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New England fleet catch of codfish, as reported to the Boston fish bureau (1880)-Cont'd.

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New England catch of mackerel; amount of inspected barrels packed at home ports, as

reported to the Boston fish bureau (1880).

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2,484

73, 933

1,400

50 6 3 4 16 10

730 90 39 50 235 145

76, 417

1,400 1,421

1,421

3,300

700

4,000

مروت

Maine:
Portland 5

50 North Haven

1 5 Camden

3 Deer Isle 7

2 2 Boothbay.

12 4 Swang Island?.. .....

2 6
1 Several vessels packed in ad lition to home fleet.
2 Includes other than home lleet.
36,855 barrels packed at other ports.
46,269 barrels packed at other ports.

6 Many vessels in addition to home fleet included.
6 Vessels partly packed away from home.
7 Vessels all packed away from home.
6 Many of them packed away from home.

New England catch of mackerel; amount of inspected barrels packed at home ports, as

reported to the Boston fish bureau (1830)–Continued.

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11,240 barrels packed away from home.

2 Vessels partly packed away from home. The shore fleet mentioned above are only the vessels that fished nowhere else; to which may be added the Southern and North Bay fleets after they returned from their unsuccessful cruise in those waters, making the total shore tleet 312 sail.

Receipts of fish by Boston dealers from foreign and domestic ports, 1880.

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(New) Mackerel .barrels.. 117 3,576 709 3, 917 331 2,012 184 138 915 178 1,679 6, 283 Mackerel, Boston fleet,

inspected, barrels..
Herring.. .barrels.. 3, 815 1,031 891 1,097 3,360 630 1,814

448

433 118 Alewives

.do..
774 107 4.15

65 156 550 485 208 4:46 Salmon

.do..
70 5 70

70

70 Trout ..do..

70 Herring, smoked..boxes.. 1,013 12,500 1,000 17, 430 12, 126 8,000 26, 278 25,580| 4, 405 7,500 18, 984 26, 332 Bloaters, smoked ...do.. 5, 18,5

3, 106

3,298 Cod.. ...quintals.. 10, 1626,621 8,578 375 8,923 504, 411 314 3,678 381 9,643 3,004 Hake

.do.
9.52
1,271
2, 570
1,059

2,601
Haddock
.do.. 783

631
474
037 228 50

716 150 Pollock.

.do.
50 131

50

605 156 Cusk. .do.

30

130 Boneless fish ......boxes..

712
7131
688
615
357

283 Shad

.barrels..

618

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Mackerel barrels.. 4,166 8, 2:2 10,158 14,891 9,41219, 713 4,934 30,033 2, 425 11,532 1,701 5, 205 Mackerel, Boston fleet,

inspected, barrels. Herring.

..barrels.. 937 2,114 78 3,483 209 6,587 7,370 10, 257 617 2,088 7,6871,875 Alewives ..do.... 61 774

961 10 48
519 350 923

118 Salmon

.do....
70
501 70 123

1,041 70 413 70 219 Trout .do.

580

48 Herring,smoked,..boxes.. 23, 350 25,500 14, 400 27, 245 26,836 6,465 62, 227 6, 437 42, 471 18, 126 26,392 Biouters, smoked ...do..

344

3, 319 4,711 Cod..

..quintaly.. 9,839 4,726 10,212 7,381 7,523 6,451 26,074 5,984 9,914 3,247 16, 061 914 Hake

..do.
1, 0:26

4,11 1,143 4,717 1,501 9,576 1,854 2,029 2,214 1,880 2, 450 Haddock .do.. 051 20 615

585

331 2, 486 154 1,012 90 529 Pollock

do.
23 471 9.3 810

272 195 316

2001

30 Cusk

100

80

107 150 575 12 310 Boneless fish ......boxes.. 330

276
501 51 2,002

6461

2, 490
Shad
barrels..

244
740

991

603

..do.

Receipts of fish ly Boston dealers from foreign and domestic ports-Continued.

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Massachusetts catch of mackerel for serenty-seren years, 1804-1880.

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114, 901
35, 657
39,612
6, 1:2
65,222
156, 021
112, 161
96,554

1825. 1826. 1827. 1828. 1819. 1830. 1831. 1832. 1833. 1831. 1835. 1836. 1837. 1838. 1839. 1840. 1811 1812. 1813. 1811. 1815. 1816. 1817 1818. 1819. 1850. 1871 18.02. 1853. 1871. 183. 1856. 1857. 1858. 1859. 1800. 1861. 1862. 1863. 1801. 1865. 1806.

29, 037
43, 139
$1,357

, 235
51, 184
47,892
70), 198
28, 078
51,559
80, 131
48,217
50, 311
31,306
37,968
22, 191
19, 350
23, 717
29, 363
32,759
28,13
128, 086
149, 338
101, 1570
20. 159
69,300
89, 101
90, 763
92,617
19,010
30,095
29, 197
89,032
91, 917
7., 317
51.3.30
58, SCS
70, $77
81, 902
67,985
103,383
153, 723
150,322

109, $10
80,581
09.311
110,666
10+, 171
101,569
171, 290)
97, 220
98, 925
93,133
57,271
60,558
61,027
28,588
22,07
11,019
10,241
22. 199
13, OSS
22,515
87.696
73, 103
76,007
89, 100
91, 8.17
14,909
102, 107
73, 793
21,583
46,212
91,025
76,819
49,775
21, 929
12, 160
13, 37
100, 286

78,497 91,923 60,197 52, 508 44,154 30.013 20,091 21, 119 23, 084 18,601 34,23 88, 520 65,520 71,760 108, 176 67, 709 87, 601 135,597 17, 966 39,987 55), 133

9.000 17,988 49,962 32,333 22,207 59,578 22. 185 100, 011 102,01 32,212 35, 2016 44,481

251, 381 158, 740 190, 310 237, 324 225, 877 308, 485 383, 658 222, 452 222, 926 252, 884 197,411 177,056 144,891 110, 740 74, 243 50, 490 55, 137 75,543 64, 151 86,181 202, 302 1x8,261 251, 917 31, 101 231, 856 212, 572 329,411 217,510 130, 432 131, 818 130,50 214,017 192, 378 131, 401

21, 658

611 3,164 19, 8413 3, 378 1,338

178

78,388 136, 075 137, 746 63, 562 36,318

89, 43 244, 703 191,281 260, 863 316,911 273, 325 252, 775 231,390

721 1, 992 4, 1-18 3, 160

633 502 280

11 224 209

Massachusetts catch of mackerel for seventy-seven years, 1804-1850Continued.

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SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Boston Fish BUREAU, JANUARY, 1882.

NEW ENGLAND FISHERIES.

Of the numerous industries of New England that of the fisheries is no doubt the oldest, and possesses much of historic and present interest to others than those particularly engaged in it. At numerous times much has been written of it, yet its history, particularly the statistical portion, is much broken, many of the old records having been destroyed, with no copies in existence. As early as 1618 we find the abundance of fish in the waters of Massachusetts Bay had attracted attention in Europe. The Pilgrims going from Leyden to England in that year to solicit consent of King James to their going to America, the King inquired, “What profit might arise?' The brief reply was simply “Fishing,” to which King James responded, “So God have my soul, 'tis an honest trade; 'twas the Apostles' own calling.” The request was granted. To the fisheries the credit is given of saving the infant colony from starvation. That the first free schools were supported with an income from the fisheries; that the Government has always recognized the patriotism, bravery, and important services rendered the Navy in time of need by the fishermen, are all matters well known. With the growth of the country nearly all the seaport towns had quite large fleets engaged in fishing, with numerous vessels engaged in foreign trade, of which fish products formed a large proportion. For many generations the business was carried on in its primitive way with no marked change until quite recently.

Of late years many new industries have sprung up that in size far surpass that of the fisheries. A large number of ports have given up the business, others have but few vessels. The business is gradually being concentrated to a few ports, the export business (with the exception of an occasional cargo) confined to Boston.

Although fewer ports and smaller fleets are engaged at present, the business continues of importance, with probably as many fish caught at present as at any previous time.

The many new ways of preparing the catch for the market give employment ashore to a large number of persons, the increased facilities for a catch making good any decrease in the number of vessels, with fully as many persons employed atloat and ashore as at any previous time with twice as many sail.

Before turning to the present, it may be of interest to note a few of the changes and contrast the past with the present.

In the past, as at the present time, Boston was known as the chief port of distribution for all varieties of salt-water fish found in New England or provincial waters. Here in olden time the fishermen came with their products, selling the same to the grocers, or from the vessels to be taken inland by teams that came from Vermont, New Hampshire, and other parts of the country loaded with grain, pork, and other provisions. Dry fish was handled loose or tied up in bundles, while mackerel and other pickled fish were shipped in barrels, halves, or quarters. For many years the catch was made in the most primitive manner, for cod and other ground fish the hook and hand line only being used; the mackerel catch was taken by the gaff or by "drailing," the latter mode by having poles suspended from the side of the vessel with hook and line attached, the vessel being under sail or no catch was made;

a

later the hook and hand line, or "jigging.” With these few appliances a large amount of business was annually carried on, the catch, with the exception of the Grand Bank cod fleet, being confined chiefly to the New England coast.

Although Boston was the great point for a market and the distribution of the catch, there was not a single exclusive wholesale salt-fish store in the city until 1807. In that year Mr. Ebenezer Nickerson opened the first store of the kind, it being located on Long Wharf. For fifteen years this was the only store engaged in the business; in 1830 two other firms were started. From this commencement the business grew, the grocers giving it up to those exclusively engaged. New firms started from time to time, as the business increased.

From the first settlement of Boston up to 1835 the fresh-fish business was only carried on in a retail manner by boats lying at the docks and teams standing about the market; ice was not used, and the canning of fish had probably not been thought of. During the summer season the trade was confined to a near-home demand. During the winter it was teamed inward as far as Albany and Montreal. The catch came from Massachusetts Bay, and was supplied by the small fishing vegsels from this and neighboring ports. During cold weather, in a frozen state it was brought to market by teams from Cape Ann and ports between. The oyster business was of small proportion and carried on from two small hulks covered in and used for storage below and stores above. The oysters mostly came from Cape Cod, never from south of New York, and from July to September no oysters were solá in Boston. As the demand for fresh fish increased better facilities were needed to handle the catch, and the first wholesale fresh-fish store was opened on Long Wharf in 1835, Messrs. Holbrook, Smith & Co. being the pioneers. Their business was mostly during the winter and spring months; through the warm weather it was confined to pickled, dry, or smoked fish. In 1838 this firm removed to Commercial Wharf, being the first firm so engaged on that wharf, which at the present time is the headquarters of the trade, with thirty-five wholesale firms engaged in the immediate vicinity.

Up to 1845 the catch of ground fish was solely by hook and hand line. About that year the trawl was first introduced by fishermen that had used or seen them used off the coast of Ireland. During 1880 the gill nets were introduced with good result by the United States Fish Commission. At the present time all three of the methods are used by the market fishermen. In the mackerel catch the purse seine superseded all previous methods, and is now almost exclusively used. Its use is said to date from 1855, although it did not come into general use for a number of years.

As we have previously alluded to the decrease in the number of vessels engaged in the catch, as not necessarily causing a like decrease in the amount of the industry or of the products, it is of interest to note, with only one exception, the largest catch of mackerel on record, as inspected in Massachusetts, was in 1851. In that year, with the hook and line, 329,000 barrels were caught by a fleet of 853 vessels, hailing from thirty Massachusetts ports, with 87 vessels from other States—a total of 940 vessels, manned by 9,993 fishermen. During the past year, with the purse seine, a catch of 391,657 barrels was made with a fleet numbering 298 sail from Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine, with 4,258 fishermen engaged. We do not propose to discuss the question as to the benefit or injury to the business by the new modes of capture, only to show that the business is as productive at the present time, with half the number of vessels engaged as in past years. The tables attached will show that the fleets are of no small size at the present time and the business of no small importance.

The canning of tish of almost every eatable variety has yearly grown of importance, and is now of large proportion. This branch of the business dates only from 1845, in which year the canning of lobsters and shellfish began in Maine, for some time the only State that packed fish in tin cans. It has been but a few years since the canning of fish began in Boston, yearly increasing in amount. Boneless fish, now well known, and neatly packed in packages of from 5 to 30 pounds each, is found in all the leading grocery stores from the Atlantic to the Pacific. This manner of preparing fish dates back many years, with but little attention given to it for a long time. Of late years the demand from the fertilizing factories for the refuse left from cutting lessening the cost of preparation, with the cleanly manner of placing on the market and the saving in freight, has made it justly popular with the trade. The demand yearly increases. Its preparation, with the canning of fish, gives employment to a large number of men and women.

It hardly seems possible that an article so universally used as ice was unknown to the fish trade forty years ago. At the present time no market fisherman would think of starting on his trip (except in the winter) without ice any more than without bait or seine. During 1845 vessels first began carrying ice to sea with them and dealers to use it in packing fish for shipment; previous to that date its use was considered injurious to the fish. At the present time about 20,000,000 pounds are annually used by

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