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mortgage when the mortgagor prepays the obligation.
(iii) Temporary period. For purposes of section 860G(a)(6) and this paragraph (g)(1), a temporary period generally is that period from the time a REMIC receives payments on qualified mortgages and permitted investments to the time the REMIC distributes the payments to interest holders. A temporary period may not exceed 13 months. Thus, an investment held by a REMIC for more than 13 months is not a cash flow investment. In determining the length of time that a REMIC has held an investment that is part of a commingled fund or account, the REMIC may employ any reasonable method of accounting. For example, if a REMIC holds mortgage cash flows in a commingled account pending distribution, the first-in, first-out method of accounting is a reasonable method for determining whether all or part of the account satisfies the 13 month limitation.
(2) Qualified reserve funds. The term qualified reserve fund means any reasonably required reserve to provide for full payment of expenses of the REMIC or amounts due on regular or residual interests in the event of defaults on qualified mortgages, prepayment interest shortfalls (as defined in paragraph (e) of this section), lower than expected returns on cash flow investments, or any other contingency that could be provided for under a credit enhancement contract (as defined in paragraph (C) (2) and (3) of this section).
(3) Qualified reserve asset(i) In general. The term “qualified reserve asset” means any intangible property (other than a REMIC residual interest) that is held both for investment and as part of a qualified reserve fund. An asset need not generate any income to be a qualified reserve asset.
(ii) Reasonably required reserve—(A) In general. In determining whether the amount of a reserve is reasonable, it is appropriate to consider the credit quality of the qualified mortgages, the extent and nature of any guarantees relating to either the qualified mortgages or the regular and residual interests, the expected amount of expenses of the REMIC, and the expected availability of proceeds from qualified mort
gages to pay the expenses. To the extent that a reserve exceeds a reasonably required amount, the amount of the reserve must be promptly and appropriately reduced. If at any time, however, the amount of the reserve fund is less than is reasonably required, the amount of the reserve fund may be increased by the addition of payments received on qualified mortgages or by contributions from holders of residual interests.
(B) Presumption that a reserve is reasonably required. The amount of a reserve fund is presumed to be reasonable (and an excessive reserve is presumed to have been promptly and appropriately reduced) if it does not exceed
(1) The amount required by a nationally recognized independent rating agency as a condition of providing the rating for REMIC interests desired by the sponsor; or
(2) The amount required by a third party insurer or guarantor, who does not own directly or indirectly within the meaning of section 267(c)) an interest in the REMIC (as defined in $ 1.860D-1(b)(1)), as a condition of providing credit enhancement.
(C) Presumption may be rebutted. The presumption in paragraph (g)(3)(ii)(B) of this section may be rebutted if the amounts required by the rating agency or by the third party insurer are not commercially reasonable considering the factors described in paragraph (g)(3)(ii)(A) of this section.
(h) Outside reserve funds. A reserve fund that is maintained to pay expenses of the REMIC, or to make payments to REMIC interest holders is an outside reserve fund and not an asset of the REMIC only if the REMIC's organizational documents clearly and pressly
(1) Provide that the reserve fund is an outside reserve fund and not an asset of the REMIC;
(2) Identify the owner(s) of the reserve fund, either by name, or by description of the class (e.g., subordinated regular interest holders) whose membership comprises the owners of the fund; and
(3) Provide that, for all Federal tax purposes, amounts transferred by the REMIC to the fund are treated as amounts distributed by the REMIC to
the designated owner(s) or transferees of the designated owner(s).
(i) Contractual rights coupled with regular interests in tiered arrangements-(1) In general. If a REMIC issues a regular interest to a trustee of an investment trust for the benefit of the trust certificate holders and the trustee also holds for the benefit of those certificate holders certain other contractual rights, those other rights are not treated as assets of the REMIC even if the investment trust and the REMIC were created contemporaneously pursuant to a single set of organizational documents. The organizational documents must, however, require that the trustee account for the contractual rights as property that the trustee holds separate and apart from the regular interest.
(2) Erample. The following example, which describes a tiered arrangement involving a pass-thru trust that is intended to qualify as a REMIC and a pass-thru trust that is intended to be classified as a trust under $ 301.7701-4(c) of this chapter, illustrates the provisions of paragraph (i)(1) of this section.
Example. (i) A sponsor transferred a pool of mortgages to a trustee in exchange for two classes of certificates. The pool of mortgages has an aggregate principal balance of $100x. Each mortgage in the pool provides for interest payments based on the eleventh district cost of funds index (hereinafter COFI) plus a margin. The trust (hereinafter REMIC trust) issued a Class N bond, which the sponsor designates as a regular interest, that has a principal amount of $100.r and that provides for interest payments at a rate equal to OneYear LIBOR plus 100 basis points, subject to a cap equal to the weighted average pool rate. The Class R interest, which the sponsor designated as the residual interest, entitles its holder to all funds left in the trust after the Class N bond has been retired. The Class R interest holder is not entitled to current distributions.
(ii) On the same day, and under the same set of documents, the sponsor also created an investment trust. The sponsor contributed to the investment trust the Class N bond together with an interest rate cap contract. Under the interest rate cap contract, the issuer of the cap contract agrees to pay to the trustee for the benefit of the investment trust certificate holders the excess of OneYear LIBOR plus 100 basis points over the weighted average pool rate (COFI plus a margin) times the outstanding principal balance of the Class N bond in the event One-Year
LIBOR plus 100 basis points ever exceeds the weighted average pool rate. The trustee (the same institution that serves as REMIC trust trustee), in exchange for the contributed assets, gave the sponsor certificates representing undivided beneficial ownership interests in the Class N bond and the interest rate cap contract. organizational documents require the trustee to account for the regular interest and the cap contract as discrete property rights.
(iii) The separate existence of the REMIC trust and the investment trust are respected for all Federal income tax purposes. Thus, the interest rate cap contract is an asset beneficially owned by the several certificate holders and is not an asset of the REMIC trust. Consequently, each certificate holder must allocate its purchase price for the certificate between its undivided interest in the Class N bond and its undivided interest in the interest rate cap contract in accordance with the relative fair market values of those two property rights.
(j) Clean-up call—(1) In general. For purposes of section 860F(a)(5)B), a clean-up call is the redemption of a class of regular interests when, by reason of prior payments with respect to those interests, the administrative costs associated with servicing that class outweigh the benefits of maintaining the class. Factors to consider in making this determination include
(i) The number of holders of that class of regular interests;
(ii) The frequency of payments to holders of that class;
(iii) The effect the redemption will have on the yield of that class of regular interests:
(iv) The outstanding principal balance of that class; and
(v) The percentage of the original principal balance of that class still outstanding.
(2) Interest rate changes. The redemption of a class of regular interests undertaken to profit from a change in interest rates is not a clean-up call.
(3) Safe harbor. Although the outstanding principal balance is only one factor to consider, the redemption of a class of regular interests with an outstanding principal balance of no more than 10 percent of its original principal balance is always a clean-up call.
(k) Startup day. The term “startup day” means the day on which the REMIC issues all of its regular and residual interests. A sponsor may, however, contribute property to a REMIC in exchange for regular and residual interests over any period of 10 consecutive days and the REMIC may designate any one of those 10 days as its startup day. The day so designated is then the startup day, and all interests are treated as issued on that day. [T.D. 8458, 57 FR 61309, Dec. 24, 1992; 58 FR 8098, Feb. 11, 1993)
foreign holder in whose hands the income from a residual interest would be effectively connected income, and if the transfer has the effect of allowing the transferor to avoid tax on accrued excess inclusions, then the transfer is disregarded and the transferor continues to be treated as the owner of the residual interest for purposes of section 871(a), 881, 1441, or 1442.
(b) (Reserved] (T.D. 8458, 57 FR 61313, Dec. 24, 1992]
TAX BASED ON INCOME FROM SOURCES WITHIN OR WITHOUT THE UNITED STATES
DETERMINATION OF SOURCES OF INCOME
(a) Transfer of a residual interest with tax avoidance potential—(1) In general. A transfer of a residual interest that has tax avoidance potential is disregarded for all Federal tax purposes if the transferee is a foreign person. Thus, if a residual interest with tax avoidance potential is transferred to a foreign holder at formation of the REMIC, the sponsor is liable for the tax on any excess inclusion that accrues with respect to that residual interest.
(2) Tar avoidance potential-(i) Defined. A residual interest has tax avoidance potential for purposes of this section unless, at the time of the transfer, the transferor reasonably expects that, for each excess inclusion, the REMIC will distribute to the transferee residual interest holder an amount that will equal at least 30 percent of the excess inclusion, and that each such amount will be distributed at or after the time at which the excess inclusion accrues and not later than the close of the calendar year following the calendar year of accrual.
(ii) Safe harbor. For purposes of paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section, a transferor has a reasonable expectation if the 30-percent test would be satisfied were the REMIC's qualified mortgages to prepay at each rate within a range of rates from 50 percent to 200 percent of the rate assumed under section 1272(a)(6) with respect to the qualified mortgages (or the rate that would have been assumed had the mortgages been issued with original issue discount).
(3) Effectively connected income. Paragraph (a)(1) of this section will not apply if the transferee's income from the residual interest is subject to tax under section 871(b) or section 882.
(4) Transfer by a foreign holder. If a foreign person transfers a residual interest to a United States person or a
$ 1.861-1 Income from sources within
the United States. (a) Categories of income. Part I (section 861 and following), subchapter N, chapter 1 of the Code, and the regulations thereunder determine the sources of income for purposes of the income tax. These sections explicitly allocate certain important sources of income to the United States or to areas outside the United States, as the case may be; and, with respect to the remaining income (particularly that derived partly from sources within and partly from sources without the United States), authorize the Secretary or his delegate to determine the income derived from sources within the United States, either by rules of separate allocation or by processes or formulas of general apportionment. The statute provides for the following three categories of income:
(1) Within the United States. The gross income from sources within the United States, consisting of the items of gross income specified in section 861(a) plus the items of gross income allocated or apportioned to such sources in accordance with section 863(a). See $$ 1.861-2 to 1.861-7, inclusive, and $1.863-1. The taxable income from sources within the United States, in the case of such income, shall be determined by deducting therefrom, in accordance with sections 861(b) and 863(a), the expenses, losses, and other deductions properly apportioned or allocated thereto and a ratable part of any other expenses, losses, or deductions which cannot definitely
together with gross income derived partly from sources within and partly from sources without the United States, the amounts thereof, together with the expenses and investment applicable thereto, shall be segregated; and the taxable income from sources within the United States shall be separately computed therefrom. [T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11910, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 7928, 48 FR 55845, Dec. 16, 1983)
be allocated to some item or class of gross income. See $81.861-8 and 1.863-1.
(2) Without the United States. The gross income from sources without the United States, consisting of the items of gross income specified in section 862(a) plus the items of gross income allocated apportioned to such sources in accordance with section 863(a). See $$ 1.862–1 and 1.863–1. The taxable income from sources without the United States, in the case of such income, shall be determined by deducting therefrom, in accordance with sections 862(b) and 863(a), the expenses, losses, and other deductions properly apportioned or allocated thereto and a ratable part of any other expenses, losses, or deductions which cannot definitely be allocated to some item or class of gross income. See $81.862–1 and 1.863-1.
(3) Partly within and partly without the United States. The gross income derived from sources partly within and partly without the United States, consisting of the items specified in section 863(b) (1), (2), and (3). The taxable income allocated or apportioned to sources within the United States, in the case of such income, shall be determined in accordance with section 863 (a) or (b). See $$ 1.863-2 to 1.863–5, inclusive.
(4) Erceptions. An owner of certain aircraft or vessels first leased on or before December 28, 1980, may elect to treat income in respect of these aircraft or vessels as income from sources within the United States for purposes of sections 861(a) and 862(a). See $1.8619. An owner of certain aircraft, vessels, or spacecraft first leased after December 28, 1980, must treat income in respect of these craft as income from sources within the United States for purposes of sections 861(a) and 862(a). See $ 1.861-9A.
(b) Taxable income from sources within the United States. The taxable income from sources within the United States shall consist of the taxable income described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section plus the taxable income allocated or apportioned to such sources, as indicated in paragraph (a)(3) of this section.
(c) Computation of income. If a taxpayer has gross income from sources within or without the United States,
$ 1.861-2 Interest.
(a) In general. (1) Gross income consisting of interest from the United States or any agency or instrumentality thereof (other than a possession of the United States or an agency or instrumentality of a possession), a State any political subdivision thereof, or the District of Columbia, and interest from a resident of the United States on a bond, note, or other interest-bearing obligation issued, assumed or incurred by such person shall be treated as income from sources within the United States. Thus, for example, income from sources within the United States includes interest received on any refund of income tax imposed by the United States, a State or any political subdivision thereof, or the District of Columbia. Interest other than that described in this paragraph is not to be treated as income from sources within the United States. See paragraph (a)(7) of this section for special rules concerning substitute interest paid or accrued pursuant to a securities lending transaction.
(2) The term "resident of the United States”, as used in this paragraph, includes (i) an individual who at the time of payment of the interest is a resident of the United States, (ii) a domestic corporation, (iii) a domestic partnership which at any time during its taxable year is engaged in trade or business in the United States, or (iv) a foreign corporation or a foreign partnership, which at any time during its taxable year is engaged in trade or business in the United States.
(3) The method by which, or the place where, payment of the interest is made is immaterial in determining whether interest is derived from sources within the United States.
(4) For purposes of this section, the term "interest” includes all amounts treated as interest under section 483, and the regulations thereunder. It also includes original issue discount, as defined in section 1232(b)(1), whether or not the underlying bond, debenture, note, certificate, or other evidence of indebtedness is a capital asset in the hands of the taxpayer within the meaning of section 1221.
(5) If interest is paid on an obligation of a resident of the United States by a nonresident of the United States acting in the nonresident's capacity as a guarantor of the obligation of the resident, the interest will be treated as income from sources within the United States.
(6) In the case of interest received by a nonresident alien individual or foreign corporation this paragraph (a) applies whether or not the interest is effectively connected for the taxable year with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States by such individual or corporation.
(7) A substitute interest payment is a payment, made to the transferor of a security in a securities lending transaction
sale-repurchase transaction, of an amount equivalent to an interest payment which the owner of the transferred security is entitled to receive during the term of the transaction. A securities lending transaction is a transfer of one or more securities that is described in section 1058(a) or a substantially similar transaction. A sale-repurchase transaction is an agreement under which a person transfers a security in exchange for cash and simultaneously agrees to receive a substantially identical securities from the transferee in the future in exchange for cash. A substitute interest payment shall be sourced in the same manner as the interest accruing on the transferred security for purposes of this section and $ 1.862-1. See also $$ 1.864-5(b)(2)(iii), 1.871-7(b)(2), 1.881-2(b)(2) and for the character of such payments and $1.894–1(c) for the application tax treaties to these transactions.
(b) Interest not derived from U.S. sources. Notwithstanding paragraph (a) of this section, interest shall be treated as income from sources without the United States to the extent provided
by subparagraphs (A) through (H), of section 861(a)(1) and by the following subparagraphs of this paragraph.
(1) Interest on bank deposits and on similar amounts. (i) Interest paid or credited before January 1, 1977, to a nonresident alien individual or foreign corporation on
(a) Deposits with persons, including citizens of the United States or alien individuals and foreign or domestic partnerships or corporations, carrying on the banking business in the United States,
(b) Deposits or withdrawable accounts with savings institutions chartered and supervised as savings and loan or similar associations under Federal or State law, or
(c) Amounts held by an insurance company under an agreement to pay interest thereon, shall be treated as income from sources without the United States if such interest is not effectively connected for the taxable year with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States by such nonresident alien individual or foreign corporation. If such interest is effectively connected for the taxable year with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States by such nonresident alien individual or foreign corporation, it shall be treated as income from sources within the United States under paragraph (a) of this section unless it is treated as income from sources without the United States under another subparagraph of this paragraph. For a special rule for determining whether such interest is effectively connected for the taxable year with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States, see paragraph (c)(1)(ii) $ 1.864 4.
(ii) Paragraph (b)(1)(i)(b) of this section applies to interest on deposits or withdrawable accounts described therein only to the extent that the interest paid or credited by the savings institution described therein is deductible under section 591 in determining the taxable income of such institution; and for this purpose, whether an amount is deductible under section 591 shall be determined without regard to section 265, relating to deductions allocable to tax-exempt income. Thus, for example, such subdivision does not