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worker. Award of part of his compensation in a lump sum gave him the capital to open a shop after four months' instruction. His business now warrants the employment of two assistants, and he is supporting his wife and two children.

Mr. Edward G. received an injury in cranking a truck which totally disabled his right arm. His former employers commended his intelligence and pluck and felt that he might be trained as a foreman in their construction work. In four months he learned to use his left hand for writing and drawing, employing blue prints which they supplied, and went back to the firm for in

struction under a foreman. Two months later he himself was put in charge of a group of men on street work.

Heart disease had made is impossible for Mr. J. K. to work for a year, when his case was brought to the bureau's attention. He worried keenly over his inability to support his wife and two children. His physi. cian agreed to let him try vulcanizing and tire repair. At the end of three months he showed such proficiency that the school at which he was studying engaged him as a teacher. Best of all, the medical reports improved markedly after less than a month of regular work.

HEART OF THE OPEN SHOP ISSUE

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(An Editorial from the Christian Science Monitor Which is a Challenge to the

Organized Union Haters.) NDERLYING the momentous protest of the coal miners and railway em

ployees of the United States against proposed wage reductions, that, if temporarily ended by a compromise still leaves the questions in dispute to be raised again in the near future, there is the deeper and wider issue of the continued existence of the labor unions. During the past four or five years there has been a concerted movement on the part of many great American industrial corporations looking to the elimination of what is known as "the closed shop,” in which such organizations as the National Founders Association, the National Association of Manufacturers, and the National Erectors Association have taken a leading part. The disadvantages of what is said to be Labor control of industry; the regulation of working hours, fixed wage rates for all labor of a certain class without regard to unit efficiency, and limitation on the number of apprentices that are allowed to learn a trade, have been widely submitted to the press and public through the United States Chamber of Commerce and other agencies.

The challenge thrown down by the employers has been met by the trades-union leaders with an unqualified defiance. They insist that the warfare against the closed shop is, in reality, waged against trade unionism in any form, and that the open shop means the destruction of all unions and a return to the long hours and other unfair conditions that so often prevailed before la. bor learned to organize. With the charges and counter charges of union despotism and employers' greed for large profits the impartial onlooker may not be greatly concerned. What is of great importance is the admission by both sides of the existence, even in the most prosperous periods, of large numbers of idle workers who are

forced by their necessities to take the places of men who are "locked out" or "on strike." Many of these unemployed are "non-union" because for some reason they are not permitted to join their trade organ. ization. They are men and women with equal rights to live and to work for a living. But the remedy proposed by the employers, the open shop, will not in any way mend matters. If idle non-union workers take the place of union labor, the displaced workers will then be idle, and there has been no net gain in reducing unemployment.

The urgent duty of both employers and Labor unions is to take a wider view of what is persistently mistermed the conflict between Labor and Capital, for the purpose of finding the causes of involuntary idle. ness, and applying the remedy. There are no indications that the proponents of the “open shop" system have any suggestions to offer for finding work for idle union labor that is replaced by other workers. Until they can devise some practical system under which all willing workers will be given an opportunity to work, they may expect the bitter hostility of organized Labor, and but little sympathy from the general public.

STATE INSURANCE BEST. Sebring, Ohio, Dec. 30.—The speed of the state-controlled compensation insurance for injured workers is shown in the case of William Kind, a member of the Pottery Workers' union, who lost an arm in a brick yard a few weeks ago. Kind was quickly awarded $3,000 to be paid at the rate of $14.45 per week. These payments will therefore continue for four years. The injured man was employed in the brick yard less than half a day when he lost his arm.

If a nation expects to be ignorant and free in a state of civilization, it expects what never was and never will be.—Thomas Jefferson,

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LAW INJUNCTION GREAT MENACE

Revives "Divine Right of Kings" Theory NOTHER organization has been rules that assure protection to all persons, formed in the east to "protect the regardless of their station in life. constitution."

Under government by injunction workers Each member must pledge to maintain are subject to the moods, whims, caprice the fundamental principles of the federal and passions of a single individual who organic act.

smashes these rules, and who is as unfetWill the members of the new organiza- tered as a prairie jack-rabbit. tion do this without playing favorites? And The injunction judge sets up one-man govif they do, how can they avoid condemning ernment. He revives the discarded theory the labor injunction?

of the divine rights of kings. Will the sponsors for the new organization Under government by law this judge is have the courage to remind injunction powerless to vent his prejudices and his judges that this government consists of private opinions. He is guided by the conthree separate and distinct branches-law stitution and by the law-the working rules making, executive and judiciary-and that -which have been passed by the law-makno branch must encroach on another?

ing branch and approved by the executive. Will they notify injunction judges that Under government by injunction the judge under the constitution workers have the is lawmaker, law interpreter and law enright to strike, and that when workers are: forcer. He throws aside the constitution, charged with being parties to a conspiracy denies free speech, free press and popular this is a matter for the executive branch of assemblage, and jails men without trial by the government and not for the judiciary jury. branch?

The law injunction is the greatest menace Will they declare that an attorney gen. to constitutional government that has yet eral or a federal judge who violates one been devised. It is doubly dangerous besingle guarantee of the constitution should cause it is used and defended by alleged be thrown out of office by impeachment pro- friends of the constitution. ceedings?

No patriot can exclude the labor injuncWill this new organization adopt a uni- tion judge from the list of enemies of the form policy toward all constitution wreck- constitution. ers, or will it ignore the anarchist in high Honesty and truth are mocked when men places while it serves big business by op- talk of defending the constitution while they posing progressive legislation on the plea ignore-and even applaud-government by that it is "un-American ?''

injunction. This is the usual system of professional Let labor emphasize this point when these constitution defenders. Their voices are constitution defenders are abroad in the never raicod in defense of human liberty. land. They are only interested in that portion of Pin them down to facts. the constitution which protects dollars.

Force them to publicly explain how the Labor stands for all of the constitution labor injunction process can be justified in because its strict observance means govern- a country that is pledged to government by ment by law-it, means a set of working law.--Exchange.

STOCK DIVIDENDS AND LABOR

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VER a billion and a quarter dollars
in stock dividends have been an-

nounced or actually distributed by seventy-seven leading corporations in the United States during th? months of September, October and November alone.

The Labor Bureau, Inc., has compiled a detailed list of these issues. The total adds up to $1,387,309,000.00.

The list was made up on the basis of public statements appearing in the press, in economic journals and financial information services. It includes nineteen banks, trust and life insurance companies; fifteen oil concerns; ten textile firms; eleven automobile and machinery manufacturers, and twenty-two miscellaneous companies.

Part of the list is given below. Its most sensational features are dividends of 400 per cent, or $500,000,000 issued by the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey; 200 per cent, or $150,000,000 by the Standard of New York; 3313 per cent, or $30,000,000 by the Singer Sewing Machine Co.; 600 per cent, $30,000,000 by the Victor Talking Machine Co.; 200 per cent or $16,600,000 by the Northern Paper Co.; and 900 per cent or $45,000,000 by the Atlantic Refining Co.

The Labor Bureau list is not complete. There have undoubtedly been a large number of stock dividend issues which have never been made public. Some of the largest concerns in the country are close corporations. Their financial affairs are never known except to a small circle of stock

holders. Their dividend records are an unknown quantity.

A Billion and a Half in Melons, It is probably safe to estimate that the stock dividend total during these months has reached the staggering sum of one and a half billions of' dollars. This orgy of melon cutting has probably never before been equalled in American history.

The immediate cause for this particular flood of stock dividends is undoubtedly a desire to avoid the taxation by the Federal Government of corporate surplus which is now threatened. These dividends prove, however, that in spite of the depression, these particular concerns have accumulated enormous surplus accounts. They show that there was no economic justification for these concerns to reduce wages, during the past two years. In this respect they are typical of conditions in large scale industry as a whole. The big concerns have had sufficient surplus to have carried them through the depression without any reduction in wages at all.

Whatever they prove of the past, these stock dividend distributions have an even more immediate interest for Labor. They will make wage increases more difficult in the future. They place an additional charge on the future earnings of these particular firms in favor of the stockholders and at the expense of the workers themselves, which will amount to over one hundred millions of dollars a year.

The new shares of stock which have been issued as dividends will, in turn, require the issuance of cash dividends in the future. In most cases the dividend rate on the new stock has not been announced. Of the four cases where it has been announced, two show increases over the previous rate on the outstanding stock. In one instance the same rate was continued on the new shares and in another the old rate was slightly reduced. The National Biscuit Company, for example, issued a 75 per cent, $30,000,000 stock dividend and placed the dividend rate on the old and new stock at 9 per cent--2 per cent more than the previous dividend level. In the case of the Atlantic Refining Co. it is intimated that the cash dividends to be paid on the new stock will be double the payment on the old shares.

A $140,000,000 Charge on Industry. The Labor Bureau, Inc., has compiled in detail an estimate of how much the dividend payments on the new stock will amount to per year. Assuming in cases where the rates on the new stock are not announced that the existing rates will remain, the total adds up to $143,000,000 a year. This represents the additional charge against earnings which will operate as a block to the pay. ment of future wage increases.

Take these seventy-seven concerns. During the next year they will turn into their treasuries the income they receive from the sale of the goods or of services they pro

duce. During the year the usual proportion of that income will be spent for materials, etc., or be set aside to pay interest on and eventually retire their bonds, to replace worn-out machinery, to expand the business and for other "fixed charges” and reserves. The balance will be available for the payment of wages and dividends.

It is then a simple matter of arithmetic. The more that is paid in dividends the less can be paid in wages. Some $143,000,000 more must now go into dividends, so less can go into wages.

It is true that during the past few years most of these corporations have been earning enough to pay these additional dividends without increasing their prices further or reducing wages. But they have been stowing away their profits in surplus accounts. Now, instead of doing this, they evidently intend to pay more out to shareholders. What the shareholders are going to get in addi. tion to their former returns, labor might receive with no injury to these corporations.

To make the situation even more concrete. Suppose there are 300,000 workers employed in these seventy-six concerns. If it were not for the necessity of paying $140,000,000 extra in dividends next year each worker could get $500 more in his pay envelope. The exact number of workers is not known, but 300,000 is a large estimate. If there are only 150,000 each one could get $1,000 more.

It is significant that of the seventy-seven concerns in the stock dividend list only one is on the list of firms which have granted wage increases since the upward swing of wages began. It is possible that some of the seventy-seven have granted wage increases of which no public mention has been made; but at the most the proportion is negligible.

The connection between stock dividends and the workers' weekly pay envelope is close enough to arouse considerable interest in the present situation among labor univu circles.—The Railroad Worker.

MAKING LABOR LAWS AVAILABLE.

A copy of every law affecting labor that is passed in all the world is sent to the International Labor office at Geneva. Re. gardless of the language in which it is writ. ten it is read and digested. If it is of any importance, if it could be of any use to any student of labor law anywhere else in the world, it is printed. · It is printed in three languages, English, French and German. All such laws passed in a given year are compiled in a weighty volume. They are made available to all the nations. So does it be. come possible for the legislator who, in South Africa, Finland or Chile, is preparing a statute on child labor, factory inspection, or safety devices, to have at his elbow all that has been done elsewhere in the world. It is one of the handy chores that grows out of international co-operation.

A LOYAL PAINTER'S PRAYER.

Proper light and ventilation are absolute

ly necessary to facilitate the proper drying Lord, let me live like a union man

and hardening of varnish.
With union friends and true;
Let me play the game on a union plan
And play that way all through.

It is unwise to borrow trouble till it

knocks at your door. Let me win or lose with a union smile

Many troubles are And never be known to whine,

more imaginary than real. For that is a union fellow's style; And I want to make it mine!

Dignity does far more than arrogant force. Oh, give us a regular chance in life,

Gain the goodwill of your men and they will The same as the rich I pray;

do far more in your interests. And give me a union girl for wife To help me along the way.

Pure Indian red, like red oxide, must be

thinned out as thin as it can be worked to Let me know the lot of humanity,

insure best color when used by itself. Union woes and joys, And raise a union family

When mixing tints in a light shop rememOf union girls and boys!

ber that the color will not look the same Let me live to a good old age,

when used in a comparatively dark room. With honest snow white hair, Having done my labor and earned my wage, There is a possibility of wasted money And played my game for fair,

being acccumulated again; it does not go And so at last when people scan

out of existence. But wasted time is lost My face on its peaceful bier,

and gone for ever. They'll say, “Well, he was a union man," And drop a friendly tear!

Good brushes are just as essential as good paints, and it is just as necessary to use the right brush at the right time as it is to use

the right material. Pointers For Painters

Don't bewilder a man by piling on him too many instructions at a time. It is like putting his head in a sack, so that he's

bound to walk into a hole. Clealiness may be regarded as the first cardinal principle in the painter's business. Gold size of any sort should be used as

sparingly as possible to secure the finest Not to control, but to help others control effects. That is, care should be taken to themselves; that is the fine art of managing apply it thin, rather than thick.

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OFFICIAL

DEMAND UNION MADE WALL PAPER.

The National Association of Machine Printers and Colormixers of the United States is making a hard fight to win its struggle and in a communication just received urges all the members of the Brotherhood to demand union made wall paper at all times.

Approximately two-fifths of their entire

Doerr, has passed into the Great Beyond, and

WHEREAS, Sister Doerr was a successful worker and a true friend to all; therefore, be it

Resolved, That the charter of this organization be draped for thirty days and that we extend to Brother Doerr and family our most sincere sympathy; and be it further

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be spread upon the minutes of our meeting and a copy sent to Brother Doerr and family and one to the headquarters for publication. (Signed) MRS. GEO. A. JOHNSTON,

MYRTLE CUNNINGHAM,
ANNA PETRI,
MINNIE E. WEAVER,
LAVINA BROCKER,
MRS. CLARA FREEMAN,
MRS. GRACE SMITH,
MRS. ELSIE GEORGE,
MRS. F. RAYMER.

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membership has been locked out for the past seventeen and one-half months and they are still at grips with the open shoppers.

The secretary writes:

"We believe this fight of ours to be one of the most desperate struggles the so-called 'open shop' movement has forced upon any organization and we are staking everything to win; therefore, every bit of assistance the members of the Brotherhood can give is greatly appreciated.

“Our fight has attracted wide attention throughout the labor movement and we have had many letters congratulating our membership for the loyalty and steadfast tenacity with which the Union principle is guarded.”

FINED Brothers J. A. Solomon, No. 64255; Willis T. Holden, No. 128307; A. D. Griggs, No. 129125; D. B. Beal, No. 102258; S. C. Faulkner,

No. 101863; Raymond Corley, No. 150839; Wm. H. Martin, No. 92828; H. C. Ray, No. 145136, of L. U. 432, Montgomery, Ala.

Brothers John Fellows, No. 157333, and George Smith, No. 88478, of L. U. 970, Charleston, W. Va.

WATCH YOUR BENEFITS.

DUE BOOKS LOST. of Brother Archie H. Conrad, No. 90632, a member of L. U. 9, Kansas City, Mo. If found please forward to S. M. McConnell, F. S., of L. U. 9, 3228 Oak St., Kansas City, Mo.

Of Brothers J. A. Haag, W. H. Snedacor and Gerald Robinson, members of L. U. 555, of Portsmouth, Ohio. If found please forward to M. O. Neary, 1943 20th St., Portsmouth, Ohio.

Of Brother Cornelius Hickey, No. 43017, a member of L. U. 844, of Greenfield, Mass. If found please forward to A. Beaulac, F. S., of L. U. 844, 140 High St., Greenfield, Mass.

Local Unions in Arrears. Any L. U. becoming two months in arrears for per capita tax to the General Office shall at once be notified by the G. S.-T., and failing to settle all arrearages within twenty-one days from date of such notice its members shall not be entitled to benefits except where the local union is on strike or locked out, or for equally sufficient reasons is given an extension of time in which to make pay. ments. Section 15 of the Constitution,

Unions two months in arrears on closing ac. counts December 31st, 1922: 152, 235, 252, 330,

338, 353,

369, 384, 397, 439, 472, 509, 529, 573, 600, 606, 651, 710, 725, 726,

739, 746, 756, 760, 812, 840, 859, 865, 872,

879, 914, 915, 934, 945, 1000, 1027, 1041, 1047, 1060, 1068, 1080, 1084, 1113, 1129, 1131, 1132, 1133, 1169, 1184, 1243, 1264, 1267, 1286, 1289, 1311, 1328, 1339, 1340.

846, 973,

The union label is the medium through which the public may enforce its rightful power of arbitrament between employer and employe.

RESOLUTION ON DEATH OF

SISTER IDA DOERR. WHEREAS, We, the Ladies' Auxiliary No. 5, of Local Union No. 79, Denver, Colorado, of the Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers, have received word that our beloved Sister and Past President, Ida

Decay is the enemy of structures, and paint the foe of decay.

Limit your line of business to your qualifications.

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