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COURSE OF STUDY FOR NORMAL INSTITUTES OF 1880.
To County Superintendents:
The committee having charge this year of the preparation of a course of study, consisting of Supt. D. W. Lewis, of Washington, Supt. W. W. Speer, of Marshall county, and the Superintendent of Public Instruction, have thought best to give county superintendents the opportunity to choose their own course of study, with such suggestions to them as are herein made.
We recommend the course of study in didactics prepared for the normal institutes of 1877, which will be found in the biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction for 1876–77, a copy of which will be sent you.
A general outline in history has been prepared by Mr. Lewis of the committee, from which you may choose such portion as is most adapted to your county. Supt. Speer has prepared a pretty full outline of physical geography, which might be used profitably in place of the ordinary course in geography. His brief outlines in geology and astronomy are intended to furnish teachers with the elements of these sciences, if they are sufficiently advanced to make good use of such preparation in the school-room. Some elementary text-books on these subjects should be used in connection with these outlines.
It is advisable that you print such parts of the course of study as you wish to use in your institutes, and place a copy in the hands of each teacher.
The former outlines have been used at too great an extent as a skeleton merely, and too little work has been done to bring out the facts which really constitute the body of the subjects under consideration. Our advice, therefore, is to take but a limited portion of the outline on any subject, and insist upon full details and proper methods of instruction.
General suggestions with regard to programme, course of study, and other matters of interest, are found in the course of study for 1877.
No State Normal Institute will be held this summer, as it is consolidated with the State Teachers' Association which will meet next December.
C. W. von COELLN,
W. W. SPEER. DES MOINES, May 15, 1880.
UNITED STATES HISTORY.
I. THE ABORIGINES.
A. The Mound Builders.
4, character; 5, present condition.
II. PERIOD OF DISCOVERY AND EXPLORATION.
A. 'The Spanish.
Who, what, where, when, and why, for each.
III. THE COLONIAL PERIOD.
A. St. Augustine.
Who, where, when, and why, regarding the settlement of
each, with a brief history of subsequent events.
IV. THE KINDS OF GOVERNMENT.
V. THE COLONIAL.
A. Clayborne's Rebellion.
Causes, events, results, and a few dates of each.
VI. PERIOD OF THE REVOLUTION.
A. Causes: 1, remote; 2, immediate.
VII. CONSTITUTIONAL PERIOD.
A. Weakness of the Confederation.
ernment, why : 1, legislative department: a, congress, two
privileges; (g), quorum; (h), vacancies, and how filled; (i), officers of each house; (j), powers of each house; (k), powers of congress; (), prohibitions on congress; (m), prohibitions on the states; 2, executive department: a, the president; (a), qualifications; (6), how chosen; (c), term; (d), compensation; (e), duties and powers; (f), impeachment and trial; (g), vacancy; b, the vice-president: (a), qualifications, etc., as for president; c, the cabinet: (a), how constituted, etc., as for president, with names of present incumbents; 3, judicial department: a, courts: (a), district;(b), circuit; (c), supreme; (d), how each is constituted; (e), jurisdiction of each; b, judges: (a), how appointed; (b), number; (c), term; (d), com
pensation; (e), present judges of the supreme court. E. Amendments to the Constitution: 1, how proposed; 2, how
ratified. F. Administrations, in order: 1, political principles and parties;
2, candidates and the election; 3, important events, domestic and international: a, military; b, political; c, industrial; d, commercial; e, social; 4, leading statesmen; 5, principal
dates. G. National progress: 1, territory; 2, population; 3, resources;
4, wealth ; 5, education; 6, inventions; 7, social condition; 8, international influence.
I. THE EARTH.
b, proves what.
ure of time; c, velocity of motion; 2, revolution around the
sun: a, direction; b, measure of time; c, velocity of motion. C. Circles and surface measurements: 1, circles of position: a,
geographical use of the term circles; b, great circles: (a), equator; (6), meridians; c, parallels; 2, climatic circles; a, parallels: (a), tropics: (í), definition; (2), reason for position; (6), polar circles: (1), definition; (2), reason for position; 6, ecliptic: (a), definition; (6), what it marks; (c), relation to tropics and equator; 3, latitude; a, definition; b, number of degrees; c, length of degrees, with what variations; 4, longitude: a, definition; b, number of degrees; c, length of de
grees at equator, and how varying. D. Temperature: 1, evidence of internal heat: a, thermal springs:
(a), situation and temperature; (b), number of; (c), where most numerous; b, geysers: (a), how explained; (b), where found; (c), character of water; (d), to what due; c, observations in mines: (a), how made; (i), mean annual temperature, where found; (c), observations, where made; (d) results; d, conclusions from observations: (a), temperature at 9,000 feet; (b), temperature at thirty miles; (c), probable thickness of earth's crust; (d), conclusions, how sustained.
A. As an element: 1, its composition and elasticity; 2, its weight
and pressure; 3, its density and height.
B. Circulation of the air: 1, winds: a, definition; b, classes; 2,
general currents: a, zone of minimum density; b, movement of air toward this zone; c, movement of air from this zone; d, currents resulting; 3, direction of currents: a, direction in absence of disturbing causes; b, effects of the rotation of the earth; c, direction of polar currents; d, direction of re turn currents; 4, wind zones: a, number; b, names and
position. C. Humidity of the air: 1, evaporation: а, process; b, capacity of
the air for absorbing vapor; c, dry air and moist air, and the change from one to the other; 2, dew, mists, and fogs:
a, definition; b, variations in temperature when observed. D. Condensation of vapor: 1, causes: a, usually due to what; b,
effect of passage of warm winds to cold regions; c, effect of passage of cold winds to warm regions; 2, influence of unevenness of surface: a, condensation near mountain chains; b, condensation on plateaus; c, influence of deserts; d, iutlu
ence of forests. E. Distribution of clouds and rain: 1, laws: a, of annual aver
age rain-fall: 6, of cloudiness and rainy days; c, variation from coast to interior; 2, rain zones: a, causes and character of tropical rains; b, causes and character of rains in middle and cold regions; 3, snow: a, temperature of atmosphere when formed; b, form and size of snow-ilakes; c, manner of formation of hail.
III. THE WATERS.
A. As an element: 1, its relations to organic life; 2, composition
of water. B. Rivers: 1, sources: a, definition of springs; b, explanation of
intermittent springs; c, situation of most springs; 2, amount of water: a, depends on what; b, intluence of forests; 3, agency of rivers: a, transportation; b, other uses; 4, deposit:
a, how varying; b, deltas; 5, rapids and cataracts. C. Lakes: 1, mountain' lakes: a, characteristics; b, examples; 2,
lakes in plains: a, characteristics; b, great lakes of the globe;
Europe, Asia, North America, Africa.
vegetable; b, animal; 4, oceanic movements and their causes;
II. DIFFERENT KINDS OF STONE.
III. WHAT STONES HAVE TO TELL US.
IV. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS.
A. What sediment is.
V. ORGANIC ROCKS, OR ROCKS FORMED OF THE REMAINS OF PLANTS
A. Rocks formed mainly of the remains of plants.
VI. IGNEOUS ROCKS.
A. What igneous rocks are.
VII. THE CRUST OF THE EARTH.
A. Proofs that parts of the crust have been pushed up.
crumpled, and broken.
I. THE EARTH AND ITS MOTIONS.
II. THE MOON AND ITS MOTIONS.
III. THE OTHER PLANETS.
IV. THE SUN.
V. THE STARS AND NEBULÆ.
VI. CELESTIAL MEASUREMENTS.