Lapas attēli

ad institutam ab Servio Tullio summam non convenire. Quadrifariam enim urbe divisa regionibus collibusque 13 qui habitabantur, partes eas tribus appellavit, ut ego arbitror a tributo-nam eius quoque aequaliter ex censu conferendi ab eodem inita ratio est; neque eae tribus ad centuriarum distributionem numerumque quicquam pertinuere.

Censu perfecto, quem maturaverat metu legis de in- 44 censis latae cum vinculorum minis mortisque, edixit ut omnes cives Romani, equites peditesque, in suis quisque centuriis in campo Martio prima luce adessent. Ibi 2 instructum exercitum omnem suovetaurilibus lustravit, idque conditum lustrum appellatum, quia is cen

would indicate a doubling of the number of tribes, which of course cannot be true in any literal sense. Perhaps Livy means that, as a basis for the centurial system, their number was practically doubled by the division of each into seniores and iuniores. This would give 35 X 2 = 70 centuries in each of the five classes, or in all 350 centuries of infantry, making with the equites, etc., a total of 373. But our information is too scanty to afford a certain solution of the question. summam: sc. centuriarum.

13. regionibus collibusque : ablative of respect. The names were Suburana, Palatina, Esquilina, Collina. Livy's words seem intended to describe these, one of which was named from a locality, two from particular hills, and one from collis.- tribus: these were now no longer races, but local divisions. tributo as usual with ancient etymologies, this is wrong end to; tribuo must come from tribus. — eius: i.e. the tributum; not any regular tax, but the occasional demands of the government in emergencies.

These were undoubtedly assigned locally at first (tribus), but now were apportioned, according to Livy, among the citizens of the several local divisions according to the census. aequaliter, fairly, not 'equally.' - neque, but... not. eae: in contrast with the later, which evidently did have to do with it.


44. maturaverat metu: i.e. he had a law passed which expedited the process, and so completed it sooner. incensis, those not enrolled. — edixit, etc.: i.e. he made a general muster of the entire people in its crganization as an


2. instructum: i.e. the army was first set in array as a fighting force, and in that form was consecrated, as it were, by the religious ceremonies. suovetaurilibus: referring to the regular leading of the swine, sheep, and bull around the body with appropriate ceremonies, and the subsequent sacrifice of the victims. conditum, completed.


sendo finis factus est. Milia octoginta eo lustro civium censa dicuntur. Adicit scriptorum antiquissimus Fabius Pictor, eorum qui arma ferre possent eum numerum fuisse.

Ad eam multitudinem urbs quoque amplificanda visa est. Addit duos colles, Quirinalem Viminalemque; inde deinceps auget Esquilias, ibique ipse, ut loco dignitas fieret, habitat. Aggere et fossis et muro circumdat

4 urbem; ita pomerium profert. Pomerium verbi vim

hence later closed, when the final act was used for the intervening period. censendo, the enrollment, referring to the whole process by which every five years the censors "numbered the people,' and assigned the rank of individuals according to property.- lustro : this word, meaning only the final act of purification, was used of the whole process of numbering. — adicit: of course a different account from that just given, but as Fabius' view exaggerates the number, Livy may properly say adds. This view would make the number about five times as great.

3. ad, in accordance with; a characteristic loose use of the preposition. — urbs quoque : as the population had been. addit: sc. Servius. duos colles, etc.: increasing the city towards the north, on the other side of the Forum. The two hills are two projecting ridges of the high plateau of the Esquiline.-Quirinalem: this can hardly be true, for on this hill are some of the very oldest monuments of the city, and it is said by other authorities to have been the abode of the Sabines from the time of Romulus.. - inde, then, of time; deinceps, next, of succession. auget Esquilias: by increasing the population, as it was no doubt inhabited before. The


derivation of the word (ex-colo) seems to imply that the hill was a suburb which Servius now adds to

the city proper. habitat: cf. 41.

4. aggere, etc.: these fortifications have been traced for almost their entire length. The most prominent part of them is the great embankment, some portions of which still exist, on the east side, where the city is most exposed. It was a bank 21 feet high, faced with stone, originally surrounded by a ditch, as was probably the rest of the fortification. The wall of Tarquinius Priscus (36. I, 38. 6) was either not finished or not large enough. ita: in reference to the increase of the interior implied in circumdat urbem. - pomerium: originally a space left vacant inside (and so behind) the walls to facilitate defensive operations. After cities began to develop suburbs, the same usage would continue in regard to the outside, and this part of the space came, from religious considerations, to be the most important part. Hence the necessity of Livy's explanation. Cf. Gellius XIII. 14, pomerium est locus intra agrum effatum per totius urbis circuitum pone muros regionibus certis determinatus, qui facit finem urbani auspicii. In later times the limit of this space was held sacred, and only such

solam intuentes postmoerium interpretantur esse; est autem magis circamoerium, locus quem in condendis urbibus quondam Etrusci, qua murum ducturi erant, certis circa terminis inaugurato consecrabant, ut neque interiore parte aedificia moenibus continuarentur, quae nunc vulgo etiam coniungunt, et extrinsecus puri aliquid ab humano cultu pateret soli. Hoc spatium, quod 5 neque habitari neque arari fas erat, non magis quod post murum esset quam quod murus post id, pomerium Romani appellarunt, et in urbis incremento semper, quantum moenia processura erant, tantum termini hi consecrati proferebantur.

Aucta civitate magnitudine urbis, formatis omnibus 45 domi et ad belli et ad pacis usus, ne semper armis opes acquirerentur, consilio augere imperium conatus est, simul et aliquod addere urbi decus. Iam tum erat in- 2 clitum Dianae Ephesiae fanum. Id communiter a civitatibus Asiae factum fama ferebat. Eum consensum deosque consociatos laudare mire Servius inter proceres

rulers as had increased the bounds of the empire could enlarge it.

4. vim solam, merely the literal meaning. postmoerium: i.e. post moeros, old form of muros. locus quem: instead of the regular quem locum (Gr. 307. e), because locus expresses not a mere reference, but an explanatory appositive idea: 'that is to say, a space, etc. moenibus: dative; a poetic construction; cf. Gr. 368. a.- - continuarentur, should be extended to, border upon; coniungunt, attach to; a closer contact than the other, hence etiam. puri: not merely free from, but uncontaminated by.-- ab: an archaic construction instead of the simple ablative.

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Latinorum, cum quibus publice privatimque hospitia amicitiasque de industria iunxerat. Saepe iterando eadem perpulit tandem ut Romae fanum Dianae populi 3 Latini cum populo Romano facerent. Ea erat confessio caput rerum Romam esse, de quo totiens armis certatum fuerat.

Id quamquam omissum iam ex omnium cura Latinorum ob rem totiens infeliciter temptatam armis videba tur, uni se ex Sabinis fors dare visa est privato consilio imperii reciperandi. Bos in Sabinis nata cuidam patri familiae dicitur miranda magnitudine ac specie. Fixa per multas aetates cornua in vestibulo templi Dianae 5 monumentum ei fuere miraculo. Habita, ut erat, res prodigii loco est, et cecinere vates, cuius civitatis eam

should express by 'religious union' or' united worship.'-publice, etc. : in the absence of organized international relations in ancient times, their place was supplied by special treaties of hospitium, i.e. a relation under which citizens of a state (publice), or individuals with their families (privatim), were guaranteed friendly reception, protection, and comity generally within the territories or at the houses of foreigners. This relation differed from amicitia, in that it did not imply any personal friendship. The words may be translated by official and personal friendships. Romae : opposed to Ephesus.

3. ea (see Gr. 296. a): i.e. the building of the sanctuary at quo: i.e. the question answered in caput rerum, etc. fuerat: see Gr. 495. N. — -id: the same question referred to by de quo. nium Latinorum: opposed to uni ex Sabinis.—cura, etc.: ' dismissed from the minds of all the Latins,' a short-hand expression, in


stead of 'dismissed from their minds by,' etc.-se: the emphasis anticipates the emphasis of privato. The artificial (perhaps rather artistic) order of the Latin enables it to express such shades of emphasis with extreme delicacy, and in this art Livy is a master. — imperii reciperandi: the same thing, under a varied aspect, as de quo and id.

4. patri familiae, householder; (avoid the ridiculous 'father of a family,' which in this passage is a stock school-jest). — fixa, etc.: a parenthetical remark illustrating the character of the creature. vestibulo: this word, of most uncertain use and meaning, can here only refer to the prostyle, or portico, in front of the temple proper. pli: of course at Rome. -miraculo: i.e. the marvellous size of the creature, which, as in all cases of extraordinary occurrences, was regarded as a prodigium, or direct indication of divine interposition; whence comes our use of prodigy. 5. res: i.e. the birth of the heifer.

- tem

civis Dianae immolasset, ibi fore imperium, idque carmen pervenerat ad antistitem fani Dianae; Sabinusque, 6 ut prima apta dies sacrificio visa est, bovem Romam actam deducit ad fanum Dianae et ante aram statuit. Ibi antistes Romanus, cum eum magnitudo victimae celebrata fama movisset, memor responsi, Sabinum ita adloquitur: "Quidnam tu hospes paras?' inquit; 'inceste sacrificium Dianae facere? Quin tu ante vivo perfunderis flumine? Infima valle praefluit Tiberis.' Religione tactus hospes, qui omnia, ut prodigio respon- 7 deret eventus, cuperet rite facta, extemplo descendit ad Tiberim; interea Romanus immolat Dianae bovem. Id mire gratum regi atque civitati fuit.

Servius quamquam iam usu haud dubie regnum pos- 46 sederat, tamen, quia interdum iactari voces a iuvene

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7. religione, religious scruple; a doubt whether he might not invalidate the sacrifice by something unpleasing to the goddess.-prodigio: the birth of the heifer, and the sacrifice, if duly performed together, constituted, according to ancient religions, a kind of determination of fate, and all this taken together is meant by prodigium. The event was, according to our ideas, to conform to the prophecy, but as the prophecy is only an interpretation of the fate, Livy's words express exactly the ancient notion. - facta: - cuperet: see Gr. 535. e. see Gr. 497. c. N.

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