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Further still, the present state, the settled funds, the government of the University, with the regulations of private colleges; the condition of the press, with an account of the books printed, and a comparison, in regard to its finances, condition, and management, with the Clarendon-press at Oxford, all these things might afford some amusement, and are naturally enough connected with the Literary History of the University of Cambridge.

But each of the above subjects, with suitable reflections, might form a distinct chapter, and all together, compose a tolerable volume: a brief zigzag account would have been trifling, scarcely consistent with the dignity of history; and one, extended, would have been too multifarious for my present views : so I shall pass them. He who wishes to be amused, and properly in

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* I cannot help noticing here, that the first book supposed by Mr. G. North to have been printed here, was only compiled; it was printed at St. Alban's in 1480. The Correspondence between Mr. North and Mr. Ames on the subject may be seen, vol. v. p. 431, of Nicholsos Anecdotes, and the matter is set right by Mr. Ames, Typograph. Antiq. vol. v. 431, by Herbert. Mr. A. supposes the book first printed at Cambridge was in 1521.

Nor can I forbear just noticing one extraordinary improvement, introduced into the printing office, by means of the Stanhope stereotype press, by which the copies of more saleable books are wonderfully multiplied ; which, whether it be a discovery, or only the realizing of a discovery, and giving effect to it, matters not; it is an improvement of prodigious extent and utility, for which we are indebted to the ingenious nobleman, whose name it bears: he has carried the same principle into engravings, which may be multiplied in a similar proportion: the new Porsonian Greek type, also, (called after the late Greek professor, who introduced it) may be mentioned as an improvement on, and giving a more elegant and beautiful form to, the Greek letters. Specimens of this type may be seen in Mr. Blomfield's edition of Æschylus's Prometheus, and in Mr. Monk's edition of Euripides's Hippolytus Coronifer.

formed on these particulars, will do well to consult the several treatises in the notes a.

I shall just add here, that the hostels, or inns, were, even in Dr. Caius's time, seventeen, besides three hospitals for regulars. The colleges and halls are now sixteen; the members two thousand three hundred. By the Population Abstract, May, 1811, the resident members at Oxford were one thousand and fifteen; at Cambridge, eight hundred and fourteen.--So to proceed in order with our Colleges.

a Hints respecting some of the University Officers, its Jurisdiction, its Revenues, &c. of the University of Cambridge. By Robert Plumptre, D. D. late Master of Queen's College.-Au Account of Ceremonies and Customs, &c. By Mr. Wall, late Fellow of Christ College.--An Account of Officers, Forms in taking Degrees, &c. By Mr. Beverley, one of the present Esquire-beadles; The Cambridge Guide, and University Calendars: though, indeed, several of the matters above referred to are to be found in two or three of the Histories of Cambridge.

V

VOL. I.

APPENDIX.

a

I HAVE hinted, more than once, in the preceding volume, that my history would not attempt a detail in regard to academical habits, degrees, &c.: but a friend having asked me the meaning of the term, Bachelor of Arts, and suggested whether bachelor did not mean bas chevalier, an inferior knight, I was led to see the expediency of saying something, at least, on degrees, previously to beginning the next volume, where the word will be perpetually recurring: and so, finding two or three pages at the end unoccupied, I place my few observations where the introduction of them will not interrupt the general course of the history.

It has already been observed, that our college-language is derived from the church and monastery. In the first Christian churches, Bishops, or Presbyters, (I have nothing to do here with the dispute, whether they were different, or the same officers,) and Deacons were two orders, or degrees. They that have used the office of a deacon well purchase to themselves a good DEGREE. i Tim. ii. 13. wipowosourtai alienam rem sibi vindicant, Budæi

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Comment. Ling. Græc. p. 663. Dr. Harwood, in his Greek Test. vol. ii. p. 139, on the word, salpov, observes, Bapov, a step, i. e. they lay a good foundation for the mi

a nisterial office, and quotes Livy: Graduq. eo jam via ad consulatum videbatur.—The Doctor, however, should have said, the episcopal, pastoral, or presbyter's office, for Alaxova was the ministerial office. In the writings of the apostolical fathers, Clement’s and Ignatius's Epistles, &c. (whatever authority we choose to allow them) great stress is laid on these distinct orders, or degrees.

Some of our Saxon ancestors had, very early, seven degrees in the church. Thus, in the laws of Wightræd, King of Kent, “ the gifts of the Holy Spirit, it is said, are sevenfold; and and there are seven ranks of ecclesiastical degrees stæpar rýndan cyrıclicra zraa. Orders is another name for degrees. Augustine, in the old Salisbury Breviary, is said to have been admitted to the order or degree of presbyter, and afterwards admitted to the order, or degree of a bishop, the word, as it is well known, still retained in the English church; but when we speak of deacons orders, priests orders, strictly speaking, we talk incorrectly, though the phrase is sanctioned by custom. From the church the word passed into monasteries and colleges. Even in nunneries, deaconesses, and abbatesses, &c. were abbatissæ, diaconissæ, &c. were ordinata.

Whence we immediately get our degrees of B. A. and M. A. of B. D. and D. D. &c. (and more particularly in reference to the word, bachelor,) when they were first introduced, and whence the word itself is derived, is not so clear as to admit of no dispute. The batchelor, in ancient writings, is sometimes called baccalaurus, sometimes bacculaurus, or baculaurus, and, in the French and old Norman, bacheler, bachelier, bachiler.

As to the baccalaurus, derived, as some say, from the bacca lauri, the laurel, or ivy, with which he was crowned, if any custom had prevailed of crowning the incipients in the arts and sciences, as they are called, the A. B.s and B. D.s, &c. with the laurel or bay, we might sit down content with that etymology: but the laurus Apollinaris has, if I mistake not, been always appropriated to the poet, and the practice of crowning the archipoeta with laurel, continued in Italy till a very late period. We have all heard of a laureated poet, but I have not, at least, heard of a laureated A. B.

a

Salve, brassicea virens corona,
Et lauro, archipoeta, pampinoq.
Dignus principis auribus Leonis.

Vid. Stradæ Prolusion: p. 222.

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Dr. Johnson's “most probable derivation,” in his Dic. tionary, “ from bachelors being young, and of good hopes, like the berry of a laurel, or bay,” is too ridiculous to deserve notice: and when the learned Dufresne talks of bajulare, il quali mostrava gran baculare, cioe gran dottore:” as he deals only in generals, without producing authorities, it amounts to nothing. The same, also, may be

, said of Dr. Cowel's passage from Rhenanus, “ A bacillo nominati sunt quia primi studii authoritatem, quæ per exhibitionem baculi considebatur,jam consecuti fuissent.” See Dr. Cowel's INTERPRETER. For I do not remember to have heard more of the bachelor's staff, than of his laurel.

A bachelor is defined the first degree, taken in any faculty, to arrive at a doctorate; it might be added, or mastership, for, in our old university records we have no

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