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2. Of the 13 States observing daylight saving time on a nonstatewide basis, all except the following 5 States switched to daylight saving time the last Sunday in April:

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B. Switch from daylight-saving to standard time

1. Of the 16 States observing daylight-saving time on a statewide basis, all except West Virginia and Wisconsin returned to standard time on the fourth Sunday in October. West Virginia and Wisconsin switched instead of the fourth Sunday of September.

2. Of the 13 States observing daylight-saving time on a nonstatewide basis, three of them (Minnesota, Montana, and New Mexico) returned to standard time in September. Montana and New Mexico, however, observe daylight-saving time in very limited areas.

Nine other States (Colorado, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, Pennsylvania, and Virginia) returned to standard time on varying dates ranging from August to October, with soine Idaho, Indiana, and Michigan communities even observing daylight-saving time on a year-round basis.

Only in Ohio did the counties observing daylight-saving time switch back to standard time on the fourth Sunday in October. C. States observing both the April to October switchover dates

Fifteen of the twenty-nine States observed the switchover dates of the last Sundays in April and October.

Mr. Long. Thank you, Mr. Fulton. I notice that you speak, and I think correctly, of the trend nationally toward daylight-saving time. Yet you are speaking of the fact that in Tennessee during the last few years you have outlawed daylight-saving time. It seems that this powerful man in the State legislature that missed his bus reversed the trend.

Mr. Fulton. Certainly, he reversed many trends. Fortunately, he is not in the legislature now, and he did perform a great servic other fields during his many, many years of service. We have had a problem in Tennessee, as have many other States, in that our State legislature has not been reapportioned since around 1900. There was a case brought to the Supreme Court, Baker v. Carr. I believe, in which the Supreme Court did rule that all of the States would have to start reapportioning their seats according to population, and I think that there is a possibility in the near future that Tennessee might repeal the law outlawing daylight-saving time, but what about the other States that possibly will not have enough urban representation to overcome the rural resentment of a daylight-saving time bill?

I might say that recently Mr. York, who represents the Farm Bureau in Tennessee, expressed opposition to this bill, but one of the reasons he said was:

Many farmers feel that much of the support for daylight saving time comes from the people who have to work less than they do and who want the fast time for more recreation, and they don't see why they should be inconvenienced so the city people can have a good time.

I would like to submit for Mr. York's consideration that many of these so-called city people work 6 and 7 days a week the year around and many of our hard-working people engaged in the field of Agriculture only work a few days during the season or a few weeks during the season.

Mr. Long. So it is a question of hours per day as against days per year.

Mr. FULTON. Yes.
Mr. Long. Mr. Van Deerlin.

Mr. Van DEERLIN. Insofar as you know, Congressman Fulton, do any other States have a similar prohibition against daylight-saving time?

Mr. Fulton. I am not aware of that. My staff does not know of any.

Mr. VAN DEERLIN. A great number, however, do not have provision for daylight saving.

Mr. FULTON. That is correct, sir.
Mr. Long. Mr. Glenn.
Mr. GLENN. I have no questions.
Mr. LONG. Mr. Curtin?
Mr. CURTIN. No questions.
Mr. Long. Thank you, Mr. Fulton.

Mr. Fulton. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I would like to, with your permission, at this time introduce to the committee Mr. Donald Washburn, the executive assistant to Mayor Beverly Briley, of Metropolitan Nashville, and he has a few remarks that he would like to extend in the record at this time.

Mr. Long. Fine, Mr. Washburn. We are glad to have you. Proceed in your own order.

STATEMENT OF DONALD WASHBURN, EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT TO

MAYOR BRILEY, NASHVILLE, TENN. Mr. WASHBURN. Chairman Long and members of the Subcommittee on Daylight-Saving Time of the House Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee, I am Donald E. Washburn, executive assistant to the Honorable Beverly Briley, mayor of Metropolitan Nashville and Davidson County, Tenn.

I would like to read the following as evidence of the authority with which I am here this morning.

The following is a copy of a telegram sent to this committee on yesterday, June 17, 1964, addressed to the Honorable Harley O. Staggers, chairman, Subcommittee on Daylight Time, Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee, House Office Building, Washington, D.C.:

Donald Washburn, administrative assistant to Mayor Beverly Briley, of the Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County, Tenn., who will testify before your committee on uniform daylight time, is authorized and requested to represent and speak for the Nashville Area Chamber of Commerce in support of Congressman Richard Fulton's bill for uniform daylight-saving time. May the record show Mr. Washburn as our official spokesman.

W. C. BAUER, President, Nashville Area Chamber of Commerce.

I have a letter from our mayor addressed to Hon. Harley 0. Staggers, chairman, Subcommittee on Daylight Time, Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee, House Office Building, Washington, D.C.:

DEAR CONGRESSMAN STAGGERS : It has come to my attention that your subcommittee on the morning of June 18 will be conducting hearings in regard to H.R. 6284. I would like hereby personally express to your committee my personal support in behalf of this bill as mayor of Metropolitan Nashville and Davidson County which comprises the entire Fifth Congressional District represented by the Honorable Richard Fulton.

I would also like to hereby authorize Mr. Donald L. Washburn, my executive assistant, to represent me personally and Metropolitan Nashville and Davidson County before the committee in behalf of H.R. 6284. Thanking you for your kind considerations in regard hereto, I am, Sincerely,

BEVERLY BRILEY, Metropolitan Mayor, Nashville-David son County, Tenn. With the permission of the chairman and the committee I would like to submit this letter to become a part of the official record of this committee.

Mr. Long. Without objection it is so ordered.
(The letter referred to follows:)
METROPOLITAN GOVERNMENT OF NASHVILLE AND DAVIDSON COUNTY,

Nashville, Tenn., June 17, 1964.
Hon. HARLEY O. STAGGERS,
Chairman, Subcommittee on Daylight Time, Interstate and Foreign Commerce

Committee, House Office Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR CONGRESSMAN STAGGERS : It has come to my attention that your subcommittee on the morning of June 18 will be conducting hearings in regard to H.R. 6284. I would like hereby to personally express to your committee my personal support in behalf of this bill as mayor of Metropolitan Nashville and Davidson County which comprises the entire Fifth Congressional District represented by the Honorable Richard Fulton.

I would also like to hereby authorize Mr. Donald L. Washburn, my executive assistant, to represent me personally and Metropolitan Nashville and Davidson County before the committee in behalf of H.R. 6284. Thanking you for your kind considerations in regard hereto, I am, Sincerely,

BEVERLY BRILEY, Metropolitan Mayor, Nashville-Davidson County, Tenn. Mr. WASHBURN. I am a resident of Metropolitan Nashville and Davidson County, Tenn., which has a population of 300,000, has a trade area of 1,500,000 and is located in the central standard time zone. State law prohibits daylight saving time. The resultant factor of a 2-hour time differential of eastern commercial centers has caused a great deal of inconvenience due to the fact that the number of hours we can do business with eastern markets is cut to around 4 or 5 hours per day.

Even if it were possible to have daylight saving time in Nashville, this alone on a local option basis would not solve the problem of time inconsistencies which harass the citizens of our country from North to South and East to West. And this is perhaps the chief reason why so many persons in Nashville endorse H.R. 6284 and particularly the Nashville Area Chamber of Commerce which has adopted the following resolution:

Whereas the practice of observing daylight saving time in many cities, metropolitan areas, or entire States during the summer months has created considerable confusion in the transaction of business and has placed an especial handicap upon the businessmen of Metropolitan Nashville because of the 2-hour time differential with many great market centers; and

Whereas Tennessee communities are prohibited by State law from adopting any time other than standard time; and

Whereas Congressman Richard Fulton and Senator A. Willis Robertson have introduced in the Congress companion bills, H.R. 6284 and S. 1528, respectively, which would establish daylight saving time uniformly throughout the United States during the months of June, July, and August of each year: Now, therefore, be it

Resolved by the board of governors of the Nashville Area Chamber of Commerce, That this Board go on record in favor of the proposal to establish daylight saving time uniformly throughout the country for the months of June, July, and August as a means of reducing confusion in the time pattern of the Nation and of helping Nashville business to operate more efficiently in its dealings in the other time zones; be it further

Resolved, That this endorsement of uniform daylight saving time throughout the Nation be communicated to the Tennessee Members of the House of Representatives and Senators ; to the chairman of the House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce; to the chairman of the Commerce Committee of the Senate and to other interested individuals and agencies.

Adopted by the board of governors of the Nashville Area Chamber of Commerce, in regular meeting assembled, May 23, 1963.

It is most noteworthy, too, that both of our great daily newspapers, the Nashville Tennessean and the Nashville Banner, have editorially supported this daylight saving time bill, H.R. 6284, introduced by the Honorable Richard Fulton, of Tennessee.

Nashville is essentially an industrial and trade center for the NorthCentral South. It has a greatly diversified industrial base consisting of such plants as Du Pont, Ford, Avco, Aladdin Industries, Genesco world headquarters, and many, many others.

A number of the executives of these firms and others have expressed a great deal of concern over the time differential between Nashville and the eastern part of the United States during the summer months.

A prime example of the problems they face was told me by Dayton Manies, of Baird Ward Printing Co.

At 3:30 p.m., central standard time, a question arose as to the correctness in spelling of an author's name in Compact magazine. At that time in New York, Parents' magazine's switchboard closed. By 6 p.m., central standard time, they reached assistant production manager of the magazine at home. By the time the mistake was confirmed, 60,000 books were run with incorrect spelling due to the fact that no contact could be made to check the error.

Chairman Long and members of this committee, as a representative of Metropolitan Nashville and Davidson County's mayor, Beverly Briley, and the Nashville Area Chamber of Commerce, we respectfully urge your support of Congressman Richard Fulton's bill, H.R. 6284, to provide for uniform daylight-saving time through the United States during the summer months.

I want to thank you for your permission to come before you and your kind attention.

Mr. Long. Thank you, Mr. Washburn. Mr. Van Deerlin?

Mr. Van DEERLIN. No questions, Mr. Chairman, but I would like to note that the witness has made frequent references to the cooperation of his Congressman. You understand the very able representation that Mr. Fulton has provided as a Member up here, and I am glad to find that this is so.

Mr. WASHBURN. Thank you, sir. I am quite aware that he is running for reelection at this time, too.

Mr. Van DEERLIN. It just so happens. I wanted you to know how very highly regarded he is among his colleagues from other parts of the country.

Mr. WASHBURN. Thank you, Mr. Congressman. I appreciate that.
Mr. LONG. Mr. Glenn.
Mr. GLENN. I have no questions.

Mr. Long. Thank you very kindly for your very comprehensive statement. We appreciate your coming.

Mr. WASHBURN. Thank you.

Mr. Long. Our next witness is our colleague from Minnesota, Hon. Joseph E. Karth. Mr. Karth, we are very happy to have you before the committee and you may proceed as you see fit.

STATEMENT OF HON. JOSEPH E. KARTH, A REPRESENTATIVE IN

CONGRESS FROM THE STATE OF MINNESOTA

Mr. KARTII. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman and members of the committee. Anyone who has the occasion in this modern day to travel or communicate cross country is ever mindful of the differences in time zones. This in itself is a troublesome matter at best, but when it is compounded by the confusing patterns of daylight saving time throughout the United States the situation becomes sheer chaos.

The metropolitan areas in many sections of our country want a uniform period for daylight saving time to facilitate interstate business and communications.

Many cities are hampered by State laws setting forth daylight saving time periods which are not uniform. It is no answer, in my opinion, to tell the city governments that they should go to the State legislatures for help. The facts of life are that legislative apportionments in many States has shortchanged urban areas of fair representation so that the needs of the cities when they conflict with those of rural areas are, more often than not, subordinated to farm interests.

Daylight time, frankly, is a subject which often stirs many rural area legislators to a high pitch of emotion.

The enactment of H.R. 11310 and similar legislation would not disturb the rights of the States to impose or not impose daylight sav. ing time but would only set forth a uniform period when daylight saving time would be in effect; namely, from the last Sunday in April to the last Sunday in October of each year.

I believe that Congress, which has the power to regulate commerce among the several States, has the duty to make better sense between the time zones than currently exists when daylight saving time is imposed during varying periods in the United States.

I am pleased to sponsor H.R. 11310, especially since the City Council of St. Paul, Minn., and a number of business, civic, and labor organizations favor the passage of a uniform daylight saving time law.

With the committee's permission, I would like to include as part of my remarks a resolution adopted by the City Council of St. Paul, Minn., on May 8, 1964, and editorials from the St. Paul Pioneer Press.

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