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the approval of the Commissioner & (b) The impress of the seal is not Sec. he several customs Customs, and notice thereof shall be dis necessary on documents passing within
2.46 Open shelter deck space.
2.47 An open structure on small craft. customs collection
played prominently at the principal e the Customs Service. The seal shall be
trance of the office. þy are as follows:
2.48 Open vessels. On impressed on marine documents, and on
2.49 (d) Each customs office shall be of landing certificates, certificates of
Deductions from gross tonnage.
2.50 Navigation spaces.
2.51 Engine room.
2.52 Spaces included in engine room. Districts occurring on days other than Saturday terests.
2.53 Length of engine room. Sundays, and national holidays. It (c) The official seal shall not be used
2.54 Boilers and engine in same compas Street, 13, 14, 15, 42, state or local holiday interferes with the in the manner of a notary seal to indi
ment. 21202. and 43. performance of work in a customs offs cate authority to administer oaths.
2.55 Engine room measured in parts. ue, Bos- | 1, 2, 4, and 5.
2.56 Rule for measuring engine room. by any customs employee or employer bicago, 34, 35, 36, 37,
2.57 Engine room in small boats. the principal field officer may reques 38, 39, 40, and
PART 2—MEASUREMENT OF
2.58 Deduction for propelling power. 45. approval of the Commissioner of CF
2.59 Light and air spaces. Los An. 24, 25, 26, 27, toms to excuse such employees from
2.60 Verification of calculations, diagram 13. and 50. duty without charge to leave.
areas, and certification of results. ew Or. 19, 20, 21, 22,
2.0 Effective date.
2.60a Marking net tonnage and official nun
2.1 New 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, performed outside a customs office she
Authority of Commissioner.
ber on vessel. 0014. 49, and 51.
2.2 Officials authorized to admeasure be furnished between the hours of 8 &.L
2.61 Appendix to certificate of registry. Story:
2.62 Measurement of Government vessels. and 5 p. m. (or between the correspon 3.3 Purpose for which measurements are e, San 1903.
2.63 Foreign vessels. plladel. 11, 12, and 41. ing hours at ports where different be taken.
2.64 Adjustment and correction of tonnag equivalent hours are required for the 2.4 Register ton.
2.65 Figures. et, San 28, 29, 30, 31,
Gross register tonnage. maintenance of adequate service and a 2.5
2.66 32, 33, and
Conversion tables. 94111.
2.6 Net register tonnage.
2.67 Table A of common intervals whe
2.7 The marine document. annah, 16, 17, and 18. toms) on all days when the customs a'
tonnage depth is 16 feet or less. 2.8 Application for measurement.
2.68 Table B of common intervals when tor fice is open for the transaction of ges: eral customs business . In accordam 2.10 Measurements to be taken at an early
nage depth exceeds 16 feet.
2.69 Definitions of enclosures on or abov ess. with such instructions as the Commix
the upper deck. sioner of Customs shall have issued fire 2:11 Uniform system required. led in paragraphs
2.70 Definitions of items of deduction.
2.13 Measuring instruments. each customs of- time to time and upon reasonable as
2.71 Definitions of structural terms, etc. he transaction of vance notice to the principal local office 2.14 Stem.
2.72 Suez and Panama Canal certificates. hess between the concerned, such services may be fư
AUTHORITY: The provisions of this part 5 p.m. on all days nished between the same hours on Sa
2.17 Ceiling, cargo battens, etc.
issued under R.S. 161, 4153, as amended, seca urdays, Sundays, urdays.
2, 3, 23 Stat, 118, as amended, 119, as amended (f) Where there is a regularly recu 2.19 Register breadth.
sec. 4, 28 Stat. 743, as amended; 5 U.S.C. 25
46 U.S.C. 2, 3, 77, 79. ring need for customs services outsidi 2.20 Register depth. equivalent hours the above prescribed hours
, and the war 3.21 Upper deck to the hull. difference is re
2.22 Enumerating the decks.
SOURCE: The provisions of this Part 2 ap ance of adequate ume and duration of the required ser
pear at 28 F.R. 14553, Dec. 31, 1963, unles
otherwise noted. conditions, is ap
ices are uniformly such as to require, &
themselves or in immediately consecu oner of Customs,
§ 2.0 Effective date. tive combination with other essenti krs of business is customs activities of the port, the fu
The regulations in this part are no at the principal time of one or more customs employee 2.28 Depth of a transverse section.
retroactive, i.e., they do not apply to jblic room of the the necessary number of regular towy 2.29 Tonnage depths.
vessels the keels of which were laid prio of duty to furnish such services on 2 2.30 Tonnage breadths. 2.31 Measuring the tonnage length.
to the date the rules in this part becom tion where there days of the year except Sundays and D3
effective. The regulations in this par s employee, the tional holidays may be established with 2.32 Divisions of tonnage length.
2.33 Transfer of location of sections to
become effective March 1, 1940. e customs office the approval of the Commissioner é
§ 2.1 Authority of Commissioner. hsaction of gen
Customs. hall be fixed by (g) Customs services shall be furnisie 2.35 Breaks in double bottom.
(a) The Commissioner of Customs is private interests otherwise than as spel 2.36 Vessels having side tanks may be
charged with the supervision of the law: concerned with fied in this section only in accordance
relating to the admeasurement of ves with the provisions of $ 24.16 of thik 2.37 Outside shaft tunnel. 2.38 Square end vessels having head blocks.
sels, and on all questions of interpreta
th te January 1, Feb.
tion growing out of the execution chapter. he first Monday in
laws relating to this subject his decision he fourth Thurs
is final. $ 1.9 Customs seal. cember 25. If a
(b) The Commissioner of Customs The following day Jo. 10358, June 9, States, consisting of the national arm 2.43 Enclosed spaces exempted from inclu
shall, in the following sections, be reJon Saturday the
ferred to as the Commissioner. 5 such Saturday furnished by the Treasury Department 2.44 Passenger cabins.
(c) Doubts arising in the minds o 7c). Other days
the admeasurers concerning decks to the shall be impressed upon all official doct 2.45 Open superstructures on or above the pnal holidays by
hull, enclosures on or above the uppe: sident.
deck, shelter decks, method of procedure
2.18 Register length.
2.23 Register height. 2.24 Round of beam. 2.25 Pitch of beam. 2.26 Tonnage deck. 2.27 Tonnage length.
measured in parts.
2.39 Between decks.
(a) The customs seal of the Unite
sion in gross tonnage.
within a circle according to the desio
ments requiring the impress of a seal
etc., shall be submitted to the Commis- been made from the gross registe sioner for his decision, and shall be ac- nage shall be deemed the net r companied by blueprints or sketches of tonnage. the spaces in question giving all the facts
(b) In ascertaining the net to bearing on same.
no space may be deducted unless $ 2.2 Officials authorized to admeasure previously been included in the gro vessels.
nage and certified, showing the p (a) Before any vessel shall be regis
for which used. tered, enrolled, or licensed she shall be $ 2.7 The marine document. measured by an officer of the customs at the port or place where she may be.
The marine document of every (b) A vessel is not to be measured un
shall show the date and place of less she is required by law to be regis
the register length, breadth, depth tered, enrolled or licensed, or otherwise
in vessels of more than two deck specially provided for.
height of the upper deck to the hull
the tonnage deck; the number of § 2.3 Purpose for which measurements and masts; build as to her ster are taken.
stern; capacity under the tonnage (a) Tonnage measurements are taken that of the between decks, and also for the purpose of ascertaining the in- rately, permanently enclosed spad ternal capacity of measurable spaces. or above the upper deck to the hull
(b) All measurements are to be taken able for cargo or stores or for the a in feet and fractions of feet, and all modation of passengers (provisio fractions of feet shall be expressed in or crew, and the omitted spaces, wl decimals.
open or closed in, on, above, or belo § 2.4 Register ton.
upper deck; the gross tonnage; ite
deduction; and net tonnage. A register ton is a volume of 100 cubic feet.
Application for measureme § 2.5 Gross register tonnage.
The builder of a new vessel red
to be admeasured, or the person h (a) The gross tonnage referred to in the following sections is the gross register
supervision of changes and/or alter tonnage; that is, the gross tonnage ex
affecting a vessel's register tonna clusive of all permissible exempted
obliged to make application fos
measurement or tonnage adjustme spaces. (b) The gross register tonnage of a
the case may be, in writing, to the c vessel shall consist of the sum of the
tor of customs of the district in
the vessel is located. Such applid following items:
shall be made before cargo or ball (c) The cubical capacity below the tonnage deck, excluding exemptible wa
taken on, and in case uf a new vesse ter ballast spaces within the measure
fore boilers or engine is installed or able portion of the vessel;
partments partitioned off. (d) The cubical capacity of each be- § 2.9 Drawings. tween deck space above the tonnage deck;
(a) Plans to be filed. In order t (e) The cubical capacity of the per
cilitate admeasurement, there sha manent closed-in spaces on the upper
furnished by the vessel's builder or deck available for cargo or stores, or for
to the collector of customs for the di the accommodation of passengers and/
in which the vessel will be admeas
either with the application for ado or crew; (f) All permanent closed-in spaces sit
urement or a reasonable period b uated elsewhere available for cargo or
admeasurement is scheduled to stores, or for the accommodation of the
mence, blueprints or drawings of
following: crew, or for the charts, except cabins or staterooms for passengers constructed
(1) A drawing of the cross secti
which is shown the construction of entirely above the first deck which is not
double bottom, if there be one; a deck to the hull;
(2) An inboard view of the lon (g) The excess of hatchways.
dinal section, showing the double $ 2.6 Net register tonnage.
tom, its use or uses, if existing, othe (a) The tonnage of a vessel remaining the floors, the compartments for v after the authorized deductions have ballast, other than the double bot
ed to the Commis- been made from the gross register to the decks, the superstructures, n, and shall be ac
hatch- usually when the decks are laid, the ho nage shall be deemed the net registe ints or sketches of
cleared of encumbrances to a ways, etc.;
admit th tonnage. giving all the facts (b) In ascertaining the net tonnement and uses of different compart
(3) Deck plans showing the arrange- required depths and breadths beir
properly taken; before the engine an no space may be deducted unless it be ments and deductible spaces;
boilers are installed and accommoda rized to admeasure previously been included in the gross tor nage and certified, showing the purpe ment of the engine, boiler, and fuel
(4) Drawings showing the arrange- tions are partitioned off. AT PER ssel shall be regisfor which used. compartments; and
§ 2.11 Uniform system required. Jensed she shall be
8 2.7 The marine document. (5) A tonnage plan showing half (a) The following directions are give cer of the customs
breadths of the sections at the points of showing the progressive steps to be fol The marine document of every vest division of the tonnage length of the here she may be. shall show the date and place of built vessel into a certain number of equal
lowed in the process of admeasuremen to be measured un
It is important not only that the rule the register length, breadth, depth
, au parts in accordance with the rules for by law to be regis
be followed, but that required measure in vessels of more than two decks
, We the measurement of spaces under the ensed, or otherwise
ments be taken and calculations mad height of the upper deck to the hull abor tonnage deck. The scale or scales of
in a uniform and correct manner tha the tonnage deck; the number of deck these drawings are to be indicated
general system may prevai hich measurements and masts; build as to her stem are thereon.
throughout the service respecting thi stern; capacity under the tonnage det The collector of customs is to be ad
subject. frements are taken that of the between decks, and also se vised of any subsequent changes in the
(b) Measurements taken aboard ar scertaining the inrately, permanently enclosed spaces a vessel and furnished copies of the cor
to be recorded in the “Memorandum o basurable spaces. or above the upper deck to the hull av rected plans, or a statement of such
Dimensions” known as Form 1413. nts are to be taken able for cargo or stores or for the accom
$ 2.13 Measuring instruments. s of feet, and all modation of passengers (provisionally
If there are no blueprints or drawings (a) The measurements or crew, and the omitted spaces, whelt available and if the collector is satisfied
should bi 11 be expressed in open or closed in, on, above , or belowe that it is impracticable to require such
made with a waterproof tape, graduatec
into feet and tenths of a foot, and ai upper deck; the gross tonnage; items i
plans to be prepared and made available,
nearly inelastic as possible. blume of 100 cubic
vessel as well as the cost and time in
(b) Sliding rods which are of three $ 2.8 Application for measurement. volved, the vessel shall be measured with
sizes: One 3 feet long for taking depths The builder of a new vessel requires out requiring their production.
from 3 to 5.8 feet; another 6 feet long lonnage. to be admeasured, or the person havia
for taking depths from 6 to 11 feet, or age referred to in
When blueprints or supervision of changes arid/or alteration drawings are not produced, necessary
with the extension piece attached, to 16 5 the gross register affecting a vessel's register tonnage
feet; and a third one 11 feet long for gross tonnage exobliged to make application for course of admeasurement showing the
taking depths from 11 to 21 feet, or. issible exempted measurement or tonnage adjustment a inboard profile, the midship cross-sec
with the extension piece attached, to 2E
feet. the case may be, in writing, to the colle
The movable or index rod in each ter tonnage of a
has an arrow index traversing a decimal tor of customs of the district in Whic tion, the hull and deck arrangements, the sum of the the vessel is located. Such applicatir and related matters, recording any nec
scale on the fixed rod. Greater depths shall be made before cargo or ballasti essary dimensions and showing details may be taken by inserting into the ends pacity below the
of the index rods, an extension piece, taken on, and in case uf a new vessel, k of important features such as the depth g exemptible wafore boilers or engine is installed or com of side and bottom frames or floor
provided with sockets for this purpose in the measure
timbers; the dimensions, location, and partments partitioned off.
one or more joints of lift rods described el;
use of structures and hull spaces; and
below: picity of each be- $ 2.9 Drawings.
the thickness of the inner and outer skin. þve the tonnage
The fixed rod is graduated in feet (in (a) Plans to be filed. In order to Such rough sketches shall be retained
red) and tenths and half-tenths (in black). cilitate admeasurement, there shall ) and filed with the other admeasurement
and when the ends of the rods are well icity of the perfurnished by the vessel's builder or OW papers. The rough sketches made shall
together the arrow on the index rod points es on the upper
not be redrawn to scale unless the ad
to the figure indicating the constant length or stores, or for
measurer is satisfied that such action is
of the fixed rod, and as the index rod is passengers and/ either with the application for admes necessary to insure that accurate dimen
moved up the arrow indicates the length sions have been lifted, to avoid the neces
from the upper end thereof to the lower ked-in spaces sit
end of the fixed rod. Bear in mind, howadmeasurement is scheduled to con ble for cargo or mence, blueprints or drawings of sity for readmeasurement, or to insure
ever, that when you use any of the attach
ments referred to above you must add to modation of the following:
the reading on the fixed rod the net length except cabins or
of the attachment used; e. g., if the 6-foot (1) A drawing of the cross section reasonably be expected to be made in a
which is shown the construction of particular case by the owner or agent. gers constructed
rod is extended to its limit, 11 feet, which leck which is not
is reached when the arrow on the index double bottom, if there be one;
rod is fair with the upper end of the fixed hways.
rod, and the extension piece is attached,
which is done by slipping the bands on the lage.
lower end of it over the upper end of the the filoors, the compartments for war as the vessel is sufficiently advanced in vessel remaining
index rod until the upper edge of Jieductions have ballast, other than the double bottle construction to permit its being done,
upper band is fair with the upper end of
the index rod, and by fastening (on the
to the collector of customs for the distrik
urement or a reasonable period befor
against a claim of error which may
$ 2.10 Measurements to be taken at an
(2) An inboard view of the longit
: dinal section, showing the double by tom, its use or uses, if existing, otherm
Admeasurement should begin as soon
groove side of the index rod) with set screws in the said bands, the length will not be 11 feet, as shown by the reading, but 16 feet, the reading plus the increment due to the attachment (11 feet + 5 feet). This increment may be further increased by inserting into the end of the extension piece one or more joints of lift rods, each of which is about 3.95 feet when adjusted.
At the station of the area to be measured in single-deck vessels the rod is to be placed on the ceiling, or floor beam or timber when no ceiling is present, alongside the keelson or line of the keel. perpendicular or square thereto, and also parallel to the middle longitudinal plane of the ship, and forced up firmly under the deck and fixed in such position by the set screws; from the depths thus found take one-third of the round or one-half of the pitch of beam to get the depth of the area.
The depth of an area taken as above is to be divided into the required number of equal parts. (See § 2.29 (d).) With the rod fixed in position as above. set off on it from its lower end one of these equal parts, or common interval between the breadths, using white or other colored chalk or material that will make a visible mark, which gives the position of the first breadth above the bottom breadth, and from this when the rod is taken down the positions of the remaining breadths are to be set off at the said common interval.
The positions of all the breadths being thus severally marked on the rod, it is then to be set up again and firmly fixed or held in position, and the breadths may be readily and correctly measured by means of the tape held at right angles across the rod at each of the positions marked thereon.
In measuring vessels with more than one deck, where the second deck from the bottom is the tonnage deck, it will be necessary to use two of these rods in combination, one directly over the other, one in the hold under the first deck, as directed for single-deck vessels, and the other in the space between this deck and the tonnage deck. In this combination the tonnage depth is found by adding together the two depths and the thickness of the deck between the rods and deducting from this combined depth onethird of the round or one-half pitch of beam; then proceed as before directed.
(c) A 2-foot rule with a hinge is required for taking the rake of the bow and stern and for other purposes.
(d) A carpenter's square will be found useful for setting the sliding rod perpendicular to the keelson.
(e) For taking the breadths in the hold which are beyond the reach of the measuring officers two lift rods will be needed, each about 8 feet long (made by joining two sections), one having a pulley at the end over which the tape may be drawn when the rods are held in po
sition and the other an attachme holding the ring at the end of th
(f) For transferring the locat the stations or ordinates of the verse sections from the deck to th son, and sometimes, for finding tered breadth, a plumb line and b needed.
(g) For measuring laden vess Panama or Suez Canal tonnage cates, a girting galvanized chain approved make is required. § 2.14 Stem.
A vessel's stem is to be describe cording to its contour; i.e., sti raked, curved or square. $ 2.15 Stern.
Describe the stern according shape at the after end below the deck or line of same, as round, elli square or sharp. $ 2.16 Masts.
In addition to what are comi known as masts, spars set up at th ter line of the bridging at the t king-posts of certain vessels for s and wireless antennae, etc., are considered as masts. The numb king-posts and derrick posts, etc dependent of the supported masts be separately stated after the num said masts; e. g., “Two masts and king-posts,” or as the case may be § 2.17 Ceiling, cargo battens, etc.
(a) Ceiling. Ceiling hereafter rei to is considered the permanent pla fitted directly on the inboard side frames, or floors, or the top of the ble bottom. The maximum alloy for ceiling is 3 inches on the botton 3 inches on each side. When ceil found to be less than 3 inches thick, the actual thickness thereof; that is dimensions to the face of the ceili found. Depths and breadths shall n decreased due to grounds suppg ceiling nor shall allowance be mad ceiling on the under side of deck be
(b) False ceiling. In small V with "false ceiling” in a portion of cabins, in their holds, or forming a of their seats or lockers, etc., the and which stands off from their fran that is, not fitted to them as ordi ceiling-take the breadths through said "false ceiling” to the inner fac the vessel's frames, deducting there the thickness of the "false ceiling
ndex rod) with set sition and the other an attachment fe each side. If, however, there is a ceiling (b) Should ceiling be fitted on th Inds, the length will
holding the ring at the end of the ter fitted on the frames in addition to the above mentioned bottom members, th own by the reading,
(f) For transferring the location : "false ceiling," take the breadths to the register depth shall be measured to th & plus the increment at (11 feet + 5 feet).
the stations or ordinates of the tra ceiling on the frames, making no allow- top of same and to this dimension shal be further increased verse sections from the deck to the kedi ance for the “false ceiling."
be added the height of grounds, batten end of the extension son, and sometimes, for finding regis
(c) Cargo battens, insulation. Para- or other type of support for the ceiling ats of lift rods, each tered breadth, a plumb line and bob a graph (a) of this section applies to cargo
(See Figures 4 and 5
($ 2.65).) feet when adjusted. needed.
battens (spar ceiling) and refrigeration (c) If the vessel is measured in parts he area to be meas
insulation, (g) For measuring laden vessels la
as explained later, the register depth is essels the rod is to Panama or Suez Canal tonnage certit $ 2.18 Register length.
taken at one-half the tonnage length o hg, or floor beam or
the vessel. cates, a girting galvanized chain of & is present, alongside be keel. perpendicular approved make is required. (a) The length measured on the ton
$ 2.21 nage deck, from the fore part of the
Upper deck to the hull. also parallel to the
$ 2.14 Stem. une of the ship, and
outer planking (where it is rabbeted) on The uppermost complete deck, which the deck and fixed
A vessel's stem is to be described & the side of the stem of wooden vessels, or extends from stem to stern and from side set screws; from the cording to its contour; i.e., straight fore end of lap of outer plating of steel or to side at all points of its length and beke one-third of the raked, curved or square.
iron vessels, to the after side of the main low which there are no openings through ne pitch of beam to
sternpost, shall be accounted the ves-
the hull as required in shelter deck taken as above is to Describe the stern according to i 3 ($ 2.65).)
spaces and also having its hatchways or tred number of equal
other openings provided with means for (b) In the case of screw vessels with shape at the after end below the uppe With the rod fixed deck or line of same, as round, elliptici no sternpost, take the length to the for
closing them against the action of the t off on it from its
ward side of the rudder-stock or line of
sea and weather upon the space below equal parts, or comsquare or sharp. same extended through the deck.
enclosed by the sides of the vessel, makthe breadths, using
$ 2.16 Masts. palk or material that
(c) The register length of scows and
ing the said space a fit place for the
stowage of general cargo, is to be conrk, which gives the In addition to what are commoni harges
, with a square
bow and stern shopadth above the bot- known as masts, spars set up at the ce ime up from the bottom to the deck, ana sidered the upper deck to the hull. this when the rod is fer line
of the bridging at the top telth neither stem nor sternpost, is to be
$ 2.22 Enumerating the decks.
king-posts of certain vessels for signal
In enumerating the number of decks, considered as masts. The number that is, the over-all length of the hull,
only those which are without such openthe breadths being h the rod, it is then king-posts and derrick posts, etc., is
ings as exempt the spaces beneath from
not including guards or rubbing strakes, rmly fixed or held in dependent of the supported masts aret is to be considered the register length of
being included in the tonnage under the ths may be readily
upper deck are to be considered. Other be separately stated after the number i by means of the tape said masts; e. g., “Two masts and eiga
decks, if any, containing such openings ss the rod at each of king-posts,” or as the case may be. $2.19 Register breadth.
as exempt the spaces beneath from in
clusion in tonnage should be separately with more than one $ 2.17 Ceiling, cargo battens, etc. (a) A measure from the outboard face
described after the number of decks. eck from the bottom
(a) Ceiling. Ceiling hereafter referr of the outer skin on one side to the same will be necessary to
point opposite, taken at or below the
proper; e. g., "Two decks and shelter combination, one to is considered the permanent plankin
deck,' or as the case may be. Partial he in the hold under fitted directly on the inboard side of # upper deck and at the widest part of the
decks, forward or aft, such as orlop. ted for single-deck frames, or floors, or the top of the dor
decks, are not considered as decks. the space between
(b) A practical method for finding the age deck. In this
$ 2.23 Register height. depth is found by
of the depth of the vessel's side frames to depths and the found to be less than 3 inches thick, au and thickness of outer skin, plus an
If the vessel has three or more decks to. ween the rods and the actual thickness thereof; that is, ww, allowance for thickness of ceiling, insu
the hull, then the height from the top of ubined depth one
the tonnage deck planking and/or platone-hall pitch of
ing to the under side of the planking efore directed.
and/or plating of the uppermost deck With a hinge is
shall be deemed the register height of ceiling nor shall allowance be made it § 2.20 Register depth. rake of the bow
the uppermost deck above the tonnage r purposes.
deck. are will be found ding rod perpenwith "false ceiling” in a portion of the
$ 2.24 Round of beam. breadths in the
(a) The round of beam (camber) is the reach of the
floor timbers or plates when fitted; or to
the perpendicular distance down from lift rods will be
the crown of the under side of the tonJet long (made by
nage-deck plank or plating at the center ne having a pulsaid "false ceiling” to the inner faces cellular double bottom; as the case may
to a line stretched athwart the vessel Ich the tape may
from end to end of the top of the beam are held in po
and is to be ascertained at every place
hull is the register breadth.
ble bottom. The maximum allowany
register breadth is, to add twice the sum
dimensions to the face of the ceilings
lation or cargo battens if fitted, to the
ceiling on the under side of deck beam
(b) False ceiling. In small vesse
cabins, in their holds, or forming a per
(a) The register depth is taken at the middle of the tonnage length from the under side of the tonnage deck, or line of same, down to the top of the floors at the side of the keelson; or to the ordinary the inner bottom plating (tank top) of a be, in a direction perpendicular to the
the vessel's frames, deducting therefra