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, in the first place, give my mode of transplanting young orchard trees, I lay off the ground, and put a small stake where each tree is to stand. I then cut a forked stick of sufficient size, and cut the prongs so that they will measure three feet from point to point. I set one prong where the stake stands, and strike a circle with the other, which will be six feet in diameter, to spade by. I lay the first spit around the hole. If the second spit is good, I merely reverse it; if not, I throw it away, and replace it with good soil. In setting the tree, I raise a little mound in the centre, pressing the tree firmly on the mound, one holding it straight while the other fills up the hole. I do not throw the soil upon the roots in a mass, but carefully press the earth around and into every crevice of each layer of roots, placing the roots, with the fingers, as near as may be, in the same position, as respects divergence, in which they originally stood. I then press the whole firmly with the foot, except three or four inches on the top, which should be left loose and concave to retain and absorb the rain. This completes the setting.
I have next to speak of the aster-culture. But I will first describe an implement which I use for that purpose, and which I originally invented for garden culture, but found admirably adapted to the latter use. It simply consists of three spring-steel blades, each one and a fourth inch wide, two of them 18 inches long, one 10 inches long. They are set in a wooden bar, or head, eight inches long and two inches square, fastened with two screws in each blade ; they should be two-inch screws. The two long blades are set at each end of the head ; the short one in the middle; both ends of the long ones are curved, and one end only of the short one. To this a handle is attached similar to a rake handle. This implement is to be used by a motion similar to raking. It is not to dig or hoe. It can be used to advantage where the ground is too wet for any other tool, for it leaves it in a better condition to receive light and air, which are essential to vegetable growth. The use of the side with two prongs is to run astride of onions, beets, radishes, and all suitable things planted in rows, and also to work anything when the ground is too wet for ihe three-pronged side, which often happens
The two small figures represent the front and edge of a tooth.
Some of my neighbors have tried to improve on it by fastening the blades to a thin iron head with rivets. But I prefer my original plan. It is lighter, and easier put in repair.
Thus prepared, I go over my newly set trees just before a rain, and mellow the ground from four to six inches deep, the size of the hole. I can thus go over 200 trees every hour with ease. If the rain should be very heavy, I go over them again as soon as the ground is sufficiently dry to break the crust formed by the rain, which is very detrimental to the growth of anything. Thus
I proceed until about the 15th of July. After that I leave the ground undisturbed; for, if continued, the trees would continue to grow until frost, and would be liable to be killed by the winter. If the weather should be dry, I go over my trees once a week, and mellow the ground as deep as I can each time. If wet, and the rains are heavy, I go over after each heavy rain and break the crust. Under the above treatment, there is no need of mulching, and they will make a much better growth than mulched trees. Some may think all this too much trouble. I have tried every way, and I now practise this way exclusively, and never intend to practise any other way.
A word on the position in which trees should be set: Some people are very particular to have a tree set in the same position in which it grew in the nursery. I never found any difference in that respect. But it is very important that some trees should stand in a certain position-a fact, I believe, which has not been noticed by writers on horticulture. A great many trees are crooked and curved in their stems. The crooks and curves incline to an angle of from 10 to 45 degrees. If these inclinations are set to the south, the intense rays of the summer sun scorch the sap. The sap, thus scorched, has an offensive smell, which attracts the borer, which soon reduces the whole south side of the tree to powder in these inclinations. Thus from 10 to 15 per cent., or more, of young orchard trees are destroyed, which might be prevented by observing the above rules.
A word about how nursery trees should be raised : Some nurserymen boast that all their trees are grafted in the root. The common practice is to graft or inoculate the trees from 4 to 12 inches from the ground. This may be the most convenient for the nurseryman. But this practice and root grafting are both wrong, unless for dwarfs. All kinds of trees should be grafted or inoculated where the head is to be formed, because seedling stocks are more hardy than the cultivated varieties; much more so, in general.
The thermometer, in 1843, stood a whole day (the day perfectly clear) at zero; the snow about ten inches deep, and the ground soft. The consequence was, that all my sweet cherry trees that were inoculated low were killed, while the seedling stocks were not injured. A great many large apple trees (root grafted) suffered the same fate; and so of all other fruits--proving the seedling stocks to be much hardier than the grafts. Sweet cherries should be highly worked in particular, they being more tender than any other hardy fruit. When the snow falls deep, and the ground is soft, it should be removed from around fruit-trees until the ground is frozen, to prevent the disaster that happened to me in 1843. The philosopby of it is this: When the snow is deep, and the ground is not frozen, a circulation of sap is kept up in the roots consequent from the warm bed of snow; this, meeting with a low temperature in the clear sunshine-the rays of the sun reflecting from the snow-raises a degree of heat in the focus of those rays to permit the sap to pass up four or five inches above the snow, which freezes in the absence of the sun; thus, the tree is killed as far as the reflection of the sun can reach Such trees as apple, peach, pear, plum, and sweet cherry, are generally killed all round. While the nur. seryman continues thus to work his trees low, the farmer will continue to have vacancies in his orchard. If those who set new orchards will observe the above rules in selecting, setting, and after-culture, they will not have many vacancies to fill. The above mode of culture is peculiarly adapted to the first season; any kind of clean culture will answer afterwards. Let no one presume to continue it beyond the 15th of July; otherwise they may pay dearly for it the next winter. The above is all that is original with me.
CANADA FINK. Hon. THOMAS EWBANK,
Commissioner of Patents.
Seeds ordered for the fall of 1852.
In consequence of the late period at which the foregoing Report is issued, an opportunity is afforded of inserting the following letter, that Congress and the agricultural community may know what measures have been taken to provide seeds for distribution the present fall, and what amount of the appropriation for agricultural statistics, &c., has been devoted to that object:
PATENT OFFICE, September 16, 1852. Sir: I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 14th inst., suggesting that I might consult with advantage the “ Philadelphia Society for the Promotion of Agriculture” on the annual selection and distribution of seeds. To meet the wishes of agriculturists in this matter. is certainly the most direct mode of accomplishing the intentions of Congres: in making the appropriation. Some seeds have been ordered from California. Brazil, Sicily, &c., · amounting probably to one thousand dollars. Two thousand dollars remain for the purchase of American and foreign seeds; and to the most judicious expenditure of this sum I respectfully invite the attention of the Society. As the money is to be expended for the benefit of all the States, the variety of seeds should include some adapted to the climate of all, and such as will meet the expectations of planters. About four hundred packages will be required for members of Congress, heads of departments, &c., and about as many smaller ones for distribution from the office. These the office will address and forward through the mail. The remainder should be put up in packages, for societies and prominent farmers, and may be addressed by the Society and for• warded to the office to be franked. Thus the responsibility of the distribution, as well as of the selection, will be chiefly with the Society. As Col. Wilder, the president of the United States Agricultural Society, and other eminent agriculturists, are attending the Pomological and Horticultural Convention now holding in your city, I would respectfully suggest that they also be consulted. I need not say that the seed should be fresh, of the first qualities, and put up in the best manner. They should be ready for distribution from the office by the beginning, and not later than the middle, of February. Each package should have its contents printed on it, and each paper the name of the seed it contains. “Seeds from the United States Patent Office" should also be printed on every paper and package.
The purchase and preparation of these seeds are left with your Society, and the bill or bills, when approved by your Society or a committee, will be promptly paid by the office. If the Society approve the suggestion, the following words might be printed on each package: "Selected for the Patent Office by the Philadelphia Society for the Promotion of Agriculture.”
T. EWBANK. Isaac Newton, Esq.