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within each box, indicating a specific market type / system
location, we further consider the two or three most likely lineups
of available local signals. While we have not reported every
combination which can occur, the cases tabulated are representative
of the majority of signal patterns to be encountered and they
cover a degree of variation sufficient to include most other
hang mengey of liepose prohibiting other television stations or CATV systems
be sme material. The product is composed mainly of the following . .. - maliy orst-run entertainment or documentary material with two
1 Tha year term. ingen Dries -Primarily half-hours with 26 to 39 originals and sufficien *, ! Si ma-week telecast schedule on a once-a-week basis (i.e., 26 & 2
bris, or 39 & 13 as in Price Is Right). Some strip programming is
*:&' My Line, Truth Or Consequences) running five a week with 19: of sign uprais being typical. Another major form is the talk/variety
RSS a Mike Douglas, Mery Griffin and Dinah Shore. Because of the ...! pin rani content, very few repeats are produced. First-run con 315" w ir a obe-year period of time.
- Ttop spries which achieve network success and build up a miejseans of por duction are valuable to the syndicated market. They ar
Bu Han's Heroes, I Love Lucy, Adam-12) or hour (Perry Lomasu se. Marcus Welby) in length. Contracts run anywhere from tw n es una ed runs with six typical. Usual contract terms cover five to sever
tkara Product -- This is older series product, mostly off-network, that i
e duration Honeymooners, Have Gun Will Travel). Usually one o 1"**** "ract term of one to two years in selective markets. igier find 'ommon trend is to sell the networks first and syndicat The Set Wat wpular packages carry 20 to 30 pictures and terms are five t ring with spoten runs of each feature. Older features recycled are re oma the latter titles continuing television exposure and the poorer title
I then awhiduling of syndicated product
g*** Mum affiliate stations (ABC, CBS, NBC) in the eastern time zon .! 1!" maltime periods to fill : *1! am. 1 :13igean uitininen. (with the exception of network news).
enters into marketplace detemination of the value of the product and the main of advertising. The following material provided by a major syndicator
m apa plier of network programming, contains pertinent information about tb matters.
Netscork Programming (Commercial) (1) Definition
Network programming is television programming broadcast on one of the thre commercial 1.8, television networks on a national interconnected la* V contracts between program suppliers and the three networks (arry an elit." clause granting the network the exclusive right to broadcast the program for a stated period of time. This exclusivity commonly prohibits the supera licensing the programs to the other television networks or to any telesin. tions or CATV systems in the exclusivity area, which is usually the ** ritories and possessions, and English language Puerto Rico. There are 3 4 minor variations among the networks as to the exclusivity area (, to id ad Bermuda or Tijuana, Mexico). (2) Types of Programming
(A) Prime Time (7:00 p.m. to 11:00 p.m., except Central and Mountain tis zones : 6:00 p.mn. to 10:00 p.m.)
In prime time the most common types of programming are ball-hour and. hour series. In addition, the networks program theatrical feature films majet television feature films, entertainment serials, news and some public a n du umentaries and specials and some sports events in prime time.
(B) Day-time Monday-Friday Programming. The great majority of pargris ming in this time period on the networks consist of game shows, quia sbow, tad shows and soap operas
(0) Saturday Morning Programming.- Most programming on Saturday Den ing on the networks in children's programming, a considerable portion of whxh in animation.
(D) Late Erening - Each of the three networks takes a different approach to late evening programming (post-prime time). One network programs talk ab , another programs feature fiims and the third prograins a mixture of marin
types of programming ranging from variety specials to dramatic shows produced e rially for that time period.
Most of the programming referred to in (A) through (D) above (eIcepe free sport, news and public aflairs) is supplied to the networks by ontside ituni. ? and supplier In addition, the network, themselves prexury and broadcast Dan and public affairs programming and additional sports programming at anes times during the work with rial emphasis on news and public erat a
morts on Saturday and Sunday afternoon as well as early evening news abe during each weekday. (3) The program suppliers
As indicata alve, most of the entertainment programming omadenst hr the the national ( metrial networks are supplied by entities unath.iated with the networks. These are primarily the major motion picture companies and Idee mndent producer. The networks in whole or in part tinanor the developile of this programming hy drancing the fint of stories outline, rigene A. and the like In exchanep for trancing the various steps of driraportit, te bet work r iv* an excele opt to license the financed program or pira. It agradu nirense fees in the case of television series, the network option cntinue far from tive to seven years of product. 14) ("mpensation
A indtodabre, the progrnin suppliers are connated by the pets . the porr1111. tak they suo The Dirtwork also m eate the individual tos are the entry which carry the network programming in an will allation arimetite which exist wwen Roh network and its athute states in def1'the stations w lewal advertintommercial timp d'anat to ****ork priam ! Which te of the larger nudienos prehrard
putnork p a nnot... .and higher prices than oter local time. The Del * k revive their ( sation froth national advertisers who purchase adref tising time on the network
Syndication in Deinition
T 1 , n = .*** to the leasing of proxTatrimning to individual statture et by city e Mint ittract (arry an exclusivity clau quering or
* 200 gram pa news usually fill the 6:00-7:30 pm time period and th
c up period. Features are used afternoon and late night weel *. . in prime time and as five-a-week early shows which are on
male part of the day for the syndicator is 7:30-8:00p.m. for first
trashing. The second most valuable part is 4:30-6:00 pm Ty whis, od network syndication and feature films taking tim
N ont Riations. Independents have a poorer circulation in the day pa a much for this area. It's primarily used for the multiple ru e v eral shows. Since most affiliates attract an older audienc
"1.& far.ry and news programming in late afternoon and evenin *** . li basically target their counterprogramming to the kidu ..
rial is primarily off-network series (I Love Lucy, Star Trel 1!1! ** Audy Griffith. Flintstones, Gilligan's Island). The 8:00-11:0 * ** apirised of ninety minute talk, variety shows, feature film .. 1!! pk series. Most all Monday to Friday programming i ** 3 series each day in time period).
Dono le rationa llengua and are not on the philosophy that the biggest markets with th ...
the biggest prices (New York, and the smaller markets pa ***pt ppriportionately (Zanesville, Ohio). This is tempered
atpons and artistic merit of new program offerings (Mar ***
le haute desirable than the Doris Day series and thus se **. rlars Supply and demand, plus the skill of the negotiator, pla -7 *..anning at a final price in each market.
in un advertising-supported stations' basic goal is to attract Pl. : he proper selection of programming. This audion "*
and told to advertisers primarily through alatwald be shown through the use o
from the city of license prohibiting other television stations or CATV systems frot using the same material. The product is composed mainly of the following:
1 *piale. Cually first-run entertainment or documentary material with two teie te over a year term.
2 birst kun mennesPrimarily half hours with 26 to 39 originals and sufficient previsto all out a sorok Telecast schedule on a once-a-week basis (ie, 20 & 26 a* . (ue's Giris, or 30 & 13 as in Price In Right). Some strip programming is offered What My Line, Truth Or (onsequen ) running five a week with 195 webows and r ais kring typical Another major form is the talk variety
*** such as Mike Douglas Meri Griffin and Dinah Shore Ber". Un of the Hallure of the program (uutent, very few repats are produced. First-run con. Iraitaarr usually for a one year period of time,
3 of twork Those series which achiere network sury and build up at Iraut ftur years of production are valuable to the syndicatad market. They are usually half hour logan lleruen. I lave Lucy. Adatn 12) or hour (Herry Mawn Ironside, Marius Welby) in length ('ontracts run anywhere from two runs tu unlimited runs with six typical. I mual contract terms cover five to seven yran
4. ('atalog Product - This is older series product, mostly off-Detwork, that is aald for a short duration (lloneymooners, linse Gun Will Travel) txually oue or two runs with contract term of one to two years in mlective markets
& Irature tuma. totumon trend is to sell the network first and syndicate met network Mant l ar jackage** carry 20 to 30 pictures and terms are five to
'n years with fue to ten runs of each feature. Older features reyeded are re fined with the better tities (ubtinuing television elurr and the f**rer titles
ng on the shelf. IR dation scheduling of syndicated product
1 mlote. Wrot amliate stations (ABC, CBS, NBC) in the eastern time zone hasell.e following lawal umur periods to all :
an to 10 (am. 1 (0 pm to 1 301 poena 4 ) ponto de pen (with the excrption of network nex). 11 ) pin to 11 dpo
Tawal and network ne peally all the 600 7 30 pin time pred and the 11 D11 Wrn me r
entures are used afteftinif And late that work prio prepone in prime time and a fura-s* enriy shows which are on a
T'f1st valuable art of the day for the syndicator la 19 ( pm for art. P. 98, Wi*k prokratin Tre mind manut talolle tart in 340 pm #!. 'alk variety show, od tet* 36 *nelation and feature alms taking time
UNDER THE 1972 FCC RULES AC NE IMPACT OF ALTERNATIVE COPYRIGHT FEE PROPOSALS
AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
To illustrate, each rating point represents 1% of the total market honey Therefore, in a million household market, a one rating would mean 10.0* Ten rating points would thus achieve an audience size of 10), bote Hro thetically, a ten rating would be worth $250 per 30 wprond st. If the ent. a could change its programming and increase the rating from a ten to a Alv! ! would automatically increase its price per spot by 30, making it worth $1 It obviously leads to the conclusion that suCYwful programminx is worth se money in net profits even though its cost might be higher than les e ine programming.
CATV is measured by the rating services in any county where there are otet 10% cable homes. Since this viewing is listed in the research books the stat: a is getting credit and charges his rates accordingly. There is no separate brra, a of ('ATV systems in the books.
INFRINGEMENT OF COPYRIGHT Section 501 deals with infringement of copyright, Subwertion (b) thereof entitle, the copyright holder to initiate action for any infringement of his re.fr right. That is as it should be. However, subsection (c) grants a televii hea cast station rights as a legal or beneficial owner of copyright in the programas it transmits for purposes of instituting action for infringement against catole trie vision systems. The rights to most television programs are held not by an individ ual broadcaster, but by a syndicator or other program owner. They are fuli, po tected by subsection (b). In those cases where a television station does baid be copyright, it has every right to sue for infringement under subsection in to Subsection (c) would grant to hundreds of broadcasters the ability to in**** harassing suits against «able operator for minor or even inadvertent vid, of FCC rules. This creation of private attorney-genem is unprecedented it ! right law and should be stricken from the hill. Infringement of prricht ist actionable under Section 501 (b), and adecuate remedies for Thula n FIT regulations are available to broadcasters under the communications Art
More specifically, under the Few rules anble television systems are TL!**rd to marry both "mal" and "distant" television sinnals Under crtain cirro: sta! the rules also require these systems to delete or black out (ertain prin fra the distant signal. These exclusivity rules are based on unfair (TEL .: 3:4 copyright related concepts. Because the rules are quite complex, a ouble sis eien in gimwi faith sometimes fails to delete a program which should e deleted. ('au-ey for this include inadecuate programu beule Dolj minute whedule change by either the distant or lexal station. IDIL:P ... functions, power outants and program overruus. Furthermore, given the sal
ize of mot able television ofwrations and the vast number of primams ifted Ithe average (AT1 systein arries over 9 toleil on brodt statt. I, ut tentional errors (un and do antur. It can thus ** *n tliat therr w:1!! ! 4: instances where under the terms of Sertian 111, the cuble system word .'! of prima facie copyright infringement The For has fr ies for the w. *! and rjata violation of the rule by able y pe rala T! up ! indude * and 1st order and motomation of omtank authonty lead a the Fry has asked (estikir** to include anbile systems in the 14-t all the l'emmmunications Act deaiing with forfetturom Thus adente retiniles are als! able without tvrtina to a rixht 1. ringilent mults in the (vurts ! I would therefore le deleted.