Lapas attēli

mansit. Tantisper tutela muliebri - tanta indoles in Lavinia eratres Latina et regnum avitum paternumque puero stetit. Haud ambigam — quis enim rem tam 2 veterem pro certo adfirmet?— hicine fuerit Ascanius an maior quam hic, Creusa matre Ilio incolumi natus comesque inde paternae fugae, quem Iulum eundem Iulia gens auctorem nominis sui nuncupat. Is Ascanius, 3 ubicumque et quacumque matre genitus- certe natum Aenea constat abundante Lavini multitudine florentem iam, ut tum res erant, atque opulentam urbem matri seu novercae reliquit, novam ipse aliam sub Albano monte condidit, quae ab situ porrectae in dorso urbis Longa Alba appellata.


Inter Lavinium et Albam Longam deductam coloniam

immediately succeeding him; but the throne was kept for him till he could!' tantisper: i.e. ad puberem aetatem; the story doesn't tell how long. — tutela muliebri: i.e. strange as it may seem, explained by tanta, etc.—tanta: i.e. so great, as is indicated by the facts which are set forth; a form of expression common enough in all languages, and particularly common with Livy; cf. adeo, Pref. 11. -res: in its regular meaning of state, as in res publica.

2. ambigam, discuss; properly, question, implying that there was doubt; hence haud is more admissible; cf. haud dubito. — adfirmet: see Gr. 444.hicine: the colloquial old form of hic with the interrogative -ne; see Gr. 146. a. N. I.

fuerit, etc., whether it was this Ascanius.— maior, older.quem: sc. is, the predicate of fuerit. Iulum eundem, being the same as, etc., in apposition with quem. — nuncupat, claims · a somewhat formal legal word.

3. is, etc., now this Ascanius, resuming after the parenthesis. genitus: the later writers often use relatives with a participle in this manner. — abundante: emphasized as the reason of the emigration. — multitudine: regularly of the undistinguished numbers of population or followers; cf. 1. 2 and 8.

florentem: and so not needing a hero to foster it. — iam, getting to be. -seu: often used, especially by later writers, as an abbreviation for two appositives with sive... sive; i.e. Laviniae seu matri seu novercae; whether one or the other. - sub, at the foot of.-porrectae : cf. coalescentium, 2. 5 n. — Longa: emphatic; cf. the same words again in the next line. The whole tradition is probably manufactured. It is difficult to see how any white town could have been built in this position. The word Alba is probably from some pre-Latin language; see Helbig above cited on 1. 3.

4. Lavinium: sc. conditum, obscurely implied in deductam.

triginta ferme interfuere anni. Tantum tamen opes creverant maxime fusis Etruscis, ut ne morte quidem Aeneae nec deinde inter muliebrem tutelam rudimentumque primum puerilis regni movere arma aut Mezentius Etrus5 cique aut ulli alii accolae ausi sint. Pax ita convenerat, ut Etruscis Latinisque fluvius Albula, quem nunc Tibe6 rim vocant, finis esset. Silvius deinde regnat, Ascanii 7 filius, casu quodam in silvis natus. Is Aeneam Silvium creat, is deinde Latinum Silvium. Ab eo coloniae aliquot 8 deductae, Prisci Latini appellati. Mansit Silviis postea omnibus cognomen qui Albae regnaverunt. Alba ortus, Alba Atys, Atye

tamen: i.e. notwithstanding the shortness of the time.

fusis Etruscis: this gives a chief reason for the rise in power.

morte: i.e. when there was no king.

inter: often thus used of time combined with circumstance or situation.

muliebrem: i.e. when there was only a woman at the head of affairs.

rudimentum: not merely beginning, but inexperienced attempts.— movere arma, make any hostile demonstration.

Etruscique: cf. Turnus Rutulique, 2. 3 n.

ausi sint: for tense see Gr. 485. c. N. I.

5. pax: here Livy resumes again the narrative interrupted, after the battle in 2. 3, by the digression on Eneas and his son. It is not unlikely that Livy follows another source here, combining two different accounts. See note on Silvius below.

ita, with the proviso; often a clause which seems like a result clause as defining a correlative, is really a purpose clause expressing something which is originally a

Latino Capys, Capye Capetus, command or the like. Cf. Gr. 531. 1. N. I.- - Etruscis: a free use of the dative of reference.

6. Silvius: this personage is made by many the son of Æneas (cf. Aen. VI. 763). The following reigns are intercalated to fill up the gap of three or four hundred years between the fall of Troy and the founding of Rome (cf. 29. 6). The whole dynasty seems purely mythical.

7. Prisci Latini: the meaning of this expression is involved in doubt. It seems to distinguish cities in power before Alba became the head of the Latin league. Livy is inconsistent with himself about them, as in 33. 4, where the name is used for the Latins generally; cf. also 38. 4; 52. 2; 32. 11 and 14. — appellati: sc. sunt.

8. Silviis: the regular dative of names. Cf. 1. 3; and see Gr. 373. a. This was probably a real traditional name at Alba.

cognomen: Silvius seems like a gentile name (nomen), but probably was not felt by Livy as such. Such names are all supposed to be derived from the name of a founder, which Silvius, as an adjective from silva, is not felt to be.

Capeto Tiberinus, qui in traiectu Albulae amnis submersus celebre ad posteros nomen flumini dedit. Agrippa 9 inde Tiberini filius, post Agrippam Romulus Silvius a patre accepto imperio regnat. Aventino fulmine ipse ictus regnum per manus tradidit. Is sepultus in eo colle, qui nunc pars Romanae est urbis, cognomen colli fecit. Proca deinde regnat. Is Numitorem atque Amu- 10 lium procreat; Numitori, qui stirpis maximus erat, regnum vetustum Silviae gentis legat.

Plus tamen vis potuit quam voluntas patris aut verecundia aetatis. Pulso fratre Amulius regnat. Addit 11 sceleri scelus: stirpem fratris virilem interimit, fratris filiae Reae Silviae per speciem honoris, cum Vestalem eam legisset, perpetua virginitate spem partus adimit.

Sed debebatur, ut opinor, fatis tantae origo urbis 4


Tiberinus obviously derived from the name of the river. - celebre, famous; properly, widespread and much used.

9. fulmine ipse ictus, etc., his death by lightning passed it on from HIM to Aventinus; cf. ab urbe condita, and see Gr. 497.

- ipse: made necessary by the putting of Aventinus in the emphatic place. · per manus, in succession; i.e. as his successor. — Romanae: emphatic as opposed to the Alban kingdom; see Gr. 598. a. cognomen: cf., for the confusion of nomen and cognomen,

8 n.

10. Proca: the proper Latin form, without the s; cf. nauta with vaúTns. stirpis: partitive genitive.— maximus: without regard to the number (two), as we should say ' eldest son in any case.legat: apparently by will; cf. voluntas below.

II. per speciem, under pretence; adverbial phrases with per are very common, especially in later writers, without any particular definiteness in the meaning of the preposition.

Vestalem: cf. 20. 3. legisset: the king is also high-priest, to which functionary the choice belongs.


4. sed i.e. every attempt was made to cut off the succession, but, etc.- debebatur: i.e. was predestined by; properly, owed to the fates, and so bound to be accomplished, in spite of human endeavor.- - ut opinor, I imagine; i.e. it would seem so as we look at the circumstances detailed in the myth. tantae: i.e. the city became so great that we are justified in thinking the occurrence was not a mere chance, but

maximique secundum deorum opes imperii principium. 2 Vi compressa Vestalis cum geminum partum edidisset, seu ita rata seu quia deus auctor culpae honestior erat, 3 Martem incertae stirpis patrem nuncupat. Sed nec dii nec homines aut ipsam aut stirpem a crudelitate regia vindicant sacerdos vincta in custodiam datur, pueros in profluentem aquam mitti iubet./


Forte quadam divinitus super ripas Tiberis effusus lenibus stagnis nec adiri usquam ad iusti cursum poterat amnis, et posse quamvis languida mergi aqua infantes 5 spem ferentibus dabat. Ita velut defuncti regis imperio in proxima adluvie, ubi nunc ficus Ruminalis est- Ro

had a divine purpose which couldn't be thwarted.

2. seu... seu: cf. 3. 3; notice the less exact correspondence of form in the two members, which becomes more common in the later writers. incertae: a euphemism; dubious; of an uncertain father. nuncupat: cf. 3. 2 n.

3. dii: because Mars has been mentioned above. homines: merely added to give the idea, ‘no power, human or divine, can,' etc.

- iubet: naturally, the king. Livy is not so careful as the earlier writers about changing the subject when no ambiguity is to be feared.

4. forte quadam divinitus, it happened providentially. There is no inconsistency in the expression in Latin any more than in English. Cf. also the Greek θείᾳ τινὶ τύχῃ. Tiberis: the subject of the whole. -lenibus: i.e. in comparison with the current in the channel. - nec et, not . . . and at the same time; the common set of correlatives where one branch is negative and the other affirmative. — ad iusti, etc. : an explanatory phrase used loosely, as if he had before said adire Tiberim, like an English colloquial, 'The fire


couldn't be got at, to the centre of it.'

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iusti amnis, the river proper.· posse: emphatic; that it was possible. The two ideas are, 'They couldn't get at the river bed, and didn't need to either.'―languida : cf. lenibus above. — infantes: i.e. being mere babies, they might be drowned in any pool. The word is. properly subject of mergi, but as so often in Latin, is conceived as repeated with ferentibus, where we express a pronoun. ferentibus: cf. legentium. Pref. 4 n. dabat: the subject is grammatically Tiberis effusus, but logically the situation indicated as far as stagnis. The case differs from the common ones of the sort in that Tiberis is used first in its simple sense, and afterwards in combination with effusus, etc. It is to be remembered, however, that to the Romans Caesar mortuus meant Cæsar dead, even when we are obliged to translate it the death of Cæsar.

5. velut, supposing that, etc.; cf. the common Latin use of tanquam, and (rarely) ut; see 54. 7.-defuncti: i.e. by so doing they had done what they had been ordered. - nunc: Ovid (F. II. 412) says

mularem vocatam ferunt

Vastae 6

pueros exponunt. tum in his locis solitudines erant. Teret fama, cum fluitantem alveum, quo expositi erant pueri, tenuis in sicco aqua destituisset, lupam sitientem ex montibus, qui circa sunt, ad puerilem vagitum cursum flexisse; eam summissas infantibus adeo mitem praebuisse mammas ut lingua lambentem pueros magister regii pecoris invenerit - Faustulo fuisse nomen 7 ferunt; ab eo ad stabula Larentiae uxori educandos datos. Sunt qui Larentiam vulgato corpore lupam inter pastores vocatam putent, inde locum fabulae ac miraculo datum.

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6. vastae wild, uninhabited space. tum: later it was in the most populous part of Rome.

tenet, is preserved; not given up or exploded. fluitantem: i.e. floating and not sinking as they expected it would. - lupam: such stories are found in the myths of many nations. - puerilem, of the babes. flexisse: i.e. was attracted by and turned to, etc. eam, and that she. This use of a pronoun in accordance with the English idiom is not usual in Latin, but here makes the statement more significant by separating it from the rest.- summissas, crouching over, thereby accomplishing the action of praebuisse by lowering the dugs.

mitem: where we should expect

an adverb; cf. serae, Pref. 11. — magister: i.e. the king's shepherd.

regii: the emphatic position is explained by the fondness of the Latin for emphasizing persons; cf. regis imperio, 5.

invenerit: for tense cf. immigraverint, Pref. 11.

7. Faustulo: cf. Troiano, 1. 3. The word is a diminutive of Faustus, and is drawn from the early mythology of the Romans. Cf. Faunus from the same root in faveo.— ad stabula: because datos implies that they were taken there. The shepherds' hut is referred to, where the sheep were folded at night. — Larentiae: another name from the mythology. She is represented with the name Acca (mother ?), as mother of the Lares Præstites, and called also Luperca or Lupa. Her festival was the Larentalia. sunt qui, etc.: the Euhemerizing, or realistic interpretation of the old myths, came very early in Rome, and was especially practised by Ennius; cf. Gellius, VII. (VI.) 7, and Macrob. I. 10, 16. fabulae ac miraculo, to the marvellous story. The Romans were fond of taking an idea apart and presenting its component parts separately. This is hardly a rhetori

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