Power and Policy in Liberal Democracies

Pirmais vāks
Martin Harrop
Cambridge University Press, 1992. gada 20. febr. - 303 lappuses
Why has Japan found it easier to pursue a consistent industrial policy than the United States? Why does Britain provide health care collectively whereas France relies on private provision? Why is the American government unable to ensure the safety of its citizens whereas personal safety is not even an issue in Japan? Such questions are central to the study of comparative public politics and this book seeks to answer them by integrating policy analysis with mainstream comparative politics. The authors examine power and policy in four liberal democracies: France, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. They provide an introduction to the politics of the four leading democracies by setting out the actors, arenas and agendas of policy in each country. They go on to explore four contrasting areas of policy: industrial, health, ethnic minorities, and law and order, and discuss the countries from various perspectives.

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Atlasītās lappuses

Saturs

France
23
The constitution
27
Actors
29
Bureaucracy
30
Parties
31
Pressure groups
34
Arenas
36
Instruments
39
Cost containment
161
From cost control to cost effectiveness
164
Policy community
166
Policy outcomes
169
Further reading
172
Ethnic minorities
174
State involvement
175
Policy agenda
177

Interpretation
41
Further reading
47
Japan
49
The constitution
50
Actors
51
Bureaucracy
53
Pressure groups
55
Arenas
59
Instruments
62
Interpretation
65
Further reading
69
The United Kingdom
71
The constitution
74
Actors
75
Bureaucracy
78
Parties
81
Pressure groups
83
Arenas
85
Instruments
87
Interpretation
90
Further reading
94
The United States
95
The constitutional framework
98
Actors and arenas
101
Congress
104
Bureaucracy
106
Courts
108
Parties and interest groups
110
Instruments
112
Interpretation
115
Further reading
119
Sectors
121
Industrial policy
123
France
125
Japan
127
The United Kingdom
128
The United States
129
Policy agenda
130
Policy community and policymaking institutions
131
Organisation of the state
132
Organisation of business and labour
136
Relationships among policy actors
139
Policy outcomes
142
Conclusion
146
Further reading
148
Health policy
150
France
151
Japan
153
The United Kingdom
155
The United States
157
Policy agenda
158
Access
159
Antidiscrimination legislation
181
Affirmative action
184
Policy community
187
Policy outcomes
189
Further reading
193
Law and order
195
State involvement
196
Structure of policing France
198
Japan
199
The United Kingdom
200
The United States
202
Policy community
203
Policy agenda
205
Policy outcomes
210
Further reading
216
Perspectives
219
Implementation
221
Expectations and intentions of policymakers
224
Environment of implementation
228
Agencies of implementation
230
Instruments of implementation
233
Conclusion
236
Further reading
240
Evaluation
241
Evaluating the success of a policy
242
Whose goal?
244
Sideeffects
247
The comparative nature of policy judgements
248
Implementation
249
Goals and wants
251
Alternatives to wants
252
Maximising and distributing
254
State involvement
257
Means
258
Processes
259
Further reading
262
Comparison
263
Comparing countries
264
Constitutions
265
Actors
266
Arenas
270
Instruments
272
Comparing sectors
273
Policy communities
274
Policy agendas
276
Conclusion
277
Political outlines
281
Japan
285
The United Kingdom
288
The United States
291
Index
295
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Populāri fragmenti

3. lappuse - Institutional factors play two fundamental roles in this model. On the one hand, the organization of policy-making affects the degree of power that any one set of actors has over the policy outcomes.
18. lappuse - Louis Hartz, The Liberal Tradition in America (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1955); and Daniel Boorstin, The Genius of American Politics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953).
7. lappuse - ... economic growth makes countries with contrasting cultural and political traditions more alike in their strategy for constructing the floor below which no one sinks.
18. lappuse - Wilensky, The Welfare State and Equality (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975), pp. 1-2, 5-6, and 15-32, and Pryor. 7. Wilensky, The Welfare State and Equality; Phillips Cutright, "Political Structure, Economic Development, and National Social Security Programs...

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