.”

Rice crop.-One or two planters on the river commenced cutting their rice on Saturday, and others on Monday last; though we are informed that the harvesting will not be general for a week to come. The prospect for a fair crop is good; and if the weather should prove favorable, we may expect a full average yield.”—Savannah Republican.

Rice harvest--new rice. We were in error on Friday, in our market report, in stating that many planters already had their entire crops down. It is true that all are progressing rapidly with their harvesting, but still they are not so far ahead as we supposed. If the present fine weather continues, they will, no doubt, soon have their crops cut, and in fair way of being secured.

“One lot of the new crop, about eleven or twelve hundred bushels, from the plantation of Mr. Cheves, was received here on the 21st instant-earlier than ever known before. It has not been beat out yet, as the seller and the purchaser cannot agree upon a price for it.”—Savannah Republican.

“ The rice planters on Cape Fear are now busily engaged in cutting and getting in their crops. We are informed that the yield this year is fully an average one. There has been no storm during this month to damage the crops to any extent."-Wilmington (N. C.) Chronicle.

. The crops in South Carolina.—The Winyah (Georgetown) Observer says: The late crop of rice, just harvested, and now in the course of manufacture for market, is about an average one, and of good quality.”

Elsewhere we see it stated that the rice crop was earlier than it had been for twenty years, and extra good,

“ In an extract, which we subjoin from a New Orleans paper, we have an indication that the attention of the planters of Louisiana and Mississippi is turning more towards this crop.

The writer says: “ Louisiana rice.--A few days ago we received a beautiful sample of rice, raised eight miles back of Waterproof, in the parish of Tensas, in this State, and which we are told by good judges is equal in quality to the best South Carolina rice. We are glad to see that the planters of this and the adjoining State of Mississippi are turning their attention to the raising of other products besides cotton and sugar. There are plenty of cotton lands in this State which we have no doubt are admirably calculated for the growth of rice; and we doubt not our planters could easily raise sufficient for home consumption." - New Orleans Tropic, October 5.

The rice crop of Louisiana is said to have been a “full crop;" and we kave felt authorized to allow an increase of from 5 to 10 per cent in others of the States where rice is raised. The whole crop, therefore, will amount to 111,759,000 pounds.

Upland rice is cultivated to some extent in Illinois and other States north of the rice region. It is said, in the Cincinnati Ploughboy, to grow in the most arid soil; is sown some time in April, and is ripe in September. The

usual method as stated is, to sow it in drills about 18 inches apart; but if the land is well prepared and clean, it may be sown broadcast, and it often yields from 25 to 30 bushels per acre. It would probably grow well in some of the Northern Atlantic States.

By a careful analysis of rice and rice straw, by Professor Shepard, the following result is said in his report to have been obtained : “Considering a single rice plant in its dry mature state to weigh 100 grains, (a supposition which will often accord with the fact,) we shall have of mineral matter, in the different parts of the plants, the following number of grains: In the stubble and root

36.08 Straw and leaves

36.08 Husk

14.20 Cotyledon and epidermis

11.70 Clean rice



“ As, however, in milling, nearly one-sixth of the cotyledon still adheres to the grain, for all practical estimates it will be nearer the truth to state the mineral ingredients of clean rice at 2 per cent. those of the whole crop; and to diminish, therefore, the residuum of the cotyledon and epidermis by 0.06 per cent.; making the per centage statement to stand thus : Stubble and root

36.08 Straw and leaves

36.08 Husk

14.20 Cotyledon and epidermis

11.64 Clean rice (commercial)


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He adds in a note : “ It may be useful to present also a per centum view of the incombustible constituents of the rough rice : Husk

51.00 Cotyledon and epidermis

41.81 Clean rice

7.19 “ It scarcely need be stated that the cotyledon and epidermis are found in coarse rice flour intermingled largely with the husk, and with from 3 to 4 per cent. of clean and powdered rice. The cotyledon and epidermis are richer than the clean rice in saccharine matter and gluten, which materially augment the value of rice flour as a feed for cattle and swine. . These principles are thus returned to the soil under the most favorable conditions for agriculture.”

He draws, then, this conclusion: “If the foregoing views are correct, it becomes plain, at a glance, that the planter who sells his crop in the condition of rough rice robs his lands of 27.84 per cent. of the mineral ingredients of this species of produce; while, on the other hand, he who sells it as clean rice abstracts from them but 2 per cent. of these ingredients.

“ But the true value of these constituents cannot be rightly estimated by their numerical proportions; since the mineral ingredients of the cotyledon and epidermis consist of above 50 per cent of the most precious saline substances; while in those of the stubble, root, and husk, the like constituents

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