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Where Corporations Are Engaged in More Than One Class

of Business. Art. 112. Where a corporation is engaged in carrying on more than one class of business, gross income derived from the different classes of business shall be ascertained according to the definitions above, and which are applicable thereto.

Net Income, How Ascertained. Art. 113. The net income shall be ascertained by deducting from the gross amount of the income of such corporation received within the


from all sources: Ordinary and Necessary Expenses. First. All the ordinary and necessary expenses paid within the year in the maintenance and operation of its business and properties, including rentals or other payments required to be made as a condition to the continued use or possession of property.

Loss Sustained Within the Year. Depreciation. Second. All losses actually sustained within the year and not compensated by insurance or otherwise, including a reasonable allowance for depreciation by use, wear and tear of property, if any, and in the case of mines, a reasonable allowance for depletion of ores and all natural deposits, not to exceed 5 per centum of the gross value at the mine of the output for the year for which the computation is made; and in the case of insurance companies, the net addition, if any, required by law to be made within the year to reserve funds, and the sums other than dividends paid within the year on policy and annuity contracts, except as provided in the cases of mutual fire, mutual marine, and life insurance companies.

Interest Accrued and Paid Within the Year. Third. The amount of interest accrued and paid within the year on its indebtedness to an amount of such indebtedness not exceeding one-half of the sum of its interest-bearing indebtedness and its paid-up capital stock outstanding at the close of the year, or if no capital stock, on the amount of its indebtedness not exceeding the amount of capital employed in the business at the close of the year.

Interest on Indebtedness Secured by Collateral. Provided, That in case of indebtedness wholly secured by collateral the subject of sale in ordinary business of such corporation, joint-stock company, or association, the total interest secured and paid by such company, corporation, or association within the year on any such indebtedness may be deducted as a part of its expense of doing business.

Tax Paid on Guaranteed Bonds Not Deductible. Provided further, That in the case of bonds or other indebtedness, which have been issued with a guaranty that the interest payable thereon shall be free from taxation, no de duction for the payment of the tax herein imposed shall be allowed; and in the case of a bank, banking association, loan or trust company, interest paid within the year on deposits or on moneys received for investment and secured by interest-bearing certificates of indebtedness issued by such bank, banking association, loan or trust company.

Taxes Paid Within the Year.

Fourth. All sums paid within the year for taxes imposed under the authority of the United States, or any State or Territory thereof, or imposed by the government of any foreign country.

General Expenses. Art. 114. Expenses of operation and maintenance shall include all expenditures for material, labor, fuel, and other items entering into the cost of the goods sold or inventoried at the end of the year, and all other expenses incurred in the operation of the business except such as are required by the act to be segregated in the return.

Cost of Buildings on Leased Grounds. Art. 115. The cost of erecting permanent buildings on ground leased by a company is a proper deduction as a rental charge, provided such buildings are left on the ground at the expiration of the lease as a part of the rental payment. In such case the cost will be prorated according to the number of years constituting the term of the lease and the annual deduction will be made accordingly.

Expense, Foreign Steamship Companies. ART. 116. General expenses, such as coal, ship stores, etc., of foreign steamship companies, shall be prorated as provided in the act for interest deductions in the case of foreign corporations.

Commissions to Salesmen Paid in Stock. Art. 117. Commissions allowed salesmen, paid in stock, may be deducted as expense if so charged on books at the actual value of such stock.

Additions and Betterments. Art. 118. Amounts expended in additions and betterments which constitute an increase in capital investment are not a proper deduction.

Compensation Based on Stockholding Not Deductible.

Art. 119. Amounts paid as compensation or additional compensation to officers or employees, which amounts are based upon the stockholdings of such officers or employees, are held to be dividends, and although paid in lieu of salaries or wages, are not allowable deductions from gross income, for the reason that dividends are not deductible.

Gifts, Pensions, or Gratuities Not Deductible. Art. 120. Amounts paid for pensions to retired employees, or to their families, or others dependent upon them, or on account of injuries received by employees, are proper deductions as “ordinary and necessary expenses”; gifts or gratuities to employees in the service of a corporation are not properly deductible in ascertaining net income.

Donations Which Are Deductible. Art. 121. Donations made for purposes connected with the operation of the property when limited to charitable institutions, hospitals, or educational institutions, conducted for the benefit of its employees, or their dependents, shall be a proper deduction for ordinary and necessary expenses.

Reserves for Insurance. Art. 122. Funds set aside by a corporation for insuring its own property are not a proper deduction, but any loss actually sustained and charged to such fund may be deducted.

Materials and Supplies. Art. 123. In ascertaining expenses proper to be included in the deductions to be made under the item of "Expenses,' corporations carrying materials and supplies on hand for use should include in such expenses the charges for materials and supplies only to the amount that the same are actually disbursed and used in operation and maintenance during the year for which the return is made.

Losses Sustained During the Year. ART. 124. The deduction for losses must be losses actually sustained during the year and not compensated by insurance or otherwise. It must be based upon the difference between the cost value and salvage value of property or assets, including in the latter value such amount, if any, as has, in the current or previous years, been set aside and deducted from gross income by way of depreciation, as elsewhere de fined, and has not been paid out in making good such depreciation.

Bad Debts Charged Off. ART. 125. Bad debts, if so charged off the company's books, during the year, are proper deductions. But such debts, if subsequently collected, must be treated as income.

Reserves Not Deductible. Art. 126. Reserves to take care of anticipated or probable losses are not a proper deduction from gross income.

Loss Due to Removal of Buildings. Art. 127. Loss due to voluntary removal of buildings, etc., incident to improvements is either a proper charge to the cost of new additions or to depreciation already provided, as the facts may indicate, but in no case is it a proper deduction in determining net income, except as it may be re flected in the reasonable amount allowable as a deduction for depreciation of the new building. Any loss claimed be cause of the voluntary removal of a building is presumed to have been covered by previous depreciation charges; otherwise the amount of such loss will constitute a part of the cost of the new building.

Losses from Sale of Capital Assets. Art. 128. All losses claimed arising from sale of capital assets should be arrived at in the manner prescribed in Article 109, defining gains arising from sale of capital assets.

Depreciation Defined. Depreciation, How Determined.

Art. 129. The deduction for depreciation should be the estimated amount of the loss, accrued during the year to which the return relates, in the value of the property in re spect of which such deduction is claimed, that arises from exhaustion, wear and tear, or obsolescence out of the uses to which the property is put, and which loss has not been made good by payments for ordinary maintenance and re pairs deducted under the heading of expenses of maintenance and operation. This estimate should be formed upon the assumed life of the property, its cost, and its use. Expenses paid in any one year in making good exhaustion, wear and tear, or obsolescence in respect of which any deduction for depreciation is claimed must not be included in the deduction for expense of maintenance and operation of the

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