Lapas attēli

delivered up and removed to the ftate having jurifdiction of his offence.

Full faith and credit fhall be given in each of these states to the records, acts, and judicial proceedings of the courts and magiftrates of every other state.

Art. V. For the more convenient management of the general interests of the united states, delegates fhall be annually appointed in fuch manner as the legiflature of each state shall direct, to meet in congrefs on the first Monday in November of every year, with a power referved to each state to recal its delegates, or any of them, at any time within the year, and to fend others in their ftead, for the remainder of the year.

No ftate fhall be reprefented in congrefs by lefs than two, nor more than feven, members; and no perfon fhall be capable of being a delegate for more than three years, in any term of fix years; nor fhall any perfon, being a delegate, be capable of holding any office under the united states, for which he, or any other for his benefit, receives any falary, fees, or emolument, of any kind.

Each state shall maintain its own delegates in a meeting of the ftates, and while they act as members of the committee of the ftates. In determining queftions in the united states in congrefs affembled, each state shall have one vote.

Freedom of speech and debate in congrefs fhall not be impeached or queftioned in any court or place out of congrefs, and the members of congrefs fhall be protected in their perfons from arrefts and imprisonments during the time of their going to and from and attendance on congrefs, except for treafon, felony, or breach of the peace.

Art. VI. No ftate, without the confent of the united states in congrefs affembled, fhall fend any embafly to, or receive any embaffy from, or enter into any conference, agreement, alliance, or treaty, with any king, prince, or ftate; nor fhall any perfon holding any office of profit or truft under the united ftates, or any of them, accept of any prefent, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state; nor fhall the united states in congrefs affembled, or any of them, grant any title of nobility.

2. No two or more states shall enter into any treaty, confede ration, or alliance whatever between them, without the confent of the united states in congrefs affembled, fpecifying accurately the purposes for which the fame is to be entered into, and how long it fhall continue.

3. No ftate fhall lay any impofts or duties which may interfere with any ftipulations in treaties, entered into by the united states in congrefs affembled, with any king, prince, or ftate, in purfuance of any treaties already propofed by congrefs to the courts of France and Spain."

4. No

4. No veffels of war fhall be kept up in time of peace by any ftate, except fuch number only as fhall be deemed neceffary by the united states in congrefs affembled for the defence of such state, or its trade; nor fhall any body of forces be kept up by any state, in time of peace, except fuch number only as in the judgement of the united states in congrefs affembled fhall be deemed requifite to garrifon the forts neceffary for the defence of such state; but every ftate fhall always keep up a well-regulated and disciplined militia, fufficiently armed and accoutred, and fhall provide and conftantly have ready for ufe, in public ftores, a due number of field-pieces and tents, and a proper quantity of arms, ammunition, and camp equipage.

5. No ftate fhall engage in any war without the consent of the united states in congrefs affembled, unless such state be actually invaded by enemies, or fhall have received certain advice of a refolution being formed by fome nation of Indians to invade fuch ftate, and the danger is fo imminent as not to admit of a delay till the united states in congrefs affembled can be confulted nor fhall any ftate grant commiffions to any fhips or veffels of war, nor letters of marque or reprifal, except it be after a declaration of war by the united states in congrefs affembled, and then only against the kingdom or ftate and the fubjects thereof against which war has been fo declared, and under fuch regulations as fhall be eftablished by the united states in congrefs affembled, unless fuch ftate be infefted by pirates, in which cafe veffels of war may be fitted out for that occafion, and kept so long as the danger fhall continue, or until the united states in congrefs affembled shall determine otherwise.

Art. VII. When land-forces are raised by any state for the common defence, all officers of or under the rank of colonel fhall be appointed by the legislature of each state refpectively by whom fuch forces fhall be raifed, or in fuch manner as fuch state shall direct, and all vacancies fhall be filled up by the ftate which first made the appointment.

Art. VIII. All charges of war, and all other expences that fhall be incurred for the common defence or general welfare, and allowed by the united states in congrefs affembled, fhall be defrayed out of a common treafury, which fhall be fupplied by the feveral ftates, in proportion to the value of all land within each ftate, granted to or furveyed for any perfon, as fuch land and the buildings and improvements thereon fhall be estimated, according to fuch mode as the united states in congrefs affembled shall from time to time direct and appoint. The taxes for paying that proportion fhall be laid and levied by the authority and direction of the legiflatures of the feveral ftates within the time agreed upon by the united states in congrefs affembled.

Art. IX. The united ftates in congrefs affembled fhall have the fole and exclufive right and power of determining on peace and


war, except in the cafes mentioned in the fixth article; of fending and receiving anbaffadors; entering into treaties and alliances, provided that no treaty of commerce fhall be made, whereby the legiflative power of the refpective ftates fhall be reftrained from impofing fuch impofts and duties on foreigners, as their own people are fubjected to, or from prohibiting the exportation or importation of any fpecies of goods or commodities whatsoever; of establishing rules for deciding in all cafes, what captures on land or water shall be legal, and in what manner prizes taken by land or naval forces in the fervice of the united ftates fhall be divided or appropriated; of granting letters of marque and reprifal in times of peace; appointing courts for the trial of piracies and felonies committed on the high feas; and establishing courts for receiving and determining finally appeals in all cafes of captures, provided that no member of congress fhall be appointed a judge of any of the faid courts.

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2. The united states in congrefs affembled fhall also be the laft refort on appeal in all difputes and differences now fubfifting or that hereafter may arife between two or more ftates concerning boundary, jurifdiction, or any other caufe whatever; which authority fhall always be exercifed in the manner following.Whenever the legislative or executive authority or lawful agent of any state in controverfy with another, fhall prefent a petition to congrefs, ftating the matter in queftion, and praying for a hearing, notice thereof fhall be given by order of congrefs to the legiflative or executive authority of the other state in controversy, and a day affigned for the appearance of the parties by their lawful agents, who fhall then be directed to appoint by joint confent commiffioners or judges to confiitute a court for hearing and determining the matter in question; but if they cannot agree, congrefs fhall name three p.rfons out of each of the united states, and from the lift of such persons each party fhall alternately ftrike out one, the petitioners beginning, until the number thall be reduced to thirteen; and from that number not less than feyen nor more than nine names, as congrefs hall direct, fhall in the prefence of congrefs be drawn out by lot; and the perfons whofe names fhall be so drawn, or any five of them, fhall be commiffioners or judges, to hear and finally determine the controverly, fo always as a major part of the judges, who fhall hear the caufe, fhall agree in the determination: and if either party neglect to attend at the day appointed, without fhewing reafons which congrefs fhall judge fufficient, or being prefent shall refufe to ftrike, the congref: fhall proceed to nominate three perfons out of each state, and the fecretary of congrefs fhall ftrike in behalf of fuch party abfent or refufing; and the judgment and fentence of the court to be appointed, in the manner before prefcribed, fhall be final and conclufive; and if any of the parties fhall refufe


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to fubmit to the authority of fuch court, or to appear or defend heir claim or caufe, the court fhall nevertheless proceed to pronounce fentence, or judgment, which fhall in like manner be final and decifive; the judgment or fentence and other proceedings being in either cafe tranfmitted to congrefs, and lodged among the acts of congrefs, for the fecurity of the parties concerned: provided, that every commiffioner, before he fits in judgment, fhall take an oath, to be administered by one of the judges of the fupreme or fuperior court of the ftate where the caufe fhall be tried, "well and truly to hear and determine the matter in queftion, according to the beft of his judgement, without favour, affection, or hope of reward:" provided alfo, that no ftate fhall be deprived of territory for the benefit of the united ftates.

3. All controverfies concerning the private right of foil claimed under different grants of two or more ftates, whofe jurifdictions as they may refpect fuch lands, and the ftates which paffed fuch grants are adjusted, the faid grants or either of them being at the fame time claimed to have originated antecedent to such settlement of jurifdiction, fhall on the petition of either party to the congrefs of the united ftates, be finally determined, as near as may be, in the fame manner as is before prescribed for deciding difputes refpecting territorial jurifdiction between different states.

4. The united states in congrefs affembled fhall also have the fole and exclufive right and power of regulating the alloy and value of coin ftruck by their own authority, or by that of the respective states; fixing the ftandard of weights and measures throughout the united ftates; regulating the trade and managing all affairs with the Indians, not members of any of the ftates, provided that the legiflative right of any ftate within its own limits be not infringed or violated; establishing and regulating poft-offices from one state to another, throughout all the united ftates, and exacting fuch poftage on the papers paffing through the fame, as may be requifite to defray the expences of the faid office; appointing all officers of the land forces in the fervice of the united states, excepting regimental officers; appointing all the officers of the naval forces, and commiffioning all officers whatever in the service of the united states; making rules for the government and regulation of the said land and naval forces, and directing their operations.

5. The united states in congress affembled shall have authority to appoint a committee, to fit in the recess of congrefs, to be denominated, A Committee of the States, and to confift of one delegate from each ftate; and to appoint fuch other committees and civil officers as may be neceffary for managing the general affairs of the united states under their direction; to appoint one of their number to prefide, provided that no perfon be allowed to


ferve in the office of prefident more than one year in any term of three years; to afcertain the neceffary fums of money to be raised for the fervice of the united states, and to appropriate and apply the fame for defraying the public expences; to borrow money or emit bills on the credit of the united ftates, tranfmitting every half year to the respective states an account of the fums of money fo borrowed or emitted; to build and equip a navy; to agree upon the number of land forces, and to make requifitions from each state for its quota, in proportion to the number of white inhabitants in fuch ftate, which requifition fhall be binding; and thereupon the legislature of each ftate fhall appoint the regimental officers, raise the men, and cloath, arm, and equip them in a foldier-like manner, at the expence of the united states; and the officers and men fo cloathed, armed, and equipped, shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the united states in congrefs affembled: but if the united states in congress affembled fhall, on confideration of circumstances, judge proper that any state should not raise men, or fhould raise a fmaller number than its quota, and that any other state should raife a greater number of men than the quota thereof, fuch extra number fhall be raised, officered, cloathed, armed, and equipped in the fame manner as the quota of fuch ftate, unless the legiflature of fuch ftate fhall judge that fuch extra number cannot be fafely fpared out of the fame, in which case they fhall raise, officer, cloath, arm, and equip, as many of fuch extra number as they judge can be fafely fpared; and the officers and men fo cloathed, armed, and equipped, fhall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the united states in congrefs affembled.

6. The united states in congrefs affembled fhall never engage in a war, nor grant letters of marque and reprifal in time of peace, ror enter into any treaties or alliances, nor coin money, nor regulate the value thereof, nor ascertain the fums and expences neceffary for the defence and welfare of the united states, or any of them, nor emit bills, nor borrow money on the credit of the united states, nor appropriate money, nor agree upon the number of veffels of war to be built or purchased, or the number of land or fea forces to be raised, nor appoint a commander in chief of the army or navy, unless nine flates affent to the fame : Nor fhall a queftion on any other point, except for adjourning from day to day, be determined, unless by the votes of a majority of the united states in congrefs affembled.

7. The congrefs of the united states shall have power to adjourn to any time within the year, and to any place within the united ftates, fo that no period of adjournment be for a longer duration than the space of fix months, and fhall publish the journal of their proceedings monthly, except fuch parts thereof relating to

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