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together and file them jointly or as a single claim, or may designate a common agent to receive payment on their behalf.
(B) After the first day of August of each year, the Register of Copyrights shall determine whether there exists a controversy concerning the statement of account or the distribution of royaltv fees. If he determines that no such controversy exists, he shall, after deducting his reasonable administrative costs under this section, distribute such fees to the copyright owners entitled, or to their designated agents. If he finds the existence of a controversy he shall certify to that fact and proceed to constitute a panel of the Copyright Royalty Tribunal in accordance with section 803. In such cases the reasonable administrative costs of the Register under this section shall be deducted prior to distribution of the royalty fee by the tribunal.
(C) During the pendency of any proceeding under this subsection, the Register of Copyrights or the Copyright Royalty Tribunal shall withhold from distribution an amount sufficient to satisfy all claims with respect to which a controversy exists, but shall have discretion to proceed to distribute any amounts that are not in controversy.
As used in this section, the following terms and their variant forms mean the following:
A "primary transmission” is a transmission made to the public by the transmitting facility whose signals are being received and further transmitted by the secondary transmission service, regardless of where or when the performance or display was first transmitted.
A "secondary transmission” is the further transmitting of a primary transmission simultaneously with the primary transmission or nonsimultaneously with the primary transmission if by a “cable system" not located in whole or in part within the boundary of the forty-eight contiguous States, Hawaii, or Puerto Rico: Provided, however, That a nonsimultaneous further transmission by a cable system located in a television market in Hawaii of a primary transmission shall be deemed to be a secondary transmission if such further transmission is necessary to enable the cable system to carry the full complement of signals allowed it under the rules and regulations of the Federal Communciations Commission.
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A “cable system” is a facility, located in any State, Territory, Trust Territory or Possession that in whole or in part receives signals transmitted or programs broadcast by one or more television broadcast stations licensed by the Federal ('ommunications Commission and makes secondary transmissions of such signals or programs by wires, cables, or other communications channels to subscribing members of the public who pay for such service. For purposes of determining the royalty fee under subsection (d) (2) (B), two or more cable systems in contiguous communities under common ownership or control or operating from one headend shall be considered as one system.
The “local service area of a primary transmitter" comprises the area in which a television broadcast station is entitled to insist upon its signal being retransmitted by a cable system pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Federal Communica
tions Commission. $112. Limitations on exclusive rights: Ephemeral recordings
(a) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 106, and except in the case of a motion picture or other audiovisual work, it is not an infringement of copyright for a transmitting organization entitled to transmit to the public a performance or display of a work, under a license or transfer of the copyright or under the limitations on exclusive rights in sound recordings specified by section 114(a), to make no more than one copy or phonorecord of a particular transmission program embodying the performance or display, if
(1) the copy or phonorecord is retained and used solely by the transmitting organization that made it, and no further copies or phonorecords are reproduced from it; and
(2) the copy or phonorecord is used solely for the transmitting organization's own transmissions within its local service area, or for purposes of archival preservation or security; and
(3) unless preserved exclusively for archival purposes, the copy or phonorecord is destroyed within six months from the date the
transmission program was first transmitted to the public. (b) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 106, it is not an infringement of copyright for a governmental body or other nonprofit organization entitled to transmit a performance or display of a work, under section 110(2) or under the limitations on exclusive rights in sound recordings specified by section 114(a), to make no more than
thirty copies or phonorecords of a particular transmission program embodying the performance or display, if
(1) no further copies or phonorecords are reproduced from the copies or phonorecords made under this clause; and
(2) except for one copy or phonorecord that may be preserved exclusively for archival purposes, the copies or phonorecords are destroyed within seven years from the date the transmission program was first transmitted to the public. (c) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 106, it is not an infringement of copyright for a governmental body or other nonprofit organization to make for distribution no more than one copy or phonorecord for each transmitting organization specified in clause (2) of this subsection of a particular transmission program embodying a performance of a nondramatic musical work of a religious nature, or of a sound recording of such a musical work, if
(1) there is no direct or indirect charge for making or distributing any such copies or phonorecords; and
(2) none of such copies or phonorecords is used for any performance other than a single transmission to the public by a transmitting organization entitled to transmit to the public a performance of the work under a license or transfer of the copyright; and
(3) except for one copy or phonorecord that may be preserved exclusively for archival purposes, the copies or phonorecords are all destroyed within one year from the date the transmission pro
gram was first transmitted to the public. (d) The transmission program embodied in a copy or phonorecord made under this section is not subject to protection as a derivative work under this title except with the express consent of the owners of copyright in the pre-existing works employed in the program. $ 113. Scope of exclusive rights in pictorial, graphic, and sculp
tural works (a) Subject to the provisions of clauses (1) and (2) of this subsection, the exclusive right to reproduce a copyrighted pictorial, graphic, or sculptural work in copies under section 106 includes the right to reproduce the work in or on any kind of article, whether useful or otherwise.
(1) This title does not afford, to the owner of copyright in a work that portrays a useful article as such, any greater or lesser rights with respect to the making, distribution, or display of the useful article so portrayed than those afforded to such works
under the law, whether title 17 of the common law or statutes of a State, in effect on December 31, 1976. as held applicable and construed by a court in an action brought under this title.
(2) In the case of a work lawfully reproduced in useful articles that have been offered for sale or other distribution to the public, copyright does not include any right to prevent the making, distribution, or display of pictures or photographs of such articles in connection with advertisements or commentaries related to the distribution or display of such articles, or in connection with news
reports. 11 (b) When a pictorial, graphic, or sculptural work in which copy12 right subsists under this title is utilized in an original ornamental 13 design of a useful article, by the copyright proprietor or under an
express license from him, the design shall be eligible for protection 15 under the provisions of title III of this Act. 16 (c) Protection under this title of a work in which copyright subsists 17 shall terminate with respect to its utilization in useful articles when18 ever the copyright proprietor has obtained registration of an orna19 mental design of a useful article embodying said work under the pro20 visions of title III of this Act. Unless and until the copyright pro21 prietor has obtained such registration, the copyright pictorial, graphic, 22 or sculptural work shall continue in all respects to be covered by and 23 subject to the protection afforded by the copyright subsisting under 2A this title. Nothing in this section shall be deemed to create any addi25 tional rights or protection under this title. 26 (d) Nothing in this section shall affect any right or remedy held 27 by any person under this title in a work in which copyright was sub
sisting on the effective date of title II of this Act, or with respect to 29 any utilization of a copyrighted work other than in the design of a
useful article. 31 $ 114. Scope of exclusive rights in sound recordings 32 (a) The exclusive rights of the owner of copyright in a sound record
ing are limited to the rights specified by clauses (1) and (3) of sec34 tion 106, and do not include any right of performance under section 35 106(4).
(b) The exclusive right of the owner of copyright in a sound record37 ing to reproduce it under section 106(1) is limited to the right to 38 duplicate the sound recording in the form of phonorecords that directly 39 or indirectly recapture the actual sounds fixed in the recording. This 40 right does not extend to the making or duplication of another sound i 2 3 4 5 6 7
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recording that is an independent fixation of other sounds, even though such sounds imitate or simulate those in the copyrighted sound recording.
(c) This section does not limit or impair the exclusive right to perform publicly, by means of a phonorecord, any of the works specified by section 106(4). $115. Scope of exclusive rights in nondramatic musical works:
Compulsory license for making and distributing phono
records In the case of nondramatic musical works, the exclusive rights provided by clauses (1) and (3) of section 106, to make and to distribute phonorecords of such works, are subject to compulsory licensing under the conditions specified by this section. (a) AVAILABILITY AND SCOPE OF COMPULSORY LICENSE.—
(1) When nhonorecords of a nondramatic musical work have been distributed to the public under the authority of the copyright owner, any other person may, by complying with the provisions of this section, obtain a compulsory license to make and distribute phonorecords of the work. A person may obtain a compulsory license only if his primary purpose in making phonorecords is to distribute them to the public for private use. A person may not obtain a compulsory license for use of the work in the duplication of a sound recording made by another.
(2) A compulsory license includes the privilege of making a musical arrangement of the work to the extent necessary to conform it to the style or manner of interpretation of the performance involved, but the arrangement shall not change the basic melody or fundamental character of the work, and shall not be subject to protection as a derivative work under this title, except with the express consent of the copyright owner. (b) NOTICE OF INTENTION TO OBTAIN COMPULSORY LICENSE; DESIGNATION OF OWNER OF PERFORMANCE RIGHT.
(1) Any person who wishes to obtain a compulsory license under this section shall, before or within thirty days after making, and before distributing any phonorecords of the work, serve notice of his intention to do so on the copyright owner. If the registration or other public records of the Copyright Office do not identify the copyright owner and include an address at which notice can be served on him, it shall be sufficient to file the notice of intention in the Copyright Office. The notice shall comply, in form, con