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and which is acquired by the trust upon default of a lease of the land.

(2) Personal property. Personal property (including personal property not subject to a mortgage or lease of the real property) will be considered incident to a particular item of real property if the personal property is used in a trade or business conducted on the property or the use of the personal property is otherwise an ordinary and necessary corollary of the use to which the real property is put. In the case of a hotel, such items as furniture, appliances, linens, china, food, etc. would be examples of incidental personal property. Personal property incident to the real property is eligible for the election even though it is acquired after the real property is acquired or is placed in the building or other improvement in the course of the completion of construction.

(3) Property with respect to which default is anticipated. Property is not eligible for the election to be treated as foreclosure property if the loan or lease with respect to which the default occurs (or is imminent) was made or entered into (or the lease or indebtedness was acquired) by the trust with an intent to evict or foreclose, or when the trust knew or had reason to know that default would occur ("improper knowledge”). For purposes of the preceding sentence, a trust will not be considered to have improper knowledge with respect to a particular lease or loan, if the lease or loan was made pursuant to a binding commitment entered into by the trust at a time when it did not have improper knowledge. Moreover, if the trust, in an attempt to avoid default or foreclosure, advances additional amounts to the borrower in excess of amounts contemplated in the original loan commitment or modifies the lease or loan, such advance or modification will be considered not to have been made with an intent to evict or foreclose, or with improper knowledge, unless the original loan or lease was entered into with that intent or knowledge.

(c) Election—(1) In general. (i) An election to treat property as foreclosure property applies to all of the eligible real property acquired in the same taxable year by the trust upon the default

(or as a result of the imminence of default) on a particular lease (where the trust is the lessor) or on a particular indebtedness owed to the trust. For example, if a loan made by a trust is secured by two separate tracts of land located in different cities, and in the same taxable year the trust acquires both tracts on foreclosure upon the default (or imminence of default) of the loan, the trust must include both tracts in the election. For a further example, the trust may choose to make a separate election for only one of the tracts if they are acquired in different taxable years or were not security for the same loan. If real property subject to the same election is acquired at different times in the same taxable year, the grace period for a particular property begins when that property is acquired.

(ii) If the trust acquires separate pieces of real property that secure the same indebtedness (or are under the same lease) in different taxable years because the trust delays acquiring one of them until a later taxable year, and the primary purpose for the delay is to include only one of them in an election, then if the trust makes an election for one piece it must also make an election for the other piece. A trust will not be considered to have delayed the acquisition of property for this purpose if there is a legitimate business reason for the delay (such as an attempt to avoid foreclosure by further negotiations with the debtor or lessee).

(iii) All of the eligible personal property incident to the real property must also be included in the election.

(2) Time for making election. The election to treat property as foreclosure property must be made on or before the due date (including extensions of time) for filing the trust's income tax return for the taxable year in which the trust acquires the property with respect to which the election is being made, or April 3, 1975, whichever is later.

(3) Manner of making the election. An election made after February 6, 1981, shall be made by a statement attached to the income tax return for the taxable year in which the trust acquired the property with respect to which the election is being made. The statement shall indicate that the election is made under section 856(e) and shall identify the property to which the election applies. The statement shall also set forth

(i) The name, address, and taxpayer identification number of the trust,

(ii) The date the property was acquired by the trust, and

(iii) A brief description of how the real property was acquired, including the name of the person or persons from whom the real property was acquired and a description of the lease or indebtedness with respect to which default occurred or was imminent. An election made on or before February 6, 1981 shall be filed in the manner prescribed in 26 CFR 10.1(f) (revised as of April 1, 1977) (temporary regulations relating to the election to treat property as foreclosure property) as in effect when the election is made.

(4) Status of taxpayer. In general, a taxpayer may make an election with respect to an acquisition of property only if the taxpayer is a qualified real estate investment trust for the taxable year in which the acquisition occurs. If, however, the taxpayer establishes, to the satisfaction of the district director for the internal revenue district in which the taxpayer maintains its principal place of business or principal office or agency, that its failure to be a qualified real estate investment trust for a taxable year was to due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, the taxpayer may make the election with respect to property acquired in such taxable year. The principles of $$1.856.7(c) and 1.856.8(d) (including the principles relating to expert advice) will apply in determining whether, for purposes of this subparagraph, the failure of the taxpayer to be a qualified real estate investment trust for the taxable year in which the property is acquired was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect. If a taxpayer makes a valid election to treat property as foreclosure property, the property will not lose its status as foreclosure property solely because the taxpayer is not a qualified real estate investment trust for a subsequent taxable year (including a taxable year which encompasses an extension of the grace period). However, the rules relating to the termination of foreclosure

property status in section 856(e)(4) (but not the tax on income from foreclosure property imposed by section 857(b)(4)) apply to the year in which the property is acquired and all subsequent years, even though the taxpayer is not a qualified real estate investment trust for such year.

(d) Termination of 2-year grace period; subsequent leases—(1) In general. Under section 856(e)(4)(A), all real property (and any incidental personal property) for which a particular election has been made (see paragraph (c)(1) of this section) shall cease to be foreclosure property on the first day (occurring on or after the day on which the trust acquired the property) on which the trust either

(i) Enters into a lease with respect to any of the property which, by its terms, will give rise to income of the trust which is not described in section 856(C)(3) (other than section 856(c)(3)(F)), or

(ii) Receives or accrues, directly or indirectly, any amount which is not described in section 856(c)(3) (other than section 856(c)(3)(F)) pursuant to a lease with respect to any of the real property entered into by the trust on or after the day the trust acquired the property. For example, assume the trust acquires, in a particular taxable year, a shopping center upon the default of an indebtedness owed to the trust. Also assume that the trust subsequently enters into a lease with respect to one of several stores in the shopping center that requires the lessee to pay rent to the trust which is not income described in section 856(c)(3) (other than section 856(C)(3)(F)). In such case, the entire shopping center will cease to be foreclosure property on the day the trust enters into the lease.

(2) Extensions or renewals of leases. Generally, the extension or renewal of a lease of foreclosure property will be treated as the entering into of a new lease only if the trust has a right to renegotiate the terms of the lease. If, however, by operation of law or by contract, the acquisition of the foreclosure property by the trust terminates a preexisting lease of the property, or gives the trust a right to terminate the lease, then for purposes of section

a

856(e)(4)(A), trust, in such circumstances, will not be considered to have entered into a lease with respect to the property solely because the terms of the preexisting lease are continued in effect after foreclosure without substantial modification. The letting of rooms in a hotel or motel does not constitute the entering into a lease for purposes of section 856(e)(4)(A).

(3) Rent attributable to personal property. Solely for the purposes of section 856(e)(4)(A), if a trust enters into a lease with respect to real property on or after the day upon which the trust acquires such real property by foreclosure, and a portion of the rent from such lease is attributable to personal property which is foreclosure property incident to such real property, such rent attributable to the incidental personal property will not be considered to terminate the status of such real property (or such incidental personal property) as foreclosure property.

(e) Termination of 2-year grace period; completion of construction—(1) In general. Under section 856(e)(4)(B), all real property (and any incidental personal property) for which a particular election has been made (see paragraph (c)(1) of this section) shall cease to be foreclosure property on the first day (occurring on or after the day on which the trust acquired the property) on which any construction takes place on the property, other than completion of a building (or completion of any other improvement) where more than 10 percent of the construction of the building (or other improvement) was completed before default became imminent. If more than one default occurred with respect to an indebtedness or lease in respect of which there is an acquisition, the more-than-10-percent test (including the rule prescribed in this paragraph relating to the test) will not be applied at the time a particular default became imminent if it is clear that the acquisition did not occur as the result of such default. For example, if the debtor fails to make four consecutive payments of principal and interest on the due dates, and the trust takes action to acquire the property securing the debt only after the fourth default becomes imminent, the 10-percent test is applied at the time the

fourth default became imminent (even though the trust would not have foreclosed on the property had not all four defaults occurred).

(2) Determination of percentage of completion. The determination of whether the construction of a building or other improvement was more than 10 percent complete when default became imminent shall be made by comparing the total direct costs of construction incurred with respect to the building or other improvement as of the date default became imminent with the estimated total direct costs of construction as of such date. If the building or other improvement qualifies as more than 10 percent complete nder this method, the building or other improvement shall be considered to be more than 10 percent complete. For purposes of this subparagraph, direct costs of construction include the cost of labor and materials which are directly connected with the construction of the building or improvement. Thus, for example, direct costs of construction incurred as of the date default became imminent would include amounts paid, or for which liability has been incurred, for labor which has been performed as of such date that is directly connected with the construction of the building or other improvement and for building materials and supplies used or consumed in connection with the construction as of such date. For purposes of applying the 10percent test the trust may also take into account the cost of building materials and supplies which have been delivered to the construction site as of the date default became imminent and which are to be used or consumed in connection with the construction. On the other hand, architect's fees, administrative costs of the developer or builder, lawyers' fees, and expenses incurred in connection with obtaining zoning approval or building permits are not considerd to be direct costs of construction. Any construction by the trust as mortgagee-in-possession is considered to have taken place after default resulting in acquisition of the property became imminent. Generally, the trust's estimate of the total direct costs of completing construction as of the date the default became imminent

was

will be accepted, provided that the estimate is reasonable, in good faith, and is based on all of the data reasonably available to the trust when the trust undertakes completion of construction of the building or other improvement. Appropriate documentation which shows that construction was more than 10 percent complete when default became imminent must be available at the principal place of business of the trust for inspection in connection with an examination of the income tax return. Construction includes the renovation of a building, such as the remodeling of apartments, or the renovation of an apartment building to convert rental units to a condominium. The renovation must be more than 10 percent complete (determined by comparing the total direct cost of the physical renovation which has been incurred when default became imminent with the estimated total direct cost of renovation as of such date) when default became immiment in order for the property not to lose its status as foreclosure property if the trust undertakes the renovation.

(3) Modification of a building or improvement. Generally, the terms "building" and "improvement" in section 856(e)(4)(B) mean the building or improvement (including any intergral part thereof) as planned by the mortgagor or lessee (or other person in possession of the property, if appropriate) as of the date default became imminent. The trust, however, may estimate the total direct costs of construction and complete the construction of the building or other improvement by modifying the building or other improvement as planned as of the date default became imminent so as to reduce the estimated direct cost of construction of the building or improvement. If the trust does so modify the planned construction of the building or improvement, the 10-percent test is to be applied by comparing the direct costs of construction incurred as of the date default became imminent that are attributable to the building or improvement as modified, with the estimated total direct costs (as of such date) of construction of the building or other improvement as modified. The trust, in order to meet the 10-percent test, may

not, however, modify the planned building or improvement by reducing the estimated direct cost of construction to such an extent that the building or improvement is not functional. Also, the trust may make subsequent modifications which increase the direct cost of construction of the building or improvement if such modifications

(i) Are required by a Federal, State, or local agency, or

(ii) Are alterations that are either required by a prospective lessee or purchaser as a condition of leasing or buying the property or are necessary for the property to be used for the purpose planned at the time default became imminent. Subdivision (ii) of the preceding sentence applies, however, only if the building or improvement, as modified,

more than 10 percent complete when default became imminent. A building completed by the trust will not cease to be foreclosure property solely because the building is used in a manner other than that planed by the defaulting mortgagor or lessee. Thus, for example, assume a trust acquired on foreclosure a planned apartment building which was 20 percent complete when default became imminent and that the trust completes the building without modifications which increase the direct cost of construction. The property will not cease to be foreclosure property by reason of section 856(e)(4)(B) solely because the trust sells the dwelling units in the building as condominium units, rather than holding them for rent as planned by the defaulting mortgagor. (See, however, section 856(e)(4)(C) and paragraph (f)(2) of this section for rules relating to the requirement that where foreclosure property is used in a trade or business (including a trade or business of selling the foreclosure property), the trade or business must be conducted through independent contractor after 90 days after the property is acquired.)

(4) Application on building-by-building basis. Generally the more than 10 percent test is to be applied on a buildingby-building basis. Thus, for example, if a trust has foreclosed on land held by a

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developer building a housing subdivision, the trust may complete construction of the houses which were more than 10 percent complete when default became imminent. The trust, however, may not complete construction of houses which were only 10 percent (or less) complete, nor may the trust begin construction of other houses planned for the subdivision on which construction has not begun. The trust, however, may construct an additional building or improvement (whether or not the construction thereof has begun) which is an integral part of another building or other improvement that was more than 10 percent complete when default became imminent if the additional building or improvement and the other building or improvement, taken together as a unit, meet the more than 10 percent test. For purposes of this paragraph, an additional building or other improvement will be considered to be an integral part of another building or improvement if

(i) It is ancillary to the other building or improvement and its principal intended use is to furnish services or facilities which either supplement the use of such other building or improvement or are necessary for such other building or improvement to be utilized in the manner or for the purpose for which it is intended, or

(ii) The buildings or improvements are intended to comprise constituent parts of an interdependent group of buildings or other improvements. However, a building or other improvement will not be considered to be an integral part of another building or improvement unless the buildings or improvements were planned as part of the same overall construction plan or project before default became imminent. An additional building or other improvement (such as, for example, an outdoor swimming pool or a parking garage) may be considered to be an integral part of another building or improvement, even though the additional building or improvement was also intended to be used to provide facilities or services for use in connection with several other buildings or improvements which will not be completed. If the trust chooses not to undertake the construction of an additional building

or other improvement which qualifies as an integral part of another building or improvement, so much of the costs of construction (including both the direct costs of construction incurred before the default became imminent and the estimated costs of completion) as are attributable to that “integral part” shall not be taken into account in determining whether any other building or improvement was than 10 percent complete when default became imminent. For example, assume the trust acquires on foreclosure a property on which the defaulting mortgagor has begun construction of a motel. The motel, as planned by the mortgagor, was to consist of a twostory building containing 30 units, and two detached one-story wings, each of which was to contain 20 units. At the time default became imminent, the defaulting mortgagor had completed more than 10 percent of the construction of the two-story structure but the two wings, an access road, a parking lot, and an outdoor swimming pool planned for the motel were each less than 10 percent complete. The trust may construct the two wings of the motel, the access road, the parking lot, and the swimming pool: Provided, That the motel and the other improvements which the trust undertakes to construct, taken together as a unit, were more than 10 percent complete when default became imminent. If, however, the trust chooses not to undertake construction of the swimming pool, the cost of construction attributable to the swimming pool, whether incurred before default became imminent or estimated as the cost of completion, shall not be taken into account in determining whether the trust can complete construction of the other buildings and improvements. For another example, assume that the trust acquires a planned shopping center on foreclosure. At the time default became imminent several large buildings intended to house shops and stores in the shopping center were more than 10 percent complete. Less than 10 percent of the construction, however, had been completed on a separate structure intended to house a bank. The bank was planned as a component of the shopping center in order to provide, in conjunction with

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