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1 categories of material from the deposit requirements of this section, 2 or require deposit of only one copy or phonorecord with respect to 3 any categories. 4 (d) At any time after publication of a work as provided by sub5 section (a), the Register of Copyrights may make written demand 6 for the required deposit on any of the persons obligated to make the 7 deposit under subsection (a). Unless deposit is made within three 8 months after the demand is received, the person or persons on whom 9 the demand was made are liable :

(1) to a fine of not more than $250 for each work; and

(2) to pay to the Library of Congress the total retail price of the copies or phonorecords demanded, or, if no retail price has been fixed, the reasonable cost to the Library of Congress of

acquiring them. 15 $408. Copyright registration in general 16 (a) REGISTRATION PERMISSIVE.-At any time during the subsistence 17 of copyright in any published or unpublished work, the owner of 18 copyright or of any exclusive right in the work may obtain registration 19 of the copyright claim by delivering to the Copyright Office the deposit 20 specified by this section, together with the application and fee specified 21 by sections 409 and 708. Subject to the provisions of section 405 (a), 22 such registration is not a condition of copyright protection. 23 (b) DEPOSIT FOR COPYRIGHT REGISTRATION.--Except as provided by 24 subsection (c), the material deposited for registration shall include:

(1) in the case of an unpublished work, one complete copy or phonorecord;

(2) in the case of a published work, two complete copies or phonorecords of the best edition;

(3) in the case of a work first published abroad, one complete copy or phonorecord as so published;

(4) in the case of a contribution to a collective work, one complete copy or phonorecord of the best edition of the collective

work. 34 Copies or phonorecords deposited for the Library of Congress under 35 section 107 may be used to satisfy the deposit provisions of this section, 36 if they are accompanied by the prescribed application and fee, and by 37 any additional identifying material that the Register may, by regula38 tion, require. 39 (c) ADMINISTRATIVE CLASSIFICATION AND OptionAL DEPOSIT.--The 40 Register of Copyrights is authorized to specify by regulation the

i administrative classes into which works are to be placed for purposes of 2 deposit and registration, and the nature of the copies or phonorecords 3 to be deposited in the various classes specified. The regulations may 4 require or permit, for particular classes, the deposit of identifying 5 material instead of copies or phonorecords, the deposit of only one copy 6 or phonorecord where two would normally be required, or a single 7 registration for a group of related works. This administrative classi8 fication of works has no significance with respect to the subject matter 9 of copyright or the exclusive rights provided by this title. 10 (d) CORRECTIONS AND AMPLIFICATIONS.--The Register may also 11 establish, by regulation, formal procedures for the filing of an applica12 tion for supplementary registration, to corre. 't an error in a copyright 13 registration or to amplify the information given in a registration. Such 14 application shall be accompanied by the fee provided by section 708, 15 and shall clearly identify the registration to be corrected or amplified. 16 The information contained in a supplementary registration augments 17 but does not supersede that contained in the earlier registration. 18 (e) PUBLISHED EDITION OF PREVIOUSLY REGISTERED Work.-Reg. 19istration for the first published edition of a work previously registered 20 in unpublished form may be made even though the work as published is 21 substantially the same as the unpublished version. 22 8 409. Application for registration

The application for copyright registration shall be made on a form prescribed by the Register of Copyrights and shall include:

(1) the name and address of the copyright claimant;

(2) in the case of a work other than an anonymous or pseudony. mous work, the name and nationality or domicile of the author or authors and, if one or more of the authors is dead, the dates of their deaths;

(3) if the work is anonymous or pseudonymous, the nationality or domicile of the author or authors;

(4) in the case of a work made for hire, a statement to this effect;

(5) if the copyright claimant is not the author, a brief statement of how the claimant obtained ownership of the copyright;

(6) the title of the work, together with any previous or alternative titles under which the work can be identified;

(7) the year in which creation of the work was completed;

(*) if the work has been published, the date and nation of its first publication;

(9) in the case of a compilation or derivative work, an identification of any pre-existing work or works that it is based on or incorporates, and a brief, general statement of the additional material covered by the copyright claim being registered;

(10) in the case of a published work containing material of which copies are required by section 601 to be manufactured in the United States, the names of the persons or organizations who performed the processes specified by subsection (c) of section 601 with respect to that material, and the places where those processes were performed; and

(11) any other information regarded by the Register of Copyrights as bearing upon the preparation or identification of the

work or the existence, ownership, or duration of the copyright. 14 $410. Registration of claim and issuance of certificate 15 (a) When, after examination, the Register of Copyrights deter16 mines that, in accordance with the provisions of this title, the material 17 deposited constitutes copyrightable subject matter and that the other 18 legal and formal requirements of this title have been met, he shall reg19 ister the claim and issue to the applicant a certificate of registration 20 under the seal of the Copyright Office. The certificate shall contain 21 the information given in the application, together with the number 22 and effective date of the registration.

(b) In any case in which the Register of Copyrights determines 24 that, in accordance with the provisions of this title, the material de25 posited does not constitute copyrightable subject matter or that the 26 claim is invalid for any other reason, he sall refuse registration and

shall notify the applicant in writing of the reasons for his action. 28 (c) In any judicial proceedings the certificate of a registration made

before or within five years after first publication of the work shall 30 constitute prima facie evidence of the validity of the copyright and 31 of the facts stated in the certificate. The evidentiary weight to be

accorded the certificate of a registration made thereafter shall be 33 within the discretion of the court. 34 (d) The effective date of a copyright registration is the day on 35 which an application, deposit, and fee, which are later determined by 36 the Register of Copyrights or by a court of competent jurisdiction to 37 be acceptable for registrtion, have all been received in the ('opyright 38 Office.


1 8411. Registration as prerequisite to infringement suit 2 (a) Subject to the provisions of subsection (b), no action for in3 fringement of the copyright in any work shall be instituted until 4 registration of the copyright claim has been made in accordance with 5 this title. In any case, however, where the deposit, application, and fee 6 required for registration have been delivered to the Copyright Office 7 in proper form and registration has been refused, the applicant is 8 entitled to institute an action for infringement if notice thereof, with 9 a copy of the complaint, is served on the Register of Copyrights. The 10 Register may, at his option, become a party to the action with respect 11 to the issue of registrability of the copyright claim by entering his 12 appearance within sixty days after such service, but his failure to do 13 so shall not deprive the court of jurisdiction to determine that issue. 14 (b) In the case of a work consisting of sounds, images, or both, the 15 first fixation of which is made simultaneously with its transmission, 16 the copyright owner may either before or after such fixation takes 17 place, institute an action for infringement under section 501, fully 18 subject to the remedies provided by sections 502 through 506, if, in 19 accordance with requirements that the Register of Copyrights shall 20 prescribe by regulation, the copyright owner

(1) serves notice upon the infringer, not less than ten or more than thirty days before such fixation, identifying the work and the specific time and source of its first transmission, and declaring an intention to secure copyright in the work; and

(2) makes registration for the work within three months after

its first transmission. 27 § 412. Registration as prerequisite to certain remedies for

infringement 29 In any action under this title, other than an action instituted under 30 section 411(b), no award of statutory damages or of attorney's fees, as 31 provided by sections 501 and 303, shall be made for:

(1) any infringement of copyright in an unpubli-hed work commenced before the effective date of its registration; or

(2) any infringement of copyright commenced after first publication of the work and before the effective date of its registration, unless such registration is made within three months after its first publication.

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501, Infringement of copy right.
502. Remedies for infringement: Injunctions.
503. Remedies for infringement: Impounding and disposition of infringing

504. Remedies for infringement : Damages and profits.
505. Remedies for infringement: Costs and attorney's fees.
506. Criminal offenses
507. Limitations on actions.
508 Notification of filing and determination of actions.
$ 501. Infringement of copyright

(a) Anyone who violates any of the exclusive rights of the copyright owner as provided by sections 106 through 117, or who imports copies or phonorecords into the United States in violation of section 602, is an infringer of the copyright.

(b) The legal or beneficial owner of an exclusive right under a copyright is entitled, subject to the requirements of sections 205(d) and 411, to institute an action for any infringement of that particular right committed while he is the owner of it. The court may require him to serve written notice of the action with a copy of the complaint upon any person shown, by the records of the Copyright Office or otherwise, to have or claim an interest in the copyright, and shall require that such notice be served upon any person whose interest is likely to be affected by a decision in the case. The court may require the joinder, and shall permit the intervention, of any person having or claiming an interest in the copyright.

(c) For any secondary transmission by a cable system that embodies a performance or a display of a work which is actionable as an act of infringement under subsection (c) of section 111, a television broadcast station holding a copyright or other license to transmit or perform the same version of that work shall, for purposes of subsection (b) of this section, be treated as a legal or beneficial owner if such secondary transmission occurs within the local service area of that television station. 8 502. Remedies for infringement: Injunctions

(a) Any court having jurisdiction of a civil action arising under this title may, subject to the provisions of section 1498 of title 28, grant temporary and final injunctions on such terms as it may deem reasonable to prevent or restrain infringement of a copyright

(b) Any such injunction may be served anywhere in the United States on the person enjoined; it shall be operative throughout the United States and shall be enforceable, by proceedings in contempt or otherwise, by any United States court having jurisdiction of that per

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