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could be properly called by any other name; but the custom-house decided that it was wrongly invoiced, and imposed duties, fines, &c., to the amount of $11.59 on the little package of samples valued at $t; and similar cases, frequently on a much larger scale, are of common occurrence.

Besides all this, the importer always has the fear that under the law of May, 1879, some little error in his invoice may not only cause him to be fined, but also imprisoned, and he really incurs almost as much risk as the smuggler, without the chance of the same profit. In my opinion the only effect the law of May, 1879, bas had has been to encourage smuggling and to discourage importation through legitimate channels.

The law of “Portazgo” bears still more heavily on the people geuerally than does the duty on importatious; but I will make that the subject of a future dispatch.

There appears to be no reinedy for these things, and under these circumstances it cannot reasonably be expected that the imports of La Paz will be increased to any considerable extent in the future.

No American or other foreign vessel, except the monthly mail steamer, bas entered this port since last August, and no vessel is expected; and it appears that the foreign trade of La Paz is at an end for the present.

DAVID TURNER,

Consul. UNITED STATES CONSULATE,

La Paz, Mexico, December 10, 1880.

a

MEXICAN TARIFF ON BREADSTUFFS.

AMERICAN GOODS IN MEXICO.

As to the articles manufactured in the United States that are finding a market in this country, it is encouraging to see that they are constantly acquiring an increasing popularity. We will hold the ground we have and extend the field of occupation if our artisans and manufacturers continue to excel in the superior quality of articles they pro. duce. Our machinery, tools, cutlery, clocks, watches, sewing machines, arms, wooden wares, hardware, brooms, and woven fabrics are justly more popular and more eagerly sought for than the same articles from Europe. Some of these articles are being imitated in Europe, and are finding their way here. The tendency of this nefarious trade is in two ways to depress and injure our good name and intentions: First, by destroying our well-earned reputation by making our manufacturers seem to acknowledge somebody else's illegitimate offspring by forging to worthless articles some well-established name or mark; and, secondly, by ruining the prices and confidence of the consumers, who may not have the means of comparison and distinguishing the genuine from the false. When Europeans resort to such dishonorable practices, they acknowledge thereby their own inferiority, and offer a potent admonition to our citizens not to seek to lower in anytlıing the present standard of their excellence. We cannot compete with them in worthless manufactures, and we ought not to exercise our faculties in that direction.

Many articles, such as flour, canned groceries of all kinds, potatoes, &c., could find a ready and extensive market here if the tariff were not prohibitory. Eight dollars a barrel on flour makes it impossible to import it into Mexico without loss. These high rates on the staple articles of family consumption render living very expensive ir a land where it should be the cheapest.

18. All sorts of wood, worked, of this or other countries, to enter, will pay for each foot

$0 01 19. Each thousand of garlic or onions will pay.

1 00 20. Each gallon of alcoholic liquor, to enter.

067 21. Each gallon of other wines or vinegar, to enter.

015 22. Every package of dry merchandise, to enter....

12} 23. All sorts of grain, with the exception of corn, will pay to enter, on each arroba...

02 24. Every billiard table will pay monthly.

2 00 25. All oiher establishments of whatever kind will pay, according to the pleasure of

the town authorities, a monthly tax, according to the amount of their capital. All articles which are not contained in the present tariff remain subject to the pleasure of the authorities of the city of Guerrero to levy upon them a contribution which they think just and right.

CHARLES WINSLOW,

Vice-Consul. UNITED STATES CONSULATE,

Guerrero, Mexico, January 12, 1883.

OPERATION OF MEXICAN TARIFF LAWS.

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REPORT BY CONSUL TURNER, OF LA PAZ. The trade and commerce of this port is far from being in a pros. perous condition, and instead of increasing appears to be daily dimin. ishing. All branches of business are in a very depressed condition, and dull times and little money is a general complaint among all classes.

It would seem that a better state of affairs should exist, as we bave had a very favorable season; more rain has fallen than for many previous years; the mines are producing more silver than formerly, and the country has remained quiet since the revolution of November, 1879.

I can see no reason for the general depression except in the tariff on imports, the manner in which business is conducted in the custom-house, the law of the 31st May, 1879, imposing extraordinary penalties upon violations of the revenue laws, and the recent enforcement of an old law of “Portazgo," or law imposing duties upon domestic gooils, introduced into La Paz from other parts of Mexico, which weighs leavily upon every inhabitant. The duties on imports, wit the addition of the fines, double and triple duties, &c., which are imposed, raise the cost of all articles so high that the people can scarcely earn enough to give them a bare subsistence, and they have not a dollar to spare for superfluities; and the merchants are really afraid to import goods, for it appears impossible to have them so documented as to escape fines and double and triple duties. Only last month a merchant here was forced to pay a fine of $350 for some slight error in the documents covering a small invoice.

An invoice which might be deemed correct by a Mexican consul, and might pass one custom house, will very likely be considered all wrong at another custom-house, and be subjected to heavy fines and penalties. I am confident that there is not an officer in the custom house at La Paz who, being in San Francisco, can make out an invoice which would be considered correct in his own custom-bouse.

The custom-house officers appear to think that their principal duties are to put the importers to all possible trouble and expense, and to find ways and means to impose fines, and they are generally sustained by the Treasury Department. I will give an instance: A package of assorted candy sent as samples, and valued at $t, was recently sent by a manufacturer in San Francisco to a merchant here. It was invoiced “Azucar candi,” which I think was correct, and I do not see how it could be properly called by any other name; but the custom-house decided that it was wrongly invoiced, and imposed duties, fines, &c., to the amount of $11.59 on the little package of samples valued at $t; and similar cases, frequently on a much larger scale, are of common occurrence.

Besides all this, the importer always has the fear that under the law of May, 1879, some little error in his invoice may not only cause him to be fined, but also imprisoned, and he really incurs almost as much risk as the smuggler, without the chance of the same profit. In my opinion the only effect the law of May, 1879, has had has been to encourage smuggling and to discourage importation through legitimate channels.

The law of “Portazgo” bears still more heavily on the people gen. erally than does the duty on importatious; but I will make that the subject of a future dispatch.

There appears to be no remedy for these things, and under these circumstances it cannot reasonably be expected that the imports of La Paz will be increased to any considerable extent in the future.

No American or other foreign vessel, except the monthly mail steamer, has entered this port since last August, and no vessel is expected; and it appears that the foreign trade of La Paz is at an end for the present.

DAVID TURNER,

Consul. UNITED STATES CONSULATE,

La Paz, Mexico, December 10, 1880.

MEXICAN TARIFF ON BREADSTUFFS.

AMERICAN GOODS IN MEXICO.

As to the articles manufactured in the United States that are finding a market in this country, it is encouraging to see that they are constantly acquiring an increasing popularity. We will hold the ground we have and extend the field of occupation if our artisans and manufacturers continue to excel in the superior quality of articles they produce. Our machinery, tools, cutlery, clocks, watches, sewing machines, arms, wooden wares, hardware, brooms, and woven fabrics are justly more popular and more eagerly sought for than the same articles from Europe. Some of these articles are being imitated in Europe, and are finding their way here. The tendency of this nefarious trade is in two ways to depress and injure our good name and intentions: First, by destroying our well-earned reputation by making our manufacturers seem to acknowledge somebody else's illegitimate offspring by forging to worthless articles some well-established name or mark; and, secondly, by ruining the prices and confidence of the consumers, who may not have the means of comparison and distinguishing the genuine from the false. When Europeans resort to such dishonorable practices, they acknowledge thereby their own inferiority, and offer a potent admonition to our citizens not to seek to lower in anything the present standard of their excellence. We cannot compete with them in worthless manufactures, and we ought not to exercise our faculties in that direction.

Many articles, such as flour, canned groceries of all kinds, potatoes, &c., could find a ready and extensive market here if the tariff were not prohibitory. Eight dollars a barrel on flour makes it impossible to import it into Mexico without loss. These high rates on the staple articles of family consumption render living very expensive ir a land where it should be the cheapest.

GUATEMALA.
THE TARIFF OF GUATEMALA.
TRANSLATED AND TRANSMITTED BY CONSUL TITU'S.

CHAPTER 1.

PORT DUES. Art. 2. The captains or consignees of merchant ships which may anchor in a port of the republic shall pay two pesos (dollars) as anchorage dues, which shall not be again collected though the ship may touch in other ports of the republic. ART. 3. The following are excepted from paying anchorage dues:

1st. Ships of war of friendly nations, and transports accompanying them, when they may be permitted to enter and anchor in the ports of the republic.

20. Ships of the nation in their first voyage of exportation and importation. 3d. Vessels of less than 25 tons register.

4th. Ships obliged to put into the ports of the republic by storms, damage or porsecution of enemies.

Art. 4. Merchant vessels which may anchor in the ports of the republic shall pay as tonnage due 25 centavos (cents) for each ton, according to the register.

Art. 5. The following are excepted from the payment of tonnage dues :

1st. Ships of war of friendly nations, although they may disembark or transship merchandise or specie pertaining to their respective Governments.

2d. Ships of this country in their first voyage of importation or exportation.

3d. Those which may come in ballast to load with products of the country, even though they disembark not exceeding ten tons of merchandise.

4th. Those which disembark or transship only stone-coal, or precious metals in bullion or coin.

5th. Those which bring more than twenty-five immigrants.

6th. Those which are forced to put into one of the ports of the republic, though they transship or disembark the whole or a part of their cargo to be re-exported.

ART. 6. Harbor and tonnage dues shall be collected in the first principal port (puerto mayor) to which she may come.

ART. 7. Tonnage dues shall be collected only once from ships which make voyages from one port to another of the republic; but if they touch at a foreign port or remain more than thirty days on the high seas, upon their return they shall again pay the said dues.

ART. 8. Merchant ships shall pay as roll dues 25 centavos for each person of their crew, including the captain.

ART. 9. Roll dues shall be collected in the principal ports by the administrators of the custom-house of the same.

ART. 10. Anchorage, tonnage, and roll dues shall not be collected from ships excepted from paying them by treaties or by contracts celebrated by the executive power.

CHAPTER 2.

IMPORTATION OF MERCHANDISE AND DUTIES.

SECTION 1.- Articles the importation of which is prohibited, and classification of those of

licit commerce.

ART. 2. The importation of all classes of merchandise not excepted by the law, if allowed, without distinction as to the flag of the ship in which they are imported, or of the derivation or origin of the merchandise.

ART. 12. The importation by private individuals of the following articles is prohibited:

Apparatus for coining; balls of lead or iron, bombs, hand grenades, and other projectiles of war; cannons or pieces of artillery; carbines, rities or muskets; obscene pictures, books, and objects, and those contrary to morality and good customs; falso inoney; nitrate of potassium or saltpeter, exceeding one arroba (25 pounes); nitroglycerine and dynamite; powder of all kinds, exceeding 2 pounds; raw tobacco; manufactured tobacco, exceeding 5 pounds.

ART. 13. Merchandise imported into the republic is divided into six classes :
1st. Articles exempt from import duties.
2d. Articles paying 10 per cent.
3d. Articles paying 25 per cent.
4th. Articles paying 70 per cent.
5th. Commerce with the republies of Central America.
6th. Commerce with the Mexican Republic.

Art. 14. The appraisements established in this code shall be the basis for the collection of import duties.

SECTION 2.- Articles erempt from import duties.

ART. 15. The following articles are exempt from import duties:

Barbed wire and hooks for fences; animals, dead or living, for breeding; anchors and girt-lines; apparatus for producing light from carbonated hydrogen gas; rice in grain; quicksilver; boats, tackle, sails, and other necessaries for ships for the use of the ports and lakes of the republie; mineral ores; stone-coal; rye; Roman cement or hydraulic lime; diamonds and other precious stones, unmounted; edifices complete, of Wood or iron; effects imported for the account of the nation or the municipalities, for the service of the public or of charitable establishments; effects introduced by diplomatic ministers resident in the republic, for their own use, provided that this privilege is reciprocal, and that the requisitions of this code are fulfilled (consuls and vice-consuls do not enjoy this exemption); baggage of passengers (by this being understood objects of their personal use and indispensable instruments of their profession or business, in quantity proportioned to the class and circumstances of the owners, and furniture already useil, belonging to persons coming to establish themselves in the country); ordinary packings, when duties on the articles are not assessed on the gross weight (in bales, the packing clotlı, oiled cloth, side-boards, and straps will be considered packing; in boxes, the living of tin or zinc, the card-board, paper, and casks, if they are not expressly included in the corresponding appraisenient; no blankets, sheets, or other article mentioned in the fourth and fiftli sections of this chapter shall be considered as packing); iron in pigs or masses of not less than fifty pounds in weight; photographs and views of the country; fragments and rigging of shipwrecked vessels; beans; pease; gnado and other manures; fnise for mines; hay and other fodders not mentioned; crucibles and other instruments for assaying metals; lodestone; tire-bricks and crucibles for founding; fresh vegetables; books, 18ed; rough lumber; machines unknown in the country and applicable to industry or agriculture; maize; models of machines and buildings; molds for making tlowers; samples of merchandise whose value does not exceed one dollar; gold and silver in bullion, dust, or coin; potatoes; periodicals, loose or bound; exotic plants and their seeds; portraits belonging to families resident in the country; seeds of flowers, vegetables, or other kinds not specified in this chapter; articles for the wharves of the ports; articles for telegraplis.

SECTION 3.- Articles paying 10 per cent.

Art. 16. Ten per cent. on the principal value, according to original invoices, shall be collected for the introduction of the following articles:

Acids applicable to the arts and industries of the country, not included in the tariff of drugs and medicines; nautical compasses or needles; knitting-needles; crude cotton, with or without the seed; oil.cloth, or rubber-cloth for making hats; hour glasses or sand clocks; plows of all classes; hoops of wood or iron for barrels, hogsheads, &c.; tar of all kinds; barometers; barrels, pipes, and hogsheads, empty; iron pumps, with or without piping, for mines, irrigating, or fires; iron, lead, or zinc piping for aqueducts, gas works, &c.; wire masks for robbing bee-hives; geographical maps or charts; wagons or carts of all kinds, with their equipage, except harness; bandcarts of all kinds; stone paste-board (?) (carton piedra) or other inventions for roofs; barley; horse-hair; crucibles; exercise-books of writing, drawing, or mathematics for use of schools; sketches or patterns on paper for embroidery; artiticial teeth; staves; axles, tires, and wheels for wagons, carts, or hand-carts; wheelbarrows; globes of all kinds for study; marble statutes for models, natural size; mathematical-instrument cases; surgical-instrument cases; metal checks for use in haciendas; blacksmiths' bellows, blocks for tackles, wood 'or iron; shoe-lasts and hat-blocks; printing materials for offices; instruments useful in the sciences, arts, and agriculture, not classified in this cole; gold jewelry of at leasttine, and silver of ; rushes, straw, and palm leaf for furniture or hats; sheet-iron for roofs; wool, carded or uncarded; type for printing; printed books; machines for agriculture, mining, and other arts, sciences, and industries, and also single pieces belonging to said machines; marbles, rough and without polish; mausoleums or sarcophagi of stone; wood, prepared for edifices; longitudinal measures; candle-molds; sugarinolds; music, printed and manuscript; levels; paper for printing, in sheets of at least 100 by 65 centimeters; lightning-rods and necessaries; patterns for tailors and dress-makers; rabbit or bare hair for making hats; cauldrons or boilers of iron or copper for sugar-mills; lead for roofs, in the rough or in plates; hydraulic presses for making oil or applicable to agricultural proiluctions; lithographic stones; slates for roofing; tower clocks, their dials and bells; gold watches of at least 25% fine, and silver ones of to; platform scales for weighing more than 5,000 pounds; printers' ink; wheat; plate table service of silver of at least in fine, and of gold of 20% ; poison for curing hides; zinc in bars.

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