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Tuwhare in 1830, on the Whanganui river when the Ngapuhi COLLECTION MADE FOR THE COMMISSIONERS BY R. W.
invaded that part of the island. Woon, R.M.
29. Te Mawae.-Tewatewa, a wooden battle-axe. 1. Haimona Te Ao o te Rang, chief of Ngatipanioaua tribe.— 30. Hoani Maramara.-Korowai, flax (Phormium) mat A patuparaoa, whalebone weapon, called “ Pai a te Rangi,” 31. Hoani Maramara.—Flax Mourning Cap and Shark's handed down from ancestor named Kahunui, four generations Tooth Ear Ornament. back. Has been used in many battles, in which several chiefs 32. Uranga Kanihare.- Motumotu, ornamented flax mat. and heroes “ were made to lick the dust."
Much prized by Maoris. 2. Horima Katene.-A whalebone weapon called “ Nga Kanae 33. Rini Remoata, chief and assessor.–Kakahu Kura, flax a Titokowaru," lately the property of the celebrated chief mat ornamented with the red feathers of the Kaka or mountain Titokowaru, who devastated the West Coast Settlements in the parrot. Much prized. war of 1868. Is an heirloom of ancient date.
34. Menehira.–Parawai, fax mat with rich border. 3. Thakara Tukumaru.—A Tewatewa-wooden weapon.
35. Reneti Tapa.-Flax Mat, interwoven with Feathers of 4. Uranga Kaiwhare.-A Kakati-carved whalebone weapon the native wood pigeon, called Waitahuparai; intended as a called “Kaikanohi” (face eater) handed down for 12 genera- gift to the President of the United States. tions,
36. Hori Te Roka.-Ugare, flax mat. 5. Takaranyi Mete. – A patuparaoa-whalebone weapon 37. Major Keepa.—Dyed flax Cap. called « Tohiora." This is much prized, having been used 38. Captain Wirihana Puna.- Kakahu Kura, ornamented by Te Maro, a member of the native Contingent in “ knocking flax and feather mat ; intended as a gift to the President of the on the head, and despatching" the great prophet and leader of United States. the Hauhau forces at the battle of Moutoa, in May 1864.
39. Captain Mei Hunia.-Parawai, ornamented mat. 6. Hohaia.-A patuparaoa-whalbone weapon.
40. Pehira Turei, Queen's pensioner.—Toi Mat made from 7. Te Reimana.-A patuparaoa-whalebone weapon.
Toi plant found at foot of Tongariro, or the burning moun8. Te Reimana.-A pati-stone weapon called “Kororariki." tain. 9. Te Koroneho.- A patuparaoa-whalebone weapon.
41. Pehira Turei.—Dyed flax Mourning Cap. 10. Reihana,--A patu Kohatu, a stone weapon.
42. Maori Adze, called an Aronui. Two ancient Fish-hooks, 11. Aperaniko Tamaite.--A patu kohatu, a stone weapon. tipped with human bone. Wooden Flute, called a Koauan, used
12. Captain Wirihana.-A patuparaoa, whalebone weapon, for warbling love ditties. small size.
43. Aperahama Tahunuiarangi.-Carved Image from front 13. Keepa Rangitauira.-A tewatewa, wooden battle-axe. of ancient Maori house, called “Tamahaki,” descended from 14. Keepa Rangitauira.—Taiaha Kwra, ornamented spear. ancestors 10 generations back. 15. Epiha Aokokiri.- Taiaha, plain wooden spear.
44. Carved Pipe, made of reta, called “ Takirau,” and speci16. Mete Kingi. – Taiaha, wooden spear ornamented with men of Dyed Flax. feathers.
45. Hakaria.--Hei Tiki, ancient greenstone neck ornament. 17. Mete Kingi. Tewatewa, wooden battle-axe with 46. Pehuinana.-Carved calabash Top, called “ Toka Taha.” feathers.
47. Hami.-Two carved Wooden Implements, used in 18. Poutini.—Tewatewa, wooden battle-axe.
planting Kumaras (sweet potato), called “Ko Kumara.” 19. Rewi Raupo.—Taiaha, wooden spear.
48. Te Hira.--Specimens of Flax, plain and dyed black. 20. Te Reniana.- Taiaha, wooden spear.
49. Karaitiana.-Hatchet, witd carved handle. Patiti. 21. Paora Kahuatua of Ranana.— Taiaha kura, ornamented 50. Poari Wharehuia.-Hei Tiki, greenstone neck ornament. wooden spear
51. Hiri Te Roha.-Ancient Paddle for steering a canoe. 22. Kiritakuma.—Taiaba, plain wooden spear.
52. Shark's Tooth Ear Orament and a Fish-hook (made of 23. Taianhus.—Taiaha, plain wooden spear.
Pawa shell) used as a bait to catch the fish called Kahawi. 24. Tamihana te Aewa.—Taiaha, wooden spear.
53. Te Hira.–Skin of the Huia (Heteralocha gouldi). A 25. Peina.-Tewatewa, battle-axe.
chief's head ornament. 26. Paora Patapu. Taiaha, spear.
Te Hira.-A Pounamu (greenstone) Ear Pendant of great 27. Paora Patapu.— A long Spear, taken as spoils of war at lustre. a battle in the Taupo country in 1869, lately the property of 54. Pikikotuku.- Ponnamu Ear Ornament. Te Heuheu,
55. Hine Maaka.-Native Comb, called a karau. 28. Major Keepa-A Pouwhenua ancient Spear, much 56, Hine Maaka,-Greenstone Ear Pendant. prized, called “ Aketaurangai.” This was used by the Wan- 57. John Mark.-Two Whale's Teeth Garment Fasteners ganui chief Amaráma in killing the great Ngapuhi chief and a Greenstone Ear Ornament.
58. Major Keepa.--Greenstone Adze, called an aronui, very ancient.
59. Major Keepa.—Skin of the Huia (Heteralocha gouldi). Head ornament of a chief.
60. Rev. B. K. Taylor, Wanganui.-Hat made of Kiekie (Frycenitcia bauksii). Manufactured by Hori Mutumutu. Flax for the Waist.
61. R. W. Woon, R.M., Wanganui.--Ancient Stone Axe of 10 generations back.
62. Hori Kingi Mawae.—Paddle with carved top.
64. Reupea Tauria.-Paddle.
65. Maori Image with head dress and ear ornament of Toroa feathers called “ Rakeikuroa."
66. Herealara.- Whakakai Greenstone Ear Ornament.
67. Turahui.-Pigeon Feather Mat, Eheruheru, with Greenstone Ear Pendant attached.
68. Taranaki Committee.—Hei Tiki, greenstone image, worn round the neck; 2. Ancient Axe Heads of stone.
69. Taranaki Committee. – Taiaka oramented with Kaka (parrot) feathers.
QUEENSLAND. Queensland, the north-east section of Australia, is a colony of vast size, and indeed, if we bear in mind that the most of it is available land either for pasture, agriculture, or mining, it may be called the largest in the Australian group. In area it is nearly three times that of the vast territory of Texas, in North America, and its seaboard equals in length, and greaty resembles in shape, that of the United States, from Maine to Louisiana, the Florida peninsula corresponding to that of Cape York, and the Gulf of Mexico to that of Carpentaria. To give a sketch of the features of so grand an area, one must be content with a mere outline, in a work like the present. The most southerly point in Queensland consists of the highlands of Stanthorpe, the seat of the rich tin mines ; a granite table-land, with an average elevation of some 2,800 feet, and a climate resembling that of the south of England. The splendid black and amber crystals of tin oxyd are lavishly scattered in this district. Immediately adjoining, and on the north, lie the far-famed Darling Downs, at a general altitude of 1,600 feet above sea level, with the climate of Southern France, and one of the finest pastoral districts in the world. Open lagoons (so to speak) of rich, treeless herbage are bounded, as it were by shores of sheltering, open-timbered land, with jutting capes of forest here and there running out and dividing the grassy spaces into imaginary bays and lakes of verdure ; and the natural herbage, being grown on decomposed volcanic soil, is so rich that, in nutritive power, it equals the best corn and hay combined. These Darling Downs lie on the western escarpment of the great Australian Cordillera, which runs parallel to its east coast for 1,800 miles, and at about 70 miles back from the sea, and which separate the Darling Downs from the Moreton and Logan districts, a country rich in the finest cannel coal, and with good soil, well watered. The Wide Bay and Burnett district follow next, as we go northward, and in addition to their rich pastoral and agricultual capabilities, here lie the lucrative gold and copper fields of Gympie, Kilkivan, and Mount Perry, of which more hereafter. Gympie is famous for its rare mineral developments, such as walls of glittering calcspar, with rich imbedded gold all through them, and this gold and copper in any other part of the world, nearer to civilisation and capital, would be centres of attraction and busy population to one hundred times the extent of their present census. The rivers of Queensland, in the part we have at present described, consist chiefly of the Brisbane and the Mary, both as wide as the Thames, and fairly navigable for sea-going vessels for miles up from the mouth. Immediately to the north of the district last described, comes that of which Rockhampton is the shipping port. Here we cross the tropic, and nature begins to show on a vaster scale-larger rivers, larger plains, and larger animals are found. The two rivers, Fitzroy and Burdekin, drain
— a country larger than the ancient kingdom of France, and the great Australian alligator, 25 feet long, is found in them. Here, again, we have the gold and copper in abundance ; gold, silver, lead, and copper all being visible at once in one piece of quartz in many of the lodes hereabout. The zamais and other tropical palms begin to appear, as well as those gorgeous "scrubs” which obtain throughout the whole colony, and in whose
moist, cool, green aisles the sun can seldom intrude, and the bush fire never, and where the giant fig-tree (macrophylla) towers like a cathedral cupola above all its fellows.
Still passing northward from the country which makes Rockhampton its centre, the constant westerly trend of the Queensland coast becomes more noticeable, and soon the rich sugar plantations on the Pioneer River are reached, spread over alınost treeless plains with rich soil of measureless depth; and then come more rich mines of gold, plenteous coal and copper, with countless interpersed lead and silver lodes, carrying associated gold, but all quite neglected and unnoticed amid so much other wealth. Tracts of country near the Burdekin River as large as some English counties are covered with networks of mineral reefs, made up of richly golden mundic, whose untold wealth could only yield fully to the scientific efforts of an army of chemically-skilled miners, and which is all lost to the present rough operators. We have not said much hitherto of the pastoral Tealth of the colony, but the whole of it is, none the less, abounding in sheep, cattle, and horses, whose interests all the minerals and sugar tend to keep going instead of interfering with. The Cloncurry copper mines are abundantly rich in the beautiful clear red crystals of the famous ruby oxide—the most valuable and easiest-smelted copper ore known. They lie on the Cloncurry River, which runs into the Gulf of Carpentaria, as does also the Gilbert, which, besides the universal gold, affords some of the most superb oriental agates and sardonyxes in the world, fully rivalling, if not surpassing, the best deposits of Uruguay and Brazil in the size, transparency, and brilliant colouring of the stones. It would simply be monotonous to follow the description of the colony northward and to describe the golden wealth, in reef and alluvial, which stretches away into the Cape York Peninsula, so we will be content, and work our way back and south to the opal mines of Western Queensland, after a farewell glance at the coralline beauties of the Great Barrier Reef on our north-eastern sea frontier, which ably bears the palm as premier coral bank of the world, 1,200 miles in length. Western Queensland introduces us to the great watershed of the Warrego, Thomson, and Barcoo rivers, which mostly find their final outlet in the Murray River system of South Anstralia. This part of Queensland is so open and level that many a watershed is imperceptible in dry weather, and it is often not until the heavy monsoon rains of the wet season send the water along in a wide and almost inevitable wall on to the unwary traveller that he perceives, for the first time, that there is a depression and a watershed under his feet at all. In Western Queensland lie the trachytic conglomerates which form the matrix of that gleaming and gorgeous gem, the priceless opal, in its varied hue and shades of purple, green, ruby, amber, blue, orange, and other florescent fires. This stone, with the large, clear, glowing red chrysolites of the Burnett River, and the delicate aquamarine of Stanthorpe, are the leading gems of Queensland. The sapphires are small, so are the diamonds; the true ruby is no larger than a grain of sand, and the emerald is absent altogether. All this vast western country is rapidly being filled up with the sheep and cattle it so well can carry, its distance from the eastern sea coast being atoned for by river navigation on the Darling to South Australia.
This notice of the topography of Queensland would be all incomplete if no mention were made of the lengthy seaboard which mark its giant frontiers on the east, and the equally vast rolling prairies of the west, in which either Germany or Austria might be comfortably placed, and with plenty of room all round the edges to spare. The coast of Queensland is dotted with some of the most beautiful islets in the world, grassy and fertile to the water's edge; some being low, open, park-like, and clean-beached, and some being high, woody, and grand of aspect. They lie chiefly between the 18th and 22nd parallels of latitude, inside the Great Barrier Reef, in the smooth shallow sea which is enclosed between it and the mainland. The east coast of Queensland, therefore, is distinguished by many picturesque beauties of reef, island, mountain, and river, and the sunset of the tropics sheds its glory on many a tranquil scene by the shore where a new Robinson Crusoe might meet with romantic adventures to eclipse even the old time-hallowed escapes in Defoe's original and charming tale. And for the vast western plains of the Warrego and Thomson, the Barcoo and the Bulloo, nho sball measure the limit of their pastoral and productive wealth in the future ? The foregoing description is copied from the “Queenslander” newspaper in its special edition for the