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10 tioremque humana intuens, rogitat qui vir esset. nomen patremque ac patriam accepit, 'Iove nate, Hercules, salve,' inquit. Te mihi mater, veridica interpres deum, aucturum caelestium numerum cecinit tibique aram hic dicatum iri, quam opulentissimą olim in terris I gens maximam vocet tuoque ritu colat.' Dextra Hercules data accipere se omen impleturumque fata ara 12 condita ac dicata ait. Ibi tum primum bove eximia capta de grege sacrum Herculi adhibitis ad ministerium dapemque Potitiis ac Pinariis, quae tum familiae maxime in

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10. patremque: notice the division into groups, the first two words in one, and the last one in the other.

Iove, etc. in accordance with the answer given to his question.

aucturum: the standard expression for being added to anything; cf. Aen. V. 565.cecinit: cf. Carmentae, 8 n. This prophecy accounts for the dedication of the altar before the apotheosis of the hero. -maximam: the altar so called stood in the low ground by the Tiber, near the gate of the Circus Maximus. It was no doubt erected under Greek influence, and seems to have been connected from very early times with the foreign trade of the city. Upon it bargains were solemnized, and the deity, by the name Dius Fidius, was identified with Semo Sancus, the Sabine god of faith; see Mommsen, Book I. chap. xii. ritu: every cult had its own peculiar ritual, either borrowed from abroad or developed from very early times; cf. Graeco Herculi, 3.

The chief peculiarities of this rite were offering with uncovered head, consuming the offering sitting, and the exclusion of women, - all Greek forms, introduced, doubtless, by the early merchants along with the divinity himself.

II. accipere: a regular word upon the announcement of omens. It would seem to have been necessary for the favored mortal to accept the favorable omen to make it valid.

Cf. accipio omen, mea filia, Cic. de
Div. I. 46. 103; and Serv. to Aen.
V. 530, nostri arbitrii est visa omina
vel improbare vel recipere.-imple-

turum: i.e. so far as he was con-
cerned, by erecting and dedicating
the altar; cf. IX. 34. 18; Aen.
VIII. 271; Prop. V. 9. 67.

12. primum: the first offering to inaugurate the cult. ministerium: i.e. as assistants to Hercules, who probably is conceived as having acted as chief priest. — Potitiis ac Pinariis: the names seem manufactured; but they may well be relics of descriptive names in some still older rites; cf. IX. 29. 9; Virg. Aen. VIII. 269 seq.-familiae: logically appositive to the names, but, according to Latin usage, absorbed into the relative clause; cf. Gr. 201. d.

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clitae ea loca incolebant, factum. Forte ita evenit, ut 13 Potitii ad tempus praesto essent hisque exta apponerentur, Pinarii extis adesis ad ceteram venirent dapem. Inde institutum mansit, donec Pinarium genus fuit, ne extis sollemnium vescerentur. Potitii ab Euandro edocti, 14 antistites sacri eius per multas aetates fuerunt, donec tradito servis publicis sollemni familiae ministerio genus omne Potitiorum interiit. Haec tum sacra Romulus 15 una ex omnibus peregrina suscepit, iam tum immortalitatis virtute partae, ad quam eum sua fata ducebant, fautor.

Rebus divinis rite perpetratis vocataque ad concilium 8 multitudine, quae coalescere in populi unius corpus nulla re praeterquam legibus poterat, iura dedit; quae ita 2

13. exta: as particularly sacred, the heart, liver, etc. To this day, in Greece, these parts of the lambs, roasted whole on Easter Sunday, are treated as special dainties; and the editor, as a stranger, has had them presented to him on such an occasion.dapem: it is to be remembered that every sacrifice in ancient times, except those to the gods below, was a feast. Cf. for the whole matter Aen. VIII. 179 seq. · donec Pinarium, etc.: apparently this family became extinct first.

14. antistites: i.e. for the ministerium above mentioned. -tradito: i.e. they abandoned the actual performance of the rites to slaves, and, thereby committing a religious offence, they as a consequence died out. -publicis: to every worship were attached certain slaves who were considered the property of the divinity or of the commonwealth. In this case, instead of being only assistants, they were allowed to perform all the rites, and hence the pollution and consequent guilt of the Potitii. See IX. 29. 9.

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sancta generi hominum agresti fore ratus, si se ipse venerabilem insignibus imperii fecisset, cum cetero habitu se augustiorem, tum maxime lictoribus duodecim 3 sumptis fecit. Alii ab numero avium, quae augurio regnum portenderant, eum secutum numerum putant; me haud paenitet eorum sententiae esse, quibus et apparitores et hoc genus ab Etruscis finitimis, unde sella curulis, unde toga praetexta sumpta est, et numerum quoque ipsum ductum placet, et ita habuisse Etruscos, quod ex duodecim populis communiter creato rege singulos singuli populi lictores dederint.

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Crescebat interim urbs munitionibus alia atque alia appetendo loca, cum in spem magis futurae multitudinis 5 quam ad id quod tum hominum erat munirent. Deinde ne vana urbis magnitudo esset, adiciendae multitudinis causa vetere consilio condentium urbes, qui obscuram atque humilem conciendo ad se multitudinem natam e

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cities were reckoned as belonging to the Etruscan league.

GROWTH OF THE STATE.

4. interim: while the constitution was preparing.-in spem: as a hope looks forward, there is a natural tendency to say 'into the (future) hope,' rather than 'in the (present) hope.' Livy is the first who so uses in. — quod.tum: of course, on Livy's interpretation of this myth, the number was small. There is little doubt, however, that the city grew for commercial reasons, as have Chicago and San Francisco, and that adventurers flocked thither from all quarters. The strength of a regal government, however, made an asylum more natural than a vigilance committee. 5. vana, weak and feeble; a mere extent without corresponding internal strength.-vetere consilio :

terra sibi prolem ementiebantur, locum, qui nunc saeptus descendentibus inter duos lucos est, asylum aperit. Eo 6 ex finitimis populis turba omnis sine discrimine, liber an servus esset, avida novarum rerum perfugit, idque primum ad coeptam magnitudinem roboris fuit.

Cum iam virium haud paeniteret, consilium deinde; viribus parat: centum creat senatores, sive quia is numerus satis erat, sive quia soli centum erant qui creari patres possent. Patres certe ab honore patriciique progenies eorum appellati.

cf. the example of Cadmus, Ov. Met. III. 105.-saeptus, enclosed for some purpose. - descendentibus, as you go down. Gr. 235. b.

lucos: the Capitoline Hill had two summits, on each of which seems to have been a sacred grove, and between these a depression. asylum: there were in Greece and Italy many such places of refuge (cf. Tac. Ann. III. 60 seq.), to which persons might flee and be under the protection of the divinity. This sanctity was often violated, but was in the main respected. There is no reason to believe that the statement here is not true. The growth of Rome seems to indicate an influx of adventurers (avida novarum rerum) who were attracted by the sudden mercantile importance of the city. It is more probable, however, that the asylum already existed than that it was. opened expressly; cf. 30. 5; XXXV. 51. 2.

6. id referring to the influx. ad, towards; looking forward to the size of the city as planned by Romulus; cf. 4. roboris, real strength; partitive with id or primum, with both of which it properly belongs, and having reference to va la magnitudo above.

7. iam: i.e. after the accessions. - paeniteret, had no reason to be dissatisfied. consilium, a head; properly, wise counsel to direct the powerful body; but the word is used in a half abstract and half concrete sense as being the regular name for any council, and especially for the senate. soli: i.e. these were all the heads of families that there were. — patres: i.e. heads of old clans. It must be remembered that the father, so long as he lived, was the only free member of a family, while all his descendants, however numerous, were in his power.certe: as opposed to the doubt in sive ... sive.

ab honore, as a distinction, as a council of the elders; cf. senatus, earl, alderman, and similar words. This would agree with the first supposition tolerably well, but not at all with the second, unless we suppose the name to have become accidentally attached to them, as fathers par excellence. — patricii: this part is no doubt true, as the word is an adjective, like other words in -icius; cf. Cic. de Rep. II. 12.23, Romuli senatus, qui constabat ex optimatibus, quibus ipse rex tantum tribuisset ut eos patres vellet nominari patriciosque eorum liberos.

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Iam res Romana adeo erat valida ut cuilibet finitimarum civitatium bello par esset, sed penuria mulierum hominis aetatem duratura magnitudo erat, quippe quibus nec domi spes prolis nec cum finitimis conubia essent. 2 Tum ex consilio patrum Romulus legatos circa vicinas gentes misit qui societatem conubiumque novo populo 3 peterent urbes quoque, ut cetera, ex infimo nasci; dein, quas sua virtus ac dii iuvent, magnas opes sibi magnum4 que nomen facere; satis scire origini Romanae et deos adfuisse et non defuturam virtutem: proinde ne gravarentur homines cum hominibus sanguinem ac genus

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miscere.

Nusquam benigne legatio audita est, adeo simul spernebant, simul tantam in medio crescentem molem sibi ac posteris suis metuebant. A plerisque rogitantibus dimissi, ecquod feminis quoque asylum aperuissent: id

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apologetic tone here is on account of the youth of the state (novo populo). It was young, to be sure, but had a great future before it.

4. deos, etc.: referring chiastically to virtus and dii. —proinde : the regular illative particle before any exhortation, summing up the reasons for the request or command. homines, etc.: an additional reason, through an intimation of equality.

5. adeo, to such a degree (as is indicated by the preceding); a very common trick of language in Livy, giving the reason in the form of an antecedent to a result clause, as if it were, to such a degree did they, etc., that they nowhere received them.' spernebant, etc.: i.e. they scorned them, and at the same time didn't wish to perpetuate them. -ecquod, etc.: a question imply. ing a recommendation, as one might say, 'have you tried this means?'feminis of course, a most insult

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