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Field Artillery and each company of Coast Artillery should have the organization of the companies and batteries fixed by the act of March 2, 1899. The total commissioned strength of the artillery was fixed at 651 officers; the maximum enlisted strength, exclusive of electrician sergeants, at 18,920 men. This law provided for 12 chaplains, and the act of March 2, 1901, provided. 12 veterinarians.
By the act of March 2, 1903, 25 master electricians were added to the Coast Artillery, and the number of electrician-sergeants authorized by the act of February 2, 1901 (one to each artillery post), was increased to 100, making the maximum enlisted strength of the artillery, including master electricians and electrician-sergeants, 19,045 men. Of this maximum enlisted strength, 18,165 are now authorized by the President, and of this number 14,153 are assigned to the Coast Artillery and 4,012 to the Field Artillery.
By the act of March 3, 1903, the Chief of Artillery was made a brigadier-general.
The bill provides for the separation of the Coast and the Field Artillery, retains the corps organization for the Coast Artillery, and provides a regimental organization for the Field Artillery. The elements of Coast Artillery material remain as heretofore, but the machine-gun battery is withdrawn from the elements provided by the act of February 2, 1901, for the Field Artillery.
The bill provides that the Chief of Artillery shall cease to exercise supervision over the Field Artillery on July 1, 1908, and that he shall thereafter be designated as the Chief of Coast Artillery; that when a vacancy occurs in the office of the Chief of Artillery, any officer of Coast Artillery may be selected as the next chief to serve for four years only unless reappointed; provision is also made for the retirement of the chief and for filling a vacancy caused by the appointment of a chief.
For Coast Artillery personnel the bill provides that it shall consist of a chief; of 700 field and company officers in the same relative proportions as in the infantry and cavalry, and in numbers in each grade equivalent to those required for 14 regiments; of 2 additional chaplains; of 63 sergeants-major, 26 master electricians, and 148 electrician-sergeants (the number of sergeants-major being 15 more than now authorized, the master electricians 1 more, and the electriciansergeants being divided into two classes and increased by 48 more than authorized by the act of March 2, 1903); of 42 master gunners, 60 engineers, and 60 firemen (new grades) ; of 14 bands, instead of 10, and of 170 companies, instead of 126 as now authorized, both the strength and the organization of the company being made variable so far as relates to duty sergeants, corporals, and privates.
For Field Artillery personnel, the bill provides that it shall consist of 6 regiments, each regiment to consist of 6 batteries, organized into 2 battalions of 3 batteries each. The personnel provided for each regiment is that considered proper by the War Department for modern war conditions, and the enlisted strength and organization of each battery, as in the case of Coast Artillery companies, is made variable within certain limits at the discretion of the President.
The total commissioned strength of both the Coast and the Field Artillery authorized by present law is 663 officers, including 12 chap
lains, and there are 12 veterinarians. By the proposed bill it is fixed at 967, an increase of 296 officers, excluding chaplains. The enlisted strength of the Coast and Field Artillery as now authorized is 18,290, of which 14,278 are properly assignable to the Coast Artillery; 4,012 to the Field Artillery. By the proposed bill the enlisted strength of the Coast Artillery is fixed at 19,321, an increase of 5,043 over that now authorized.
For the Field Artillery personnel the enlisted strength is fixed by the proposed bill at 5,010 men, an increase of 998 over that at present authorized.
The proposed bill further provides for effecting the separation of the Coast and Field Artillery, how vacancies created by its passage shall be filled, fixes the pay of certain new grades of enlisted men, and finally provides extra pay for a certain number of Coast Artillery experts.
Ýhe four principal features of the bill, therefore, are: (1) Separation of the Coast and Field Artillery, (2) increase in the Coast Artillery, (3) increased pay for artillery experts, (4) regimental organization of the Field Artillery.
INCREASED PAY FOR ARTILLERY EXPERTS.
It was indicated above that the authorized strength of the Coast Artillery is 14,278. The actual strength, however, of this corps on October 15, 1906, was 11,218. The reason for this shortage is that it is impossible to get enlisted men for the Coast Artillery at the rates of pay now provided. There are certain duties connected with the Coast Artillery which require special training and skill. These duties are connected with electricity and machinery for coast defenses. After these duties have been learned the knowledge becomes of commercial value to the soldier, in that it fits him for positions in civil life which will pay him several times what is paid him by the Government. It has been found, therefore, that the Government after training these men, some of them in special schools, can not retain their services at the present rates of pay.
This bill provides increased compensation to 1,734 of these specially trained and valuable men while actually performing this high class of duty in which they are expert.
With respect to the cost of the proposed legislation it may be said:
The number of electrician sergeants is increased from 100 to 148. These 100 electrician sergeants now draw $34 per month each, with allowances. The 148 provided for in this bill are divided into two classes, 74 of whom will draw $35 per month each, with allowances, and 74 of whom will draw $45 per month each, with allowances. The total increase in cost for this special grade will be $30,240.
The number of master electricians is increased from 25 to 26, the total cost being $900.
Sixty engineers are provided for, at $780 per annum; total cost, $46,800.
Forty-two master gunners are provided for, at $408 each per annum; total cost, $17,136.
Sixty firemen are provided for, at $360 each per annum; total cost, $21,600.
In addition to the above grades created, the bill provides for a slight increase in pay for certain grades already in the service, as follows: 44 casemate electricians, at $108 per year in addition to pay
$4, 752 170 observers, first class, at $108 per year in addition to pay
18, 360 170 plotters, at $108 per year in addition to pay
18, 360 44 chief planters, at $81 per year in addition to pay.
3, 696 44 chief loaders, at $84 per year in addition to pay.
3, 696 170 observers, second class, at $84 per year in addition to pay.
14, 280 378 gun commanders, at $84 per year in addition to pay
31, 752 378 gun pointers, at $84 per year in addition to pay
31, 752 These men are now drawing the pay of sergeants and corporals in the Army, which is $18 and $15, respectively, with certain allowances for length of service.
The total annual cost of the additional grades and the increases provided for as above is $243,324.
But it is proposed that no enlisted man shall receive more than one addition to his pay, and since it may be assumed that all these men for whom additional pay is proposed would be first-class gunners anyway, drawing $2 a month in addition to their pay, there should be deducted from the above $34,608, representing the firstclass gunner's pay which these 1,442 men would draw. This would make the corrected total pay for experts $208,716.
The estimated annual cost of this legislation, including the special grades enumerated above, is as follows: Pay departinent: Pay officers
$463, 830.00 Paymen
1, 221, 204. 00
1, 685, 034.00
Total annual cost.
2, 500, 874.00 Since the increase of officers is to be 20 per cent per year, the principal cost the first year, as far as officers' pay is concerned, would be simply due to promotion of certain grades and the addition of onefifth of the officers at the bottom. The cost of this the first year would be $261,830, or about $200,000 less the final cost five years from now.
The cost indicated for the men is based upon an assumption that all the companies are full. The companies would certainly not be all filled up the first year, and it is safe to say that we may assume them as short during the first year as the companies of Coast Artillery now are, i. e., a general shortage of about 25 per cent. This would reduce, therefore, the cost of enlisted men the first year for pay, rations, and clothing to about $1,427,785. This added to the $261,830 indicated above as the cost of additional officers for the first year would bring up the cost of this increase for Coast and Field Artillery to $1,689,613 as the cost for the first year.
EFFECT OF THE BILL UPON THE MAXIMUM STRENGTH OF THE REGULAR
In establishing a maximum strength for each branch of the line of the Army the act of February 2, 1901, provides in each case,“ but the total number of enlisted men authorized for the whole Army shall not, at any time, be exceeded;” and section 36 of that act provides, " and the total enlisted force of the line of the Army, together with such native force (Philippine Scouts), shall not at any one time exceed one hundred thousand."
That is, a maximum is prescribed for each branch of the Army and a maximum prescribed for the whole. The sum of the separate maxima of the different arms is greater than the maximum of the whole; thus Maximum for cavalry (section 2).
18, 540 Maximum for artillery (section 6)
18, 920 Maximum for infantry (section 10)
55, 080 Maximum for engineers (section 11)
2, 002 Maximum for native scouts (section 36)
12, 000 Total
106, 542 Maximum for line of Army, together with native scouts (section 36)-- 100,000
That is, the President can, by Executive order, maintain any branch at its maximum or can increase each a certain amount, but he can not maintain them all at their maximum strengths at the same time.
This bill, section 8, proposes to raise the maximum of the artillery, but to retain the maximum of the whole the same as it is, i. e., 100,000 men.
The maximum for the artillery would be increased 7,266 men, and the sum of the maximum for the separate branches would be increased to about 114,000 men. The increased maximum for the artillery will not necessarily be at the expense of either cavalry, infantry, engineers, or Philippine scouts, but under the proposed law the President will not be able to raise all of the different branches to their maximum at the same time. This he can not do under the present law. Under the proposed law, and according to the necessities of the case, he may maintain the cavalry at its maximum, the infantry at its maximum, the engineers and native scouts at their respective maximum, and the artillery at such a figure that the total strength of the Army will not be a hundred thousand; or, he may maintain any of them at such numbers as the necessities may require, provided the total of them all is not more than 100,000.
It is now wholly discretionary with the President whether or not the different branches be maintained at their respective maxima. Under the new law this will be continued. He may, in his discretion, increase the Army to its maximum by cutting a little from the maximum from each arm, or he may do so by cutting it all from the maximum of any one.