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109. Limitations on exclusive rights Effect of transfer of particular copy or

phonorecord. 110 Limitations on exclusive rights: Exemption of certain performances and

displays 111 Limitations on exclusive rights Secondary transmissions 112. Limitations on exclusive rights Ephemeral recordings. 113 Scope of exclusive rights in pictorial. graphic, and sculptural works 114. Scope of exclusive rights in sound recordings. 115, scope of exclusive rights in nondramatir musical works Compulsory lleense

for making and distributing phonorecords 116 Scope of exclusive rights in nondramatic musent works 'ublic perform

anoes by means of inowrated phonoreord players 117 Scope of exclusive rights l'se in conjunction with computers and similar

information systems. $ 101. Definitions

Is used in this title, the following terms and their variant forms mean the following:

An "anonymous work" is a work on the copies or phonorecords of which no natural person is identified as author.

“ Audiovisual works" are works that consist of a series of related images which are intrinsically intended to be shown by the use of machines or devices such as projectors, viewers, or electronic equipment, together with accompanying sounds, if any, regardless of the nature of the material objects, such as films or tapes, in which the works are embodied.

The best editions of a work is the edition, published in the l'nited States at any time before the date of depoxit, that the Li. brary of Congress determines to be front suitable for its purpes.

A person's "children“ are his immediate offspring, whether legitimate or not, and any children legally adopted by him.

A "collective work" 18 a #ork, such as a periodical issue, anthology, or encyclopedin, in which a number of contributions, constituting separate and independent works in themselves, are

mbled into a collective whole.

*compilation is a work formed by the collection and armbling of pre existing materials or of data that are we tel, coordnated, or in such a way that the resulting work as a whole constitute an original work of author hip. Te term "com pilation" in ludes collective work.

*(opies are material objects, other than phonorereriis, in which A work in tiard by any method now known or later develop 1, and from which the work can be pemeived, reproduced, or otherwise



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12 d in this title, the following terms and the following:

!'". Po "anonymous work" ze a work on the net

comin'inicated, either directly or with the mul of a devine The term "roprier" includes the material est pot, A phonorerunt, in which the work is first fixed

"Copyright owner," with respect to any one of th. nights comprised in a copyright, or fute to the owner or fa- ular night

A work is "createdl" when it is fixed in a mopy esp po for the first timor : where a work prepared over a the pwrth of it that has been fired at any partar kitutes the work ne of that time, and where the wor prepared in different versions, rach versjon atstitutes Work

A derivative Work" 18 & work bend us on otro works out as a translation, musical arta', Miraton, fortunalizat o motion picture non s. ing. art reproducts, sbridgment, rundeneat 107, et form in which a work may be recaet, transformed on a work emelding of additrial trvane annulat or eller me1.f atouts wido, as # wole, reports Wool of abort,'spa"derivatusr work

A devine." ma ne." or "pper" sette term n developed

11 "doplay" means to be acopofter, et by means of a fim, ad te, tele*'s.tsh .apr. 13* * * or pt 11, the awf a meteo . fltr t work to w 11.v .alin.Agrupp: Sre post.t 'n

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udiovisual works" are work that was born 11
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ney or devices surh ms projetore pune in commodo
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N. I enten, oming ite or not, and any hurtres


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expressed in words, numbers, or other verbal or numerical symbols or indicia, regardless of the nature of the material objects, such as books, periodicals, manuscripts, phonorecords, or film, in which they are embodied.

“Motion pictures" are audiovisual works consisting of a series of related images which, when shown in succession, impart an impression of motion, together with accompanying sounds, if any.

To “perform" a work means to recite, render, play, dance, or act it, either directly or by means of any device or process or, in the case of a motion picture or other audiovisual work, to show its images in any sequence or to make the sounds accompanying it audible.

** Phonorecords" are material objects in which sounds other than those accompanying a motion picture or other audiovisual work, are fixed by any method now known or later developrd, and from which the sounds can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated, either directly or with the aid of a machine or device.

The term “phonorecords" includes the material object in which the sounds are first fixed,

"Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works" include two-dimensional and three dimensional works of fine, graphie, and applud art, photographs, prints and art reproductions, maps, glotes, charts, plans, diagrams, and models.

A "pudonymous work" is a work on the copies or płonorecords, of which the author is identified under a fictitious name.

**Publication" is the di tubution of copies or phonorwords of a work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownerlup, or by rental, lease, or lending. The offering to distribute copies or phonorecords to a group of persons for purpose of further distribution, public performance, or public display, constitutes publication. A puble [verformance or display of a work does not of it-fontitute publkation. Top»rfonnor d.-play a work "publely" means

ali to perform ordipay it at a place open to the public or at any place u'rere sul tant al number of persons outside of a normalar. le of a family and its *la) arjua intances is patirred;

(a) to tratent or others. communicate a performance or display of the work to a place sp*ified by clause (1) or to the putolus, ty means of any desice or process, whether the

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members of the publie capable of meerving the or display mere it in the same place or in and at the same time or at different times

Sound reording" are works that result from t} a series of musxal, spken, or other sounds, but not i sans accompanying a motion picture or other slutter regards of the nature of the material object«, si tapes, or other phonorcords, in which they are emba

wscate" includes the District of Columbia and t} wealth of Puerto Rim, and any territories to whuko male applicable by an art of (ongrum

A stransfer of copyright ownership is an axe. Kate, exclusive license, or any other conveyanır, a huuherst son of a mpyright or of any of the exil comprised in a coprnight, whether or not it is liste place of effert but not including a nonexiune lux

transmiwem program" se bwwly of materia' upgru gate, has been proudurned for the sole purpoft to the public in urne and as a unit

To tranenit". performance or display in to rep by any device or proxrom whereby image of wat lo besuad the place from wherh they are sent

The t'nited Watrewhen used in a geographs pruss the surnal tatra the Darset of (volumbis ar

wraith of Purrto R.m, at the orga! el terris the scheren of the Unitel neaten (jenernment

A wwwlul areu le* is an art to having an interfun turn that is het merel, to portray the awar art, bee to comuni in format set in artrebe that saveurs of filerte jen verdered a " ful artile

The birth o fer" or " lewer the Bible *made under the law of his fire at the time whether of the small bus later turistene

of the Inted states paremment be an

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(2) a work specially ordered or commissioned for use as a contribution to a collective work, as a part of a motion pic. ture or other audiovisual work, as a translation, as a supplementary work, as a compilation, as an instructional text, as a test, as answer material for a test, as a photographic or other portrait of one or more persons, or as an atlas, if the parties expressly agree in a written instrument signed by them that the work shall be considered a work made for hire. A "supplementary work“ is a work prepared for publication as a secondary adjunct to a work by another author for the purpose of introducing, concluding, illustrating, explaining, revising, commenting upon, or assisting in the use of the other work, such as forewords, afterwords, pictorial illustrations, maps, charts, tables, editorial notes, musical arrangements, answer material for tests, bibliographies, appendixes, and indexes. In "instructional text“ is a literary, pictorial, or graphic work prepared for publication with the purpose of

use in systematic instructional activities.
8 102. Subject matter of copyright: In general

(a) Copyright protection subsists, in accordance with this title, in original works of authorxhip fixed in any tangible medium of expression, now known or later deseloped, from which they can be perceived, reproduced, or otheruine communicated, either directly or with the aid of a nachine or desser. Works of authorship include the following categories:

(1) literary works;
(2) musical works, including any accompanying worle;
(3) dramatic works, including any accompanying musir;
(4) pantomimes and choreographic works;
(3) pictorial.graphic, and sculptural works;
16) motion purtures and other audiovisual works;

in fund ordings
ih) In no race dos copsrght protection for an original work of
authonnapextend to any idea, plan, proudure, process, stem. Irthol
of operation, concept, prin sple, or discovery, regardless of the form
in which it in den model. explained, illustrated, or embed in such
$ 10.3. Subject matter of copyright: (Compilations and derivative

works mm) The erstappent matter of copyright prenestie lig menetron im in


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