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THE FISHERIES OF SOUTH CAROLINA.

South Carolina comes twentieth in the list of fish-producing States with 1,005 fishermen and products valued at $212,482. She is, however, noted for her shrimp fisheries, these being more extensive than those of any other State, and nearly as important as those of all other States combined. In 1880 her fishermen secured 18,000 bushels, valued at $37,500. The principal fisheries are about Charleston, where several hundred negroes, with an occasional Spaniard, are engaged in fishing with hand lines from vessels and small boats to supply the city with whiting, blacktish, and other species. A limited fishery occurs at Georgetown, and in the sounds about Beaufort, from which points a few fish are shipped to the interior cities. Beyond the places mentioned no sea fishery of importance occurs, though there is more or less fishing for local supply along all portions of the coast. Four hundred thousand pounds of alewives ( locally known as herring), 207,600 pounds of shad, and 261,250 pounds of sturgeon, with considerable quantities of other species, were taken by the river fishermen, the largest fisheries being in the Edisto River and in the tributaries of Winyah Bay.

THE FISHERIES OF GEORGIA.

The sea fisheries of Georgia are as yet almost wholly undeveloped, and the State comes, next to eastern Florida, lowest on the list of the Atlantic-bordering States. Immense numbers of edible fishes of various kinds gather in the numerous sounds and bays along the outer shore, but comparatively few are taken, and the people are largely dependent upon the fishermen of western Florida for their supply. In 1880 the value of all sea products, exclusive of oysters, was only $19,225. The oysters taken were valued at $35,000, making a total value of the sea products $54,225. The river fisheries are more fully developed, and the Savannah, Ogeechee, and Altamaha yield considerable quantities of fresh-water and analromous species. The principal fish taken are shad and sturgeon. Of the former 252,000 pounds, and of the latter 354,000 pounds, were caught in 1880.

THE FISHERIES OF EASTERN FLORIDA.

The fisheries of eastern Florida are so different from those of the Gulf coast that it has been thought desirable to treat the two regions separately. In the statistical tables given the figures refer only to the fisheries of the sounds and rivers tributary to the Atlantic. If the entire State be considered, Florida takes the fifteenth place on the list of fish-producing States, having in 1880 2,480 fishermen with products valued at $636,378. Her principal fisheries are at Key West, where a fleet of 21 vessels is employed in the capture of groupers and red snappers for the Habana market. The sponge fisheries of the United States are confined exclusively to the west coast of Florida, where, according to Mr. Silas Stearns, special agent in charge of the fisheries of the Gulf States, 100 sail of vessels are engaged in the business, the value of the sponges taken in 1880 amounting to $200,750. The mullet fisheries are also of peculiar importance, the catch of the Gulf coast, according to Mr. Stearns, being four times that of eastern Florida. The catch for the entire State in 1880 reached 3,494,333 pounds, valued at $123,508, this quantity representing nearly half of the mullet taken in the United States. Along the Atlantic coast the fishing is chiefly with hook and line or cast nets for local supply, the only commercial fishery of importance being in the Indian River, where 88,250 pounds of green turtle, valued at $6,000, were taken, of which the greater part was shipped to Northern markets. The shad fisheries of the St. Johns, though of recent origin, are quite extensive, 251,700 pounds, worth $20,136, being taken in 1880.

Of the 297,539,167 pounds of fishery products taken in the Southern Atlantic States, fully two-fifths, 124, 231,240 pounds, are oyster meats, an allowance of 7 pounds being made for each bushel of shell oysters. Of the remainder, 92,194,800 pounds are menhaden, 32,184,372 pounds are alewives (commonly called herring), and 10,878,942 pounds are shad. These are the only species that are taken in quantities exceeding 5,000,000 pounds. Five other species, namely, the mullet, crab, bluetish, perch, and striped bass are taken in quantities exceeding 2,000,000 pounds, while the catch for nine others ranges between 1,000,000 and 2,000,000.

PACIFIC COAST FISHERIES.

The fisheries of this coast are yearly receiving more attention and increasing in commercial value. At present they are chiefly confined to the salmon catch of California and Oregon, the seal fishery of Alaska, with considerable and increasing attention to the cod and balibut tishery. The total value of the products in 1880 amounted to $7,202,730; this included seals, oils, and other sea products. By the canning of 43,379,542 pounds of salmon, the value was increased $2,345,547, making the total commercial value of the fishing products $9,548,277; pounds of fish products, 181,548,920. Of the 16,745 persons employed, 7,910 were Eskimos, Aleuts, and Indians, and about 4,000 Chinese.

FISHERIES OF THE GREAT LAKES.

These fisheries are of much importance and value, abounding in a great variety of food fish, the total catch of 1880 amounting to 68,742,000 pounds-whitefish leading with 21,463,000 pounds, over half of which came from Lake Michigan; herring came next, with 15,356,300 pounds, three-fourths of which were from Lake Erie; sturgeon, 7,012,100 pounds; trout, 6,804,600 pounds; numerous other varieties of less amount from all of the Great Lakes, making the grand total above given. Fishing industry of the United States on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts and Great Lakes.

(Compiled from the United States Census Bulletins, by W. A. Wilcox.)

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Fisheries of the Atlan-
tic coast:

Maine
New Hampshire.
Massachusetts
Rhode Island.
Connecticut
New York
New Jersey
Pennsylvania
Delaware...
Maryland
Virginia..
North Carolina.
South Carolina
Georgia
Eastern Florida

606 17, 632. 65 5,920 8,110 2,961 11,071
23 1,012.05 211 376

38 414
1,007 81, ONO. 196,749 17, 165 2,952 20,117
92 2, 502.77

731 1, 602 708 2,310
291 9,215. 95 1,173 2,585 5463, 131
213 5,170.01 1,725 3,578 351 3, 929
39 639.32 3,265 4,339 142

4, 481
8
279.99 8 1

101
539 936

936
1,450 43,500.00 2,825 15, 873 10,135 26,008
1,446 15,578,93 6,618 16,051 2,813 18, 861

95 1,4 7.90 2,714 4,729 615 5,274
22 337.32 501 9641 411,005!
1 12.00 308 809 90 899
315 318

20 368

202,048, 449 $3, 614, 178 $3,375, 994 10, 400,291 176,684 203, 165 348, 210,982 8,141, 750 14,331, 130 88,019, 978 880, 915 596,678 83, 509, 367 1,456, 866 1,421,020 333,523, 173 4,380,665 1,706, 840 65, 151, 486 3,176, 589 456,684

2,933, 000 320, 050 23, 440 11,918, 203

997, 695 33, 906 95, 712,570 5, 231, 715 6, 312, 113 158, 874, 609 3, 124, 144 1,914, 119 32, 249, 488 845, 695 506,561 6, 143, 250 212, 482 66, 275 2, 272,500 119, 993 78, 770 2, 286,750 78, 408 43, 551

Total

5, 293 178, 446. 71 33, 655 77,566 21,342 98, 908 1,413, 284, 099 32, 748, 029 31, 110, 199

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68,742,000 1,652, 900 1,315,975 26,532, 120, 703 1,693, 575,019 11,603, 6937,204, 557

12,91,171

Grand total.

7,002 178, 416. 71 39,202 91,171

NOTE:--Lake boats and steam tugs are included with vessels. No tonnage given for Pacific coast os Luke fisheries.

Table shouing, by States, the quantity of each of the more important food fishes and other

aquatic species taken and the total production of the fisheries in the Middle States.

[graphic]

619, 100 2,618,500

247, 900 570,000

5,000 30,708

Pounds. 413,525, 862

Pounds.
333, 523, 173

Pounds
65, 151, 486

1,500,000

25,000 3,635,000

80,000 200,000

135,000 1,667,000

660, 280 3, 132, 280 1,470, 300

20,000 551, 000

75,000

156, 800 2 29, 134, 600

200,000 1884, 226

50,000

Gmel
Tom-cod, Microgadus tomcodus

(Walb.), Gill.
Trout (Mackinaw), Cristivomer

namaycush (Penn.), Gill and Jor Turtle (various salt and fresh

water species)... Whitefish, Coregonus clupeiformis

(Mitch.), Milner. Whiting or king-fish, Menticirrus

nebulosus (Mitch.), Gill

4, 146, 700 250,000

212,500 50,000
6,710, 800 3,000,000

580,000 500,000
700,000 500,000

498, 200 50.000
5, 247,000 3,580,000
4,068, 030 3, 407, 750
5,933, 664 2,795, 840
3, 179, 834 1,624,583

80,000 35,000
2, 036, 300 1,361,300
1,091,500 1,000,000

100,000 100,000
750,000 750,000

291, 950 135,000
318,588, 700 1288, 931, 200

3, 888, 050 2,720, 300
2, 419, 126 1,531,000
160,000

110,000
60,000

1,000
23, 328, 100 7, 303, 100
1, 711, 500 515,000
1,550,000 1,500,000
1, 461,200 750,000
5, 207, 200 2,733, 600

685, 900 400,000
205,000 200,000

215,000 25,000
1,079, 100 200,000
11,063,500 4,000,000
1,528, 300 795, 000
1, 164, 000

144,000 635,000 500,000 41, 508

1,800 205,000 200,000 569, 700

569, 700 15,300

130,000

9,000

5,000

15, 300

2,149,000

975,000

1,174,000

40,000

58,500

15,000

3,500

1 Including 40,000 pounds salted for food.
? Including 70.000 pounds salted for food.
3 Including 23,000 pounds for food.
* Including 550,000 pounds of refuse fish for fertilizers.

Table showing, by States, the quantities of each of the more important food fishes and otha

aquatic species taken, and the total yield of the fisheries of the Southern Atlantic Sinter.

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or

Pounds. Pounds. Pounds. Pounds. Pounds. Pounde. Poupit Total by States ... 297,539, 167 95,712, 570 158, 874, 609 32, 249, 488 6, 113, 250 2,272,500 2.750 Alewives, Clupea rernalis, Mitch.,

and C. &xtiralis, Mitch

32, 181, 372 9, 203, 959 6,925, 413 15, 520,000 400,000 125,000 Black bass, Micropterus salo

10.000

1 moides (Lae.), Henshall.

375,000 Black drum, Pogonius chromis,

130,000 175,000 10,000 15,000 5,000 Lacer

641,000

75,000 Bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix,

60,000 150,000 300,000 20,000 36,000 (Linn.), Gill..

2,386, 417 Catfish, Amiurus, sp.,

10,000 1,546, 417 600,000 200,000 and

5,000 25,000 Ichthælurus, sp

1, 443,000 420,000 Charleston porgies, Pagellus, sp.

500,000 300,000

25,000 180,000

18,010 375,000 Clams (quahaugs

50,000 325,000 little necks), Venus mercenaria, Linn.

1790, 220 40,000 363, 820 Crabs, Callinectes hastatus, Ord

309, 630 48,000 24,000

4, 800 way

23, 366, 267 1,166, 667 Cravalle, Carangus

2, 139, 200 11, 200 42,000 (several

7, 200 species)

12,000 Croakers, Micropogon undulatus

10,000

2,000 (Linn.). C. and V.

1,056,000 20.000 450.000 Eels, Anguilla vulgaris. Turton..

350,000 210,000

6,000 20.00 211,000

15,000 Flounders, Paralichthys and

125,000 50,000 11,000 4,000

6,000 other gerrera

141, 0001 5,000

40,000 Green turtle, Chilonia mydas,

20,000 60,000 10,000 6,000 Schw

96, 250 Groupers, Epinephelus (several

6,000 32,000

488, 350 species).

3,000 Grunts and pigfish, Hæmulon

2,000

1,000 (several species)..

513,000 3,000 100,000 Menhaven, Brevoortia tyranmus

400,000 35,000

5,000 (Latr.), Goode..

92,194, 800 3,903, 000 88, 213, 800 50,000 15,000 Mixed fresh-water fish

5,000 8,000 1,457, 933 778, 518 313, 140 39,025 Mixed salt-water fish.

14,000 125,500 257.7) Moonfish or bandled porgy,

3,350, 139 163,000 195, 139 2,061,500 587,500 63,000 280,000 Chartodipoterus faber ( Brouss), J. and G.

221,000 Mullet, Mugil albula, Linn., and

5,000 180,000
30,000 5,000

1,000 M. britsiliensis. Ag..

4, 424,000 30,000 25,000 3,368,000 232,000 106,000 663.000 Oysters, Ostrea rirginiana, Lister 124, 231, 240 74, 200,000 47,861, 240 1, 190,000 350,000 Pompano, Trachymotus carolinus

490,000 140,000 (Linn.), Gill.

36,500 Perch, Perca flurintilis, Linn.,

8,000

25,000 and Morone americana

(Gmelin), Gill. Red drum. Scianops ocellatus 2, 345,000 890,000 745,000 430,000 100,000 115,000

65,000 (Linn.), Gill..

324, 000

10,000 Sailor's choice, Lagodon rhom

40,000 175,000 35,000 10,000 54,000 boides (Linn.), Hol

140,000 Scup, Stenotomus argyrop 8

3,000 10,000

70,000
40,000

3,000

15,000 (Linn.), Gill.

70,000 Sea bass, Centropristis atrarius

20,000 (Linn.), Barn

552,000 5,000 Shad, Alosa rapidissima (Wil

20,000 125,000 375, 000 2,000 25,000 son), Storer..

10,878,942 3,774, 426 3,171, 953 3, 221, 263 207,000 252, 000 351, 700 Sheepshead, Archosargus probatocephalus (Walb.), Gill.

660, 666 12,000 Shrimp, Pen&us reliferus

503, 666

80,000

28,000 12,000 25,000 (Linn.), Edwards

5820, 750 Spanish mackerel, Scombero

63,000 630,000 56,000 71, 750 morus maculatus (Mitch.), J. and G

1,639, 163 Spot, Liostomus obliquus 18,000 1,609, 663 10,000 1,000

500 (Mich.), De Kay.

1, 420,000 20,000 Spotted sea trout, Cynoscion

700,000 520, 000 160,000 5,000 15,000 maculatus (Mitch.), Gill.. 1,694, 000 5,000 369,000 Squeteague, Cymoscion regalis

950,000 180,000

90,000

100,000 (Bl.), Gill. Starfish and butterfish, 1,674,000 60,000 1,107,000 170,000 290,000

15,000 Poronotus triacanthus (Peck), Gill.

316,000 Striped base, Roccus lineatus

1,000 115,000

200,000 (Schn.), Gill.

2, 252,000! 700,000 625, 000 770,000 20,000 120,000 17,000 110 pounds of meat to a bushel of clams. 23 crabs to the pound.

41.900 in number. 8 100 in number.

6 Figured at 35 pounds to the bushel.

3,500

1

50,000

32,000

Table showing, by States, the quantities of each of the more important food fishes and other

aquatic species taken, etc.—Continued.

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NINTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Boston Fish BUREAU, JANUARY, 1884.

REPORT.

OFFICE OF BOSTON Fish BUREAU,

Boston, January, 1884. Our last annual report mentioned the year 1882 as having been a successful and prosperous one to those engaged in the fishing business as producers or dealers. With the opening of the present year a good demand and satisfactory prices continued until the large catch of the previous year was exhausted, leaving the market in a good condition for the anticipated catch. With considerable addition of new vessels and better equipped fleet, and in a better financial condition than for several years, a prosperous season, with a large catch, was predicted.

Our report of large stocks and catches on page 15 will show that the expectations have, in a measure, been realized.

The catch of codfish by the Grand Bank fleet was the largest for years, the fleet returning with full fares, without loss of life, and only slight damage by storms.

The mackerel catch, in quantity or quality, has been only fairly satisfactory. A much reduced catch has met with an active demand, at prices higher than for the two previous years, which has largely compensated those engaged for the decrease in the catch; and many large stocks have been made, a few of which we have recorded.

The year closes with a sad record of losses of life and property. Numerous and severe gales on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Georges Banks, Massachusetts Bay, also on the Western lakes and in the Chesapeake Bay, have all added to the long list of disasters and loss of life to the fishing fleets of the United States. In the severe gales from August 26 to the 30th on the Grand Banks a number of vessels, with 75 men, were lost from the French fleet and vessels of the Provinces. The New England fleet escaped with small losses. October 30 a severe storm in Massachusetts Bay caused the loss of 8 men, and in property of 30 seines, numerous seine boats and dories, with other damage amounting to $55,000, all belonging to the mackerel fleet. The storms in November proved the most disastrous, and were mostly confined to the Georges Bank fleet from Gloucester, the total losses for the year being as follows:

a

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