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1 date and whether published or unpublished, are governed exclusively 2 by this title. Thereafter, no person is entitled to copyright, literary 3 property rights, or any equivalent legal or equitable right in any such 4 work under the common law or statutes of any State. 5 · (b) Nothing in this title annuls or limits any rights or remedies 6 under the common law or statutes of any State with respect to:

(1) unpublished material that does not come within the subject matter of copyright as specified by sections 102 and 103, including works of authorship not fixed in any tangible medium of expression;

(2) any cause of action arising from undertakings commenced before January 1, 1977;

(3) activities violating rights that are not equivalent to any of the exclusive rights within the general scope of copyright as specified by section 106, including breaches of contract, breaches of trust, invasion of privacy, defamation, and deceptive trade prar

tices such as passing off and false representation. 18 $302. Duration of copyright: Works created on or after Janu

ary 1, 1977 20 (a) IN GENERAL.-('opyright in a work created on or after January

1, 1977, subsists from its creation and, except as provided by the

following subsections, endures for a term consisting of the life of the 23 author and fifty years after his death. 24 (b) Joint Works. In the case of a joint work prepa red by two 25 or more authors who did not work for hire, the copyright endures for

a term consisting of the life of the last surviving author and fifty 27 years after his death,

(c) ANONYMOUS Works, PSEUDONYMOUS WORKS, AND Works MADE 29 For Hire.--In the case of an anonymous work, a pseudonymous work 30 or a work made for hire, the copyright endures for a term of seventy31 five years from the year of its first publication, or a term of one 32 hundred years from the year of its creation, whichever expires first. 33 If, before the end of such term, the identity of one or more of the

authors of an anonymous or pseudonymous work is revealed in the 35 records of a registration made for that work under subsection (a)

or (d) of section 407, or in the records provided by this subsection, the copyright in the work endures for the term specified by subsections (a) or (b), based on the life of the author or authors whose identity

has been movealed. Any person having an interest in the copyright in 40 an anonymous or pseudonymous work may at any time record, in

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records to be maintained by the Copyright Office for that purpose, a statement identifying one or more authors of the work; the statement shall also identify the person filing it, the nature of his interest, the source of his information, and the particular work affected, and shall comply in form and content with requirements that the Register of Copyrights shall prescribe by regulation.

(d) RECORDS RELATING TO DEATH OF AUTHORS.— Any person having an interest in a copyright may at any time record in the Copyright Office a statement of the date of death of the author of the copy. righted work, or a statement that the author is still living on a particular date. The statement shall identify the person filing it, the nature of his interest, and the source of his information, and shall comply in form and content with requirements that the Register of Copyrights shall prescribe by regulation. The Register shall maintain current records of information relating to the death of authors of copyrighted works, based on such recorded statements and, to the extent he considers practicable, on data contained in any of the records of the Copyright Office or in other reference sources.

(e) PRESUMPTION AS TO AUTHOR's Death. After a period of seventyfive years from the year of first publication of a work, or a period of one hundred years from the year of its creation, whichever expires first, any person who obtains from the Copyright Office a certified report that the records provided by subsection (d) disclose nothing to indicate that the author of the work is living, or died less than fifty years before, is entitled to the benefit of a presumption that the author has been dead for at least fifty years. Reliance in good faith upon this presumption shall be a complete defense to any action for infringement under this title. 8 303. Duration of copyright: Works created but not published

or copyrighted before January 1, 1977 Copyright in a work created before January 1, 1977, but not theretofore in the public domain or copyrighted, subsists from January 1, 1977, and endures for the term provided by section 302. In no case, however, shall the term of copyright in such a work expire before December 31, 2001; and, if the work is published on or before December 31, 2001, the term of copyright shall not expire before December 31, 2026. $ 304. Duration of copyright: Subsisting copyrights

(a) COPYRIGHTs in Their First Term on Jantary 1, 1977.-- Any copyright, the first term of which is subsisting on January 1, 1977,

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shall endure for twenty-eight years from the date it was originally secured : Prorided, That in the case of any posthumous work or of any periodical, cyclopedic, or other composite work upon which the copyright was originally secured by the proprietor thereof, or of any work copyrighted by a corporate body (otherwise than as assignee or licensee of the individual author) or by an employer for whom such work is made for hire, the proprietor of such copyright shall be entitled to a renewal and extension of the copyright in such work for the further term of forty-seven years when application for such renewal and extension shall have been made to the Copyright Office and duly registered therein within one year prior to the expiration of the original term of copyright: And prorided further, That in the case of any other copyrighted work, including a contribution by an individual author to a periodical or to a cyclopedic or other composite work, the author of such work, if still living, or the widow, widower, or children of the author, if the author be not living, or if such author, widow, widower, or children be not living, then the author's executors, or in the absence of a will, his next of kin shall be entitled to a renewal and extension of the copyright in such work for a further term of fortyseven years when application for such renewal and extension shall have been made to the Copyright Office and duly registered therein within one year prior to the expiration of the original term of copyright : And prorided further, That in default of the registration of such application for renewal and extension, the copyright in any work shall terminate at the expiration of twenty-eight years from the date copyright was originally secured.

(b) (COPYRIGHTS IN THEIR RENEWAL TERM OR REGISTERED FOR RENEWAL BEFORE JAxtary 1, 1977.--The duration of any copyright, the renewal term of which is subsisting at any time between December 31, 1975, and December 31, 1976, inclusive, or for which renewal registration is made between December 31, 1970, and December 31, 1976, inclusive, is extended to endure for a term of 75 years from the date copyright was originally secured.

(P) TERMINATION OF TRANSFERS AND LICENSES ('OVERING EXTENDED RENEWAL TERM.-- In the case of any copyright subsisting in either its first or renewal term on January 1, 1977, other than a copyright in a work made for hure, the exclusive or nonexclusive grant of a transfer or license of the renewal copyright or of any right under it, executed before January 1, 1977, by any of the person designated by

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the second proviso of subsection (a) of this section, otherwise than by will, is subject to termination under the following condition:

(1) In the case of a grant executed by a person or persons other than the author, termination of the grant may be effected by the surviving person or persons who executed it. In the case of a grant executed by one or more of the authors of the work, termination of the grant may be effected, to the extent of a particular author's share in the ownership of the renewal copyright, by the author who executed it or, if such author is dead, by the person or persons who, under clause (2) of this subsection, own and are entitled to exercise a total of more than one half of that author's termination interest.

(2) Where an author is dead, his or her termination interest is owned, and may be exercised, by his widow (or her widower) and children or grandchildren as follows:

(A) The widow (or widower) owns the author's entire termination interest unless there are any surviving children or grandchildren of the author, in which case the widow (or widower) owns one half of the author's interest;

(B) The author's surviving children, and the surviving children of any dead child of the author, own the author's entire termination interest unless there is a widow (or widower), in which case the ownership of one half of the author's interest is divided among them;

(C) The rights of the author's children and grandchildren are in all cases divided among them and exercised on a per stirpes basis according to the number of his children represented; the share of the children of a dead child in a termination interest can be exercised only by the action of a major

ity of them. (3) Termination of the grant may be effected at any time during a period of five years beginning at the end of fifty-six years form the date copyright was originally secured, or beginning on January 1, 1977, whichever is later.

(4) The termination shall be effected by serving an advance notice in writing upon the grantee or his successor in title. In the case of a grant executed by a person or persons other than the author, the notice shall be signed by all of those entitled to terminate the grant under clause (1) of this subsection, or by their duly authorized agents. In the case of a grant executed by one or more 37

of the authors of the work, the notice as to any one author's share shall be signed by him or his duly authorized agent or, if he is dead, by the number and proportion of the owners of his termination interest required under clauses (1) and (2) of this subsection, or by their duly authorized agents.

(A) The notice shall state the effective date of the termination, which shall fall within the five-year period specified by clause (3) of this subsection, and the notice shall be served not less than two or more than ten years before that date. A copy of the notice shall be recorded in the Copyright Office before the effective date of termination, as a condition to its taking effect.

(B) The notice shall comply, in form, content, and manner of service, with requirements that the Register of Copyrights

shall prescribe by regulation. (5) Termination of the grant may be effected not withstanding any agreement to the contrary, including an agreement to make a will or to make any future grant.

(6) In the case of a grant executed by a person or persons other than the author, all rights under this title that were covered by the terminated grant revert, upon the effective date of termination, to all of those entitled to terminate the grant under clause (1) of this subsection. In the case of a grant executed by one or more of the authors of the work, all of a particular author's rights under this title that were covered by the terminated grant revert, upon the effective date of termination, to that author or, if he is dead, to the persons owning his termination interest under clause (2) of this subsection, including those owners who did not join in signing the notice of termination under clause (4) of this subsection. In all cases the reversion of rights is subject to the following limitations:

(A) A derivative work prepared under authority of the grant before its termination may continue to be utilized under the terms of the grant after its termination, but this privilege does not extend to the preparation after the termination of other derivative works based upon the copyrighted work covered by the terminated grant.

(B) The future rights that will revert upon termination of the grant become vested on the date the notice of termi

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