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exaudiri neque instrui acies posset. Nemo ullius nisi 8 fugae memor. Ita effuso agmine per stragem corporum armorumque evasere ut prius hostis desisteret sequi quam Romanus fugere. Tandem collectis ex dissi- 9 pato cursu militibus consul, cum revocando nequiquam suos persecutus esset, in pacato agro castra posuit; advocataque contione invectus haud falso in proditorem exercitum militaris disciplinae, desertorem signorum, ubi «« signa, ubi arma essent, singulos rogitans, inermes milites, signo amisso signiferos, ad hoc centuriones dupli- 11 cariosque qui reliquerant ordines, virgis caesos securi percussit; cetera multitudo sorte decimus quisque ad supplicium lecti.

Contra ea in Aequis inter consulem ac milites comi- 60 tate ac beneficiis certatum est. Et natura Quinctius erat lenior et saevitia infelix collegae quo is magis gauderet ingenio suo effecerat. Huic tantae concordiae a

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of the centurions. — multitudo... decimus... lecti: a curious construction according to sense, explained by the partitive apposition of quisque. ad supplicium, for

execution.

THE CAMPAIGN OF QUINCTIUS.

60. et... et: the two branches are the natural disposition of the consul, and his profiting by the experience of his colleague.-quo

gauderet: a rare construction of a result clause with quo; cf. the common quominus in such clauses.

2. concordiae, etc.: put by a common Latin usage for duci, etc., tam concordibus. Though the language is less fond of abstract nouns, yet it sometimes prefers them as summing up the quality referred to in a single word, which is then by its use made concrete again; cf. I.

ducis exercitusque non ausi offerre se Aequi vagari populabundum hostem per agros passi. Nec ullo ante bello latius inde actae praedae. Ea omnis militi data 3 est. Addebantur et laudes, quibus haud minus quam praemio gaudent militum animi. Cum duci tum propter ducem patribus quoque placatior exercitus redit, sibi parentem, alteri exercitui dominum datum ab senatu

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memorans.

Varia fortuna belli atroci discordia domi forisque annum exactum insignem maxime comitia tributa efficiunt, res maior victoria suscepti certaminis quam usu: 5 plus enim dignitatis comitiis ipsis detractum est patribus ex concilio submovendis, quam virium aut plebi additum est aut demptum patribus.

61

Turbulentior inde annus excepit L. Valerio T. Aemilio consulibus, cum propter certamina ordinum de lege agra2 ria, tum propter iudicium Appi Claudii, cui acerrimo. adversario legis causamque possessorum publici agri

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contest more than for any permanent advantage.

5. dignitatis, etc.: i.e. the new comitia lost dignity because the most distinguished of the voters were now excluded, and consequently the body was only a humble assembly of the poorer classes. Yet there is nothing in Livy's words that distinctly says that the patricians were excluded from voting, but only that they were excluded from being present to hinder. See note to 56. 10.

PROSECUTION OF APPIUS CLAU-
DIUS.

61. excepit, followed, properly with an object, here civitatem, understood; cf. I. 53. 4. Valerio : cf. 42. 7. ordinum: at this time only the two parties, the patricians

tamquam tertio consuli sustinenti M. Duillius et Cn. Siccius diem dixere. Numquam ante tam invisus 3 plebi reus ad iudicium vocatus populi est, plenus suarum, plenus paternarum irarum. Patres quoque non 4 temere pro ullo aeque adnisi sunt: propugnatorem senatus maiestatisque vindicem suae, ad omnes tribunicios plebeiosque oppositum tumultus, modum dumtaxat in certamine egressum, iratae obici plebi. Vnus e patri- 5 bus ipse Ap. Claudius et tribunos et plebem et suum iudicium pro nihilo habebat. Illum non minae plebis, non senatus preces perpellere umquam potuere, non modo ut vestem mutaret aut supplex prensaret homines, sed ne ut ex consueta quidem asperitate orationis, cum ad populum agenda causa esset, aliquid leniret atque submitteret. Idem habitus oris, eadem contu- 6 macia in vultu, idem in oratione spiritus erat, adeo ut magna pars plebis Appium non minus reum timeret

and the plebeians. Perhaps they are only so called in accordance with later usage, derived from the ' equestrian order.'

2. tertio, etc.: i.e. he was so active and took such a leading part, that he seemed like another consul.

diem dixere: probably before the comitia centuriata, as in 35. 2. The use of plebi and populi in

the next line seems to confirm this.

3. plenus, etc.: a harsh use of plenus as well as of the possessive pronoun for the objective genitive. But the phrase can hardly mean anything except 'overwhelmed by wrath against himself and his father,' and we may perhaps justify plenus by I. 25. 1, a case not precisely parallel, and suarum by 58. 8, taking irarum as equivalent to odiorum.

4. non temere, not often; properly, not without special cause,' so

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7 quam consulem timuerat. Semel causam dixit, quo semper agere omnia solitus erat, accusatorio spiritu; adeoque constantia sua et tribunos obstupefecit et plebem, ut diem ipsi sua voluntate prodicerent, trahi de8 inde rem sinerent. Haud ita multum interim temporis fuit; ante tamen quam prodicta dies veniret morbo 9 moritur. Cuius cum laudationem tribuni plebis impedire conarentur, plebs fraudari sollemni honore supremum diem tanti viri noluit, et laudationem tam aequis auribus mortui audivit quam vivi accusationem audierat, et exsequias frequens celebravit.

62

Eodem anno Valerius consul cum exercitu in Aequos profectus cum hostem ad proelium elicere non posset, castra oppugnare est adortus. Prohibuit foeda tempe2 stas cum grandine ac tonitribus caelo deiecta. Admirationem deinde auxit signo receptui dato adeo tranquilla serenitas reddita, ut velut numine aliquo defensa castra. oppugnare iterum religio fuerit. Omnis ira belli ad 3 populationem agri vertit. Alter consul Aemilius in Sabinis bellum gessit. Et ibi, quia hostis moenibus se 4 tenebat, vastati agri sunt. Incendiis deinde non villarum modo sed etiam vicorum, quibus frequenter habitabatur, Sabini exciti cum praedatoribus occurissent, ancipiti proelio digressi postero die rettulere castra 5 in tutiora loca. Id satis consuli visum cur pro victo relinqueret hostem, integro inde decedens bello.

7. semel, only once, as opposed to the second trial referred to in the following. — accusatorio: i.e. with the tone of a prosecutor rather than a defendant.- diem ipsi, etc.: whether, as was the practice later, the accused had a right to two more hearings of the case before the vote was taken, is uncertain. Livy assumes that he had not, but the

prosecutors, of their own accord, allowed the case to drag.

9. laudationem: cf. 47. II.

WAR WITH THE SABINES. 62. 4. villarum: single farmhouses; vicorum : clusters of houses, villages.

5. integro, still unfinished; prop erly, with nothing done about it.3

Inter haec bella manente discordia domi consules 63 Titus Numicius Priscus A. Verginius facti. Non ultra a videbatur latura plebes dilationem agrariae legis, ultimaque vis parabatur cum Volscos adesse fumo ex incendiis villarum fugaque agrestium cognitum est. Ea res maturam iam seditionem ac prope erumpentem repressit. Consules coacti extemplo ab senatu ad bellum 3 educta ex urbe iuventute tranquilliorem ceteram plebem fecerunt. Et hostes quidem nihil aliud quam perfusis 4 vano timore Romanis citato agmine abeunt. Numicius 5 Antium adversus Volscos, Verginius contra Aequos profectus. Ibi ex insidiis prope magna accepta clade virtus militum rem prolapsam neglegentia consulis restituit. Melius in Volscis imperatum est: fusi primo proelio 6 hostes fugaque in urbem Antium, ut tum res erant, opulentissimam acti. Quam consul oppugnare non ausus Caenonem, aliud oppidum nequaquam tam opulentum, ab Antiatibus cepit. Dum Aequi Volscique 7 Romanos exercitus tenent, Sabini usque ad portas urbis populantes incessere. Deinde ipsi paucis post diebus ab duobus exercitibus, utroque per iram consule ingresso in finis, plus cladium quam intulerant acceperunt.

Extremo anno pacis aliquid fuit, sed, ut semper alias, 64 sollicitae pacis certamine patrum et plebis. Irata plebs

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