Blame Welfare, Ignore Poverty and Inequality
With the passage of the 1996 welfare reform, not only welfare, but poverty and inequality have disappeared from the political discourse. The decline in the welfare rolls has been hailed as a success. This book challenges that assumption. It argues that while many single mothers left welfare, they have joined the working poor, and fail to make a decent living. The book examines the persistent demonization of poor single-mother families; the impact of the low-wage market on perpetuating poverty and inequality; and the role of the welfare bureaucracy in defining deserving and undeserving poor. It argues that the emphasis on family values - marriage promotion, sex education and abstinence - is misguided and diverts attention from the economic hardships low-income families face. The book proposes an alternative approach to reducing poverty and inequality that centers on a children's allowance as basic income support coupled with jobs and universal child care.
Lietotāju komentāri - Rakstīt atsauksmi
Ierastajās vietās neesam atraduši nevienu atsauksmi.
Welfare Bureaucracy as an Enactment of Moral Symbols
Once again according to the 1996 welfare reform welfare departments
The WelfaretoWork Approach
3 Applicants that are deemed not job ready are placed
Table 51 Percent changes in social services spending state fiscal
Table 52 US fiscal year 2002 use of TANF and
Adapted from Gais et al 2001
6 Work and the LowWage Labor Market
Under 18 years
0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000
that is quitting a job because of child care and
3 The Response to Poverty and Inequality
Singlemother families have signiﬁcantly increased because of divorce
but would result in a loss of purchasing power for
hard to be precise as to what is going on
4 Demonizing the SingleMother Family
undeserving they were excluded from the program and thus forced
The Attacks on Welfare
errors could be classiﬁed as paper errors unrelated to substantive
5 The Welfare Bureaucracy
What Kinds of Jobs Are Available? The LowWage Labor
recruit andreplace workersfurtherclosing off the industryfrom blacks At the
child care availability as well as affordability About 20 percent
7 Welfare Reform and Moral Entrepreneurship
In sum marriage can have a positive effect even among
in 2004129 In Arizona child support payments to a capped
of their own161 The percentage of teen mothers who received
Teen Children of Welfare Recipients
8 Addressing Poverty and Inequality
Even families who are near poor within 200 percent
the EITC and the state expenditures to help the working
Improving the Paid Labor Market
The Very Early Period
Waiting lists are long There is a lack of coordination
committed to universal child care108 In the meantime the Bush
Citi izdevumi - Skatīt visu
adults AFDC African American agencies applicants average barriers basic basic income guarantee beneﬁts birth budget caseload cash assistance Center changes child care child support Childrens Defense Fund clients costs declined deﬁned difﬁculties disabled earnings economic effects EITC eligibility employers employment family cap federal ﬁnancial ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬁscal ﬁve food insecurity food stamps Fragile Families full-time funds health insurance higher Hispanic households Ibid immigrants improve income increase Institute job search Katz lack less living low-income low-wage labor market low-wage workers marriage married MDRC Medicaid ment million needs nonstandard ofﬁces paid labor parents participation payments percent Policy poor poverty line poverty rate poverty threshold preschool problems programs receive reduce requirements Research sanctions Scholz signiﬁcant signiﬁcantly single mothers Social Security social services TANF U.S. Census Bureau U.S. Department wage Washington welfare department welfare recipients Welfare Reform welfare-to-work women York
285. lappuse - States in operating a program designed to (1) provide assistance to needy families so that children may be cared for in their own homes or in the homes of relatives; (2) end the dependence of needy parents on government benefits by promoting job preparation, work, and marriage...
171. lappuse - Too much emphasis has been placed on just getting an assistance check into the hands of an individual. If we are ever going to move constructively in this field, we must come to recognize that our efforts must involve a variety of helpful services, of which giving a money payment is only one, and also that the object of our efforts must be the entire family.
315. lappuse - ... (B) teaches abstinence from sexual activity outside marriage as the expected standard for all school age children; (C) teaches that abstinence from sexual activity is the only certain way to avoid out-ofwedlock pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and other associated health problems...
22. lappuse - The poor shall be taken to mean persons, families and groups of persons whose resources (material, cultural and social) are so limited as to exclude them from the minimum acceptable way of life in the Member State in which they live'.
286. lappuse - Therefore, in light of this demonstration of the crisis in our Nation, it is the sense of the Congress that prevention of out-of-wedlock pregnancy and reduction in out-of-wedlock birth are very important Government interests and the policy contained in part A of title IV of the Social Security Act (as amended by section 103(a) of this Act) is intended to address the crisis.
23. lappuse - Congress created the Bureau of the Budget (now the Office of Management and Budget) to review the morass of agency budgetary information and to approve agency budget requests.
315. lappuse - ... (D) teaches that a mutually faithful monogamous relationship in the context of marriage is the expected standard of human sexual activity; (E) teaches that sexual activity outside of the context of marriage is likely to have harmful psychological and physical effects...
285. lappuse - The Congress makes the following findings: ( 1 ) Marriage is the foundation of a successful society. (2) Marriage is an essential institution of a successful society which promotes the interests of children.
315. lappuse - ... (E) teaches that sexual activity outside of the context of marriage is likely to have harmful psychological and physical effects; (F) teaches that bearing children out-of-wedlock is likely to have harmful consequences for the child, the child's parents, and society...
315. lappuse - ... abstinence from sexual activity is the only certain way to avoid outof-wedlock pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and other associated health problems; (D) teaches that a mutually faithful monogamous relationship in the context of marriage is the expected standard of human sexual activity...