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BRITISH GUIANA. This Colony is a portion of the South American Continent, extending from east to west about 200 miles. It includes the settlements of Demerara, Essequebo, and Berbice. It is bounded on the east by Dutch Guiana, from which it is divided by the River Corentyn, on the south by Brazil, on the west by Venezuela, and on the north and north-east by the Atlantic Ocean.
This territory was first partially settled by the Dutch West India Company in 1580. It was from time to time held by Holland, France, and England. It was restored to the Dutch in 1802, but in the following year retaken by Great Britain, to whom it was finally ceded in 1814.
It is impossible to determine the exact area of the Colony, as its precise boundaries are undetermined between Venezuela and Brazil respectively, but it has been computed to be 76,000 square miles.
Under the Dutch, Demerara and Essequebo constituted one Government, and Berbice another, which arrangement indeed continued in force under the British Administration down to the year 1831. Revenue and Expenditure.
1868 1,618,378 2,232,212
1869 1,572,275 2,164,014
1870 1,572,275 2,164,015
1871 1,897,183 2,748,720
1872 2,013,553 2,462,703
1873 1,764,571 2,217,432
1874 1,873,219 2,761,837 1871 379,647 338,053
Population in 1871, total 193,491. 1872 449,060 391,219
Natives of British West India Madeira and Other 1873 361,932 399,990
places. 1874 475,885 485,893 * 113,570 13,385 7,925
9,635 Public Debt, 426,0301.
Estimated present Population, 1875, 212,000. Amount invested for Sinking Fund at close of 1874
Immigrant Population, 1874, on Estates, or otherwise secured, 400,6661.
Total 38,597 * The revenue and expenditure here is exclusive of the sums raised for and expended on immigration by the planters.
† It is a strange coincidence that the total value of the imports in 1869 and 1870 were precisely similar, whilst there was only the difference of one pound between the exports of the same years.
The aboriginal Indians were estimated in 1851 at about 7,000; but Mr. M'Clintock, Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks, an undoubted authority on the subject, carries the number as high as 20,000 or 21,000, but the numbers of the tribes within the British territories vary, and are at all times very uncertain.- From “ Colonial Office List, 1876."
Samples of Sagar, Rum, and other Articles contributed by various Sugar Estates
and private Gentlemen. 7 samples Vacuum Pan Sugar, by plantation Great Diamond. 1 sample Rum, by plantation Hope. 3 do. do., by plantation Met-en-Meerzorg.
2 do. do., by plantation Leonora. 2 do. do., by plantation Bel Air.
2 do. do., by plantation Tuschen de Vrienden. 2 do. do., by maceration, by plantation La Bonne Intention. 1 sample Rice, Creole, by plantation Great Diamond. 1 do. do., by plantation Ogle.
1 specimen Greenheart Wood, nearly 100 years old, by 2 do. do., by plantation Tuschen de Vrienden.
T. H. Mackey, Esq. 1 do. do., Molasses, by plantation Taschen de Vrienden.
1 do. Plantain Fibre, Musa Paradisiaca, by B. J. Godfrey, 2 do. do., by plantation Uitvlugt.
Esq. 1 do. do., by plantation Greenfield.
i do. Silk Grass Fibre, Bromelia Karatas, by B. J. Godfrey, 2 do. do., by plantation Hope.
Esq. 1 do. Common Process Sugar, by plantation Columbia.
I do. Mahoe Fibre, Hibiscus Elatus, by B. J. Godfrey, Esq. No. 1. Samples Best White Vacuum Pan Sugar, by macera- 1 do. Sweet Briar Fibre, Acacia, by B. J. Godfrey, Esq. tion, by plantation Leonora.
1 do. Monkey Apple Fibre, by B. J. Godfrey, Esq. No. 2. Samples for Copenhagen markets, by maceration, by Rice Straw Ornaments, by plantation Great Diamond. plantation Leonora.
Also a collection of Starches, Drugs, and other Medicinal No. 3. Samples shipping for the English markets, by macera- productions of the colony, prepared by William Fresson, Esq. tion, by plantation Leonora.
Feb. 25th.—Received this day two samples of Common 2 samples Rum, by plantation Great Diamond.
Process Sugar from plantation Vreed-en-Hoop; and two I do. do., by plantation Lusignan.
samples of Vacuum Pan Sugar from plantation Versailles.
CEYLON AND STRAITS SETTLEMENTS.
CEYLON. An island situated in the Indian Ocean, off the southern extremity of Hindostan ; lying between 5° 55' and go 51' N. lat., and 79° 41' and 81° 54' E. long.; its extreme length from north to south, i.e., from Poin Palmyra to Dondera Head, is 266 miles ; its greatest width 1404 miles from Colombo on the west coast to Sangemankende on the east.
The climate for a tropical country is comparatively healthy; the heat in the plains, which is nearly the same throughout the year, being much less oppressive than in Hindostan. Along the coast the annual mean temperature is about 80° Fahr. ; at Kandy, 1,465 feet above sea level, it is 76o (average of 10 years); at Colombo the annual variation is from 76° to 86°; at Galle 70° to 90°; and at Trincomalee 74° to 91°. In the mountain ranges there is of course a great variety of climate, the thermometer at the hill station, Nuwara Eliya which is some 6,000 feet above the level of the sea, falling at night as low as 32°.
Ceylon was visited in early days by the Greeks, Romans, and Venetians ; in 1505 the Portuguese formed settlements on the west and south of the island ; in the next century they were dispossessed by the Dutch, In 1795-6 the British took possession of the Dutch settlements in the island. They were annexed then to the Presidency of Madras, but five years later, in 1801, Ceylon was constituted a separate Colony. In 1815 war was declared against the native government of the interior; the Kandyan King was taken prisoner, and the whole island fell under the rule of the British.
By letters patent under the Great Seal, April 1831, a Council of Government was appointed, and by a supplementary commission to the then Governor (March, 1833) the form of Government almost as now existing was established.
1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874
Revenue and Expenditure.
Value of Imports and Exports.
5,691,860 4,687,388 Public Debt, 600,0001. at 61. per cent.
From “ Colonial Office List, 1876." Armitage Brothers, Columbo, Ceylon. Samples of Raw Products of Island of Ceylon.
Singapore is an island about 25 miles long by 14 wide, situated at the southern extremity of the Malayan peninsula, from which it is separated by a narrow strait about of a mile in width. There are a number of small islands adjacent to it which form part of the settlement.
The seat of Government is the town of Singapore, at the southern point of the island, in lat. 1° 16' N., and long. 103° 53' E.
Penang is an island about 20 miles long and 9 broad, containing an area of 107 square miles, situated off the west coast of the Malayan peninsula in 5° N. lat., and at the northern extremity or entrance to the Straits of Malacca. On the opposite shore of the mainland, from which the island is separated by a strait from 2 to 10 miles broad, is Province Wellesley, a strip of territory forming part of the settlement, averaging 8 miles in width, and extending 45 miles along the coast, including 10 miles of newly acquired territory to the south of the Krean (vide infra).
The chief town is George Town, in 5° 24' N. lat. and 100° 21' E. long.
Malacca is situated on the western coast of the peninsula between Singapore and Penang, about 120 miles from the former and 240 from the latter, and consists of a strip of territory about 42 miles in length, and from 8 to 24} miles in breadth. The principal town called Malacca, is 2° 10' N. lat., and 102° 14' E. long.
Malacca is one of the oldest European settlements in the East, having been taken possession of by the Portuguese under Albuquerque in 1511, and held by them till 1641, when the Dutch, after frequent attempts, were successful in driving out the Portuguese. The settlement remained under the Government of the Dutch till 1795, when it was taken possession of by the English, and held by them till 1818, at which date it was restored to the Dutch, and finally fell into our hands in pursuance of the treaty with Holland, the 17th Maich 1824, in exchange for the East India Company's settlement at Bencoolen, on the west coast of Sumatra. By that treaty it was arranged that the Dutch should not again meddle with affairs or have any settlement on the Malayan peninsula, the British Government agreeing at the same time to leave Sumatra to the Dutch.
276,642 254,391 1874
From “ Colonial Office List, 1876.” Behn Meyer & Co., Singapore, East Indies. Samples of Raw Products of Straits Settlements.
JAMAICA. An island situated in the Caribbean Sea, and to the southward of the eastern extremity of the Island of Cuba, within N. lat. 17° 40' and 18° 30, and W. long. 76° 10 and 78° 30'. It is the largest of the British West Indies, being 140 miles in length, and 50 in extreme breadth, and containing about 4,200 square miles.
Jamaica was discovered by Columbus on the 3rd May, 1494. He called it St. Jago. It remained in the possession of the Spaniards for 161 years, when it was attacked by a force sent by Cromwell, under Admirals Penn and Venables, against Hispaniola. It capitulated, after a trifling resistance, on the 3rd May 1655 After the capture of the island, until the Restoration of Charles II., Jamaica remained under military jurisdiction. In 1660 the first establishment of a regular civil government was made by Charles II., who appointed G. D'Oyley Governor-in-Chief, with an Elective Council. In 1670 peace was made with Spain, and the title of England to Jamaica was recognized by the Treaty of Madrid. In 1807 the Slave Trade was abolished, at which time there were 323,827 slaves in Jamaica. During the last eight years of the trade 86,821 slaves were imported. On the abolition of slavery in 1833 Jamaica received 6,161,9271. of the 20,000,0001. granted by the Imperial Government as compensation to the slave-owners ; being rather more than 191, a head on a slave population of 309,338.
Climate. There is great variety of climate ; the medium heat at Kingston is about 80°, and the minimum 70° Fahrenheit throughout the year. At an elevation of from 4,000 to 5,000 feet, the average mean range is 60° to 70°, the minimum in winter being 44o. On the Blue Mountain Peak ice of some thickness has been found in March. Owing to the lofty mountains which run down the middle of the whole island, it is possible, in a few hours, to get to a climate resembling that of Europe. From Kingston, the capital, a change of 30° in temperature can be attained by a ride of three hours. In the St. Andrew's mountains the variation is never more *han 10° between night and day, and the same between summer and winter, the hottest days in summer being never above 80°, and the coldest nights in winter never below 60°. Jamaica is singularly free from hurricanes Tearthquakes. The rainy seasons are in May and October, and last for about three weeks, with intervals of ine weather. The May seasons are irregular, but the October seasons seldom fail. The rainfall varies throughout the island from about 50 inches to 150 inches during the year.
GOLD COAST COLONY, WEST AFRICA. The Gold Coast Colony, which comprises the British Settlements on the Gold Coast, and at Lagos, was constituted by a Charter under the Great Seal, bearing date the 24th day of July 1874.
THE GOLD COAST PROPER. The Gold Coast is the name generally given to a portion of Upper Guinea, between 5° and 4° 20' E. long., stretching along the Gulf of Guinea from the River Assini on the west to the River Volta on the east,