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are otherwise in accordance with the limitations applicable to national banks under section 5136 of the Revised Statutes. (12

U.S.C. 24) (6) For the purposes of this Act, any successor to a bank holding company shall be deemed to be a bank holding company from the date on which the predecessor company became a bank holding company.

(b) “Company” means any corporation, partnership, business trust, association, or similar organization, or any other trust unless by its terms it must terminate within twenty-five years or not later than twenty-one years and ten months after the death of individuals living on the effective date of the trust, but shall not include any corporation the majority of the shares of which are owned by the United States or by any State. "Company covered in 1970" means a company which becomes a bank holding company as a result of the enactment of the Bank Holding Company Act Amendments of 1970 and which would have been a bank holding company on June 30, 1968, if those amendments had been enacted on that date. (c) BANK DEFINED. For purposes of this Act

(1) IN GENERAL.-Except as provided in paragraph (2), the term "bank” means any of the following:

(A) An insured bank as defined in section 3(h) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act.

(B) An institution organized under the laws of the United States, any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, any territory of the United States, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, or the Virgin Islands, which both

(i) accepts demand deposits or deposits that the depositor may withdraw by check or similar means for payment to third parties or others; and

(ii) is engaged in the business of making commercial

loans. (2) EXCEPTIONS.—The term "bank” does not include any of the following:

(A) A foreign bank which would be a bank within the meaning of paragraph (1) solely because such bank has an insured or uninsured branch in the United States.

(B) An insured institution (as defined in subsection ()).

(C) An organization that does not do business in the United States except as an incident to its activities outside the United States.

(D) An institution that functions solely in a trust or fiduciary capacity, if

(i) all or substantially all of the deposits of such institution are in trust funds and are received in a bona fide fiduciary capacity;

(ii) no deposits of such institution which are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation are offered or marketed by or through an affiliate of such institution;

(iii) such institution does not accept demand deposits or deposits that the depositor may withdraw by check or similar means for payment to third parties or others or make commercial loans; and (iv) such institution does not

(I) obtain payment or payment related services from any Federal Reserve bank, including any service referred to in section 11A of the Federal Reserve Act; or

(II) exercise discount or borrowing privileges pursuant to section 19(bX7) of the Federal Reserve

Act. (E) A credit union (as described in section 19(b)(1XAXiv) of the Federal Reserve Act). (F) An institution which

(i) engages only in credit card operations;

(ii) does not accept demand deposits or deposits that the depositor may withdraw by check or similar means for payment to third parties or others;

(iii) does not accept any savings or time deposit of less than $100,000;

(iv) maintains only one office that accepts deposits; and

(v) does not engage in the business of making commercial loans. (G) An organization operating under section 25 or section 25(a) of the Federal Reserve Act.

(H) An industrial loan company, industrial bank, or other similar institution which is

(i) an institution organized under the laws of a State which, on March 5, 1987, had in effect or had under consideration in such State's legislature a statute which required or would require such institution to obtain insurance under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act

(I) which does not accept demand deposits that the depositor may withdraw by check or similar means for payment to third parties;

(II) which has total assets of less than $100,000,000; or

(III) the control of which is not acquired by any company after the date of the enactment of the

Competitive Equality Amendments of 1987; or (ii) an institution which does not, directly, indirectly, or through an affiliate, engage in any activity in

which it was not lawfully engaged as of March 5, 1987, except that this subparagraph shall cease to apply to any institution which permits any overdraft (including any intraday overdraft), or which incurs any such overdraft in such institution's account at a Federal Reserve bank, on behalf of an affiliate if such overdraft is not the result of an inadvertent computer or accounting error that is beyond the control of both the institution and the affiliate.

(I) The Investors Fiduciary Trust Company, located in Kansas City, Missouri, so long as such institution

(i) engages only in trust, fiduicary, and agency activities in which it was lawfully engaged on March 5, 1987;

(ii) engages in such activities only at the same number of locations at which such activities were conducted on such date;

(iii) does not accept demand deposits ohter than demand deposits which are maintained by such institution in

(I) a trust or fiduciary capacity;

(II) the institution's capacity as a custodian or as a paying, transfer, shareholder servicing, securities clearing, escrow, or dividend disbursing agent; or

(III) any capacity which is incidental to the trust or fiduciary activities of the institution; (iv) does not engage in the business of making commercial loans;

(v) does not exercise discount or borrowing privileges pursuant to section 19(b)(7) of the Federal Reserve Act; and

(vi) is not directly or indirectly controlled by any company other than a company which directly or indi

rectly controlled such institution on March 5, 1987. (J) A savings bank (as defined in section 3(g) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act) which

(i) is an insured bank (as defined in section 3(h) of such Act);

(ii) is a subsidiary of the Great Western Financial Corporation as a result of an approval in writing by the State bank supervisor of the State of New York before June 30, 1987;

(iii) meets or exceeds the investment requirements which an insured institution must meet in order to be a qualified thrift lender under section 408(o) of the National Housing Act; and

(iv) does not, directly, or through insurance products such savings bank receives from or provides to the Great Western Financial Corporation, engage in the

sale or underwriting of insurance, except that this subparagraph shall cease to apply with respect to such savings bank or any successor institution if any deposits of any other subsidiary or affiliate of the Great Western Financial Corporation which are subject to an assessment of an insurance premium under subsection (b) or (c) of section 404 of the National Housing Act are, directly or indirectly by any device whatsoever, transfered to or acquired by such savings bank or any successor institution which would have the effect of materially reducing such premium assessments. The exemption provided by this subparagraph shall cease to apply if Great Western

Financial Corporation uses such savings bank or any successor institution as a vehicle to move such Corporation from Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation insurance to Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation insur

ance. (3) DISTRICT BANK.—The term “District bank” means any bank operating under the Code of Law for the District of Co

lumbia. (d) “Subsidiary”, with respect to a specified bank holding company, means (1) any company 25 per centum or more of whose voting shares (excluding shares owned by the United States or by any company wholly owned by the United States) is directly or indirectly owned or controlled by such bank holding company, or is held by it with power to vote; (2) any company the election of a majority of whose directors is controlled in any manner by such bank holding company; or (3) any company with respect to the management or policies of which such bank holding company has the power, direc ly or indirectly, to exercise a controlling influence, as determined by the Board, after notice and opportunity for hearing.

(e) The term "successor" shall include any company which acquires directly or indirectly from a bank holding company shares of any bank, when and if the relationship between such company and the bank holding company is such that the transaction effects no substantial change in the control of the bank or beneficial ownership of such shares of such bank. The Board may, by regulation, further define the term "successor" to the extent necessary to pre vent evasion of the purposes of this Act.

(f) "Board" means the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. (g) For the purposes of this Act,

(1) shares owned or controlled by any subsidiary of a bank holding company shall be deemed to be indirectly owned or controlled by such bank holding company;

(2) shares held or controlled directly or indirectly by trustees for the benefit of (A) a company, (B) the shareholders or members of a company, or (C) the employees (whether exclusively or not) of a company, shall be deemed to be controlled by such company; and

(3) shares transferred after January 1, 1966, by any bank holding company (or by any company which, but for such transfer, would be a bank holding company) directly or indirectly to any transferee that is indebted to the transferor, or has one or more officers, directors, trustees, or beneficiaries in common with or subject to control by the transferor, shall be deemed to be indirectly owned or controlled by the transferor unless the Board, after opportunity for hearing, determines that the transferor is not in fact capable of controlling the

transferee. (h)1) Except as provided by paragraph (2), the application of this Act and of section 23A of the Federal Reserve Act (12 U.S.C. 371), as amended, shall not be affected by the fact that a transaction takes place wholly or partly outside the United States or that a company is organized or operates outside the United States.

(2) Except as provided in paragraph (3), the prohibitions of section 4 of this Act shall not apply to shares of any company organized under the laws of a foreign country (or to shares held by such company in any company engaged in the same general line of business as the investor company or in a business related to the business of the investor company) that is principally engaged in business outside the United States if such shares are held or acquired by a bank holding company organized under the laws of a foreign country that is principally engaged in the banking business outside the United States. For the purpose of this subsection, the term "section 2(h)(2) company" means any company whose shares are held pursuant to this paragraph.

(3) Nothing in paragraph (2) authorizes a section 2(h)(2) company to engage in (or acquire or hold more than 5 percent of the outstanding shares of any class of voting securities of a company engaged in) any banking, securities, insurance, or other financial activities, as defined by the Board, in the United States. This paragraph does not prohibit a section 2(h)(2) company from holding shares that were lawfully acquired before the date of enactment of the Competitive Equality Banking Act of 1987.

(4) No domestic office or subsidiary of a bank holding company or subsidiary thereof holding shares of a section 2(h)(2) company may extend credit to a domestic office or subsidiary of such section 2(h)(2) company on terms more favorable than those afforded similar borrowers in the United States.

(5) No domestic banking office or bank subsidiary of a bank holding company that controls a section 2(h)(2) company may offer or market products or services of such section 20h2) company, or permit its products or services to be offered or marketed by or through such section 2(h)(2) company, unless such products or services were being so offered or marketed as of March 5, 1987, and then only in the same manner in which they were being offered or marketed as of that date.

(i) THRIFT INSTITUTION.- For purposes of this Act, the term “thrift institution" means

(1) any domestic building and loan or savings and loan association;

(2) any cooperative bank without capital stock organized and operated for mutual purposes and without profit;

(3) any Federal savings bank; and

(4) any State-chartered savings bank the holding company of which is registered pursuant to section 408 of the National

Housing Act. () INSURED INSTITUTION.-For purposes of this Act, the term "insured institution” has the meaning given to such term in section 408(a)(1) of the National Housing Act.

(k) AFFILIATE.-For purposes of this Act, the term "affiliate" means any company that controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with another company.

(1) SAVINGS BANK HOLDING COMPANY.–For purposes of this Act, the term "savings bank holding company” means any company which controls one or more qualified savings banks if the aggregate total assets of such savings banks constitute, upon formation of the

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