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Auguriis certe sacerdotioque augurum tantus honos accessit ut nihil belli domique postea nisi auspicato gereretur, concilia populi, exercitus vocati, summa rerum, 7 ubi aves non admisissent, dirimerentur. Neque tum Tarquinius de equitum centuriis quicquam mutavit; numero alterum tantum adiecit, ut mille octingenti equites 8 in tribus centuriis essent. Posteriores modo sub isdem nominibus qui additi erant appellati sunt, quas nunc, quia geminatae sunt, sex vocant centurias.

37

Hac parte copiarum aucta iterum cum Sabinis confligitur. Sed praeterquam quod viribus creverat Romanus exercitus, ex occulto etiam additur dolus, missis qui magnam vim lignorum, in Anienis ripa iacentem, ardentem in flumen conicerent; ventoque iuvante accensa ligna, et pleraque impacta in ratibus sublicis cum hae

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new division, he only increased the number, which was not an innovation. alterum tantum, as many more; cf. as much again.' Livy probably wrote the words in this order, though the MSS. have tantum alterum, here and X. 46. — mille octingenti: this number does not agree with Livy's other accounts (cf. 13. 8, 30. 3), but it is to be remembered that Livy does not claim exactness; and as accounts differed, he takes sometimes one and sometimes another. The whole subject is in utter confusion.

8. modo: i.e. only they did have a distinctive name, posteriores. geminatae: from three to six.— sex centurias: regularly sex suffragia, as having, under the Servian constitution, six votes as centuries. The number of persons is uncertain.

WAR WITH THE SABINES. 37. ex occulto: opposed to the increased Roman strength, which was an open advantage. — arden

rerent, pontem incendunt. Ea quoque res in pugna 2 terrorem attulit Sabinis, effusis eadem fugam impediit, multique mortales, cum hostem effugissent, in flumine ipso periere; quorum fluitantia arma ad urbem cognita in Tiberi, prius paene quam nuntiari posset, insignem victoriam fecere.

Eo proelio praecipua equitum gloria fuit. Vtrimque 3 ab cornibus positos, cum iam pelleretur media peditum suorum acies, ita incurrisse ab lateribus ferunt, ut non sisterent modo Sabinas legiones ferociter instantes cedentibus, sed subito in fugam averterent. Montes effuso 4 cursu Sabini petebant. Et pauci tenuere; maxima pars, ut ante dictum est, ab equitibus in flumen acti sunt. Tar- 5 quinius instandum perterritis ratus, praeda captivisque Romam missis, spoliis hostium-id votum Vulcano erat -ingenti cumulo accensis, pergit porro in agrum Sabinum exercitum inducere, et quamquam male gestae res 6 erant nec gesturos melius sperare poterant, tamen, quia consulendi res non dabat spatium, iere obviam Sabini tumultuario milite iterumque ibi fusi, perditis iam prope rebus, pacem petiere.

tem: a predicate participle, which they had first set on fire. impacta: against the piles. - in ratibus: i.e. in masses. pontem : the bridge over the Anio, over which the Sabines must cross to get home again.

2. quoque: as well as the increased strength of the Romans. effusis: opposed to in pugna. eadem (sc. res): the same cause. -arma: so far as they were not of metal.cognita, recognized. insignem, etc.: gave sure signs of the victory.

3. suorum: the use of the reflexive gives the situation as it presented itself to the minds of the

cavalry.sisterent: in its causative sense, stayed; cf. 12. 5. — cedentibus, on the yielding Romans. 4. et, and in fact. — pauci, a few (though but few).

5. praeda: what was valuable; spoliis: arms and the like. -id: i.e. the burning of the spoils. votum: perhaps on the occasion of burning the bridge.

6. gesturos: sc. se; for the emphatic position, see Gr. 598 d (3). — quia consulendi, etc.: i.e. if they had had time, they might have determined to make peace without fighting farther. - tumultuario milite: with an unorganized militia, such as was called together upon a sudden

38 Collatia et quicquid citra Collatiam agri erat Sabinis ademptum, Egerius - fratris hic filius erat regis - Collatiae in praesidio relictus. Deditosque Collatinos ita 2 accipio eamque deditionis formulam esse: Rex interrogavit Estisne vos legati oratoresque missi a populo Conlatino, ut vos populumque Conlatinum dederetis?' 'Sumus.' 'Estne populus Conlatinus in sua potestate?' 'Est.' 'Deditisne vos populumque Conlatinum, urbem, agros, aquam, terminos, delubra, utensilia, divina humanaque omnia in meam populique Romani dicionem?' 'Dedimus.' 'At ego recipio.'

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Bello Sabino perfecto Tarquinius triumphans Romam redit. Inde Priscis Latinis bellum fecit, ubi nusquam ad universae rei dimicationem ventum est: ad singula oppida circumferendo arma omne nomen Latinum domuit. Corniculum, Ficulea vetus, Cameria, Crustumerium, Ameriola, Medullia, Nomentum, haec de Priscis Latinis aut qui ad Latinos defecerant capta oppida. Pax deinde est facta.

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FORMULA OF SURRENDER; WAR

AGAINST THE LATINS.

38. citra: between Collatia and Rome, which is about ten miles distant. — in praesidio: either as a temporary garrison or a permanent colony.

2. estisne for order, see Gr. 598. d (2). The first question is as to the credentials of the representatives; the second, as to the right of the people itself as an independent state; the third, as to the will of the parties. The form of surrender embraces everything over which

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Maiore inde animo pacis opera incohata quam quanta 5 mole gesserat bella, ut non quietior populus domi esset quam militiae fuisset. Nam et muro lapideo, cuius exor- 6 dium operis Sabino bello turbatum erat, urbem, qua nondum munierat, cingere parat, et infima urbis loca circa forum aliasque interiectas collibus convalles, quia ex planis locis haud facile evehebant aquas, cloacis fastigio in Tiberim ductis siccat, et aream ad aedem in Capi- 7 tolio Iovis, quam voverat bello Sabino, iam praesagiente animo futuram olim amplitudinem loci, occupat fundamentis.

Eo tempore in regia prodigium visum eventuque mira- 39 bile fuit. Puero dormienti, cui Servio Tullio fuit nomen, caput arsisse ferunt multorum in conspectu. Plurimo 2 igitur clamore inde ad tantae rei miraculum orto excitos reges et, cum quidam familiarium aquam ad restinguen

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- ex

6. exordium: see 36. 1.-infima: including the Forum, and the valleys running into it, the region between that and the Tiber, and the Circus Maximus. planis, etc. the reason why the water did not run off, because there was no pitch. fastigio, with a grade. The level did not carry off the water, and so the sewer was built sloping down to the Tiber, necessarily under ground.

7. aream: the regular Latin word for a lot in a city; here of the place on which the great temple was afterwards to be built. -futuram: i.e. quae futura erat; see

Gr. 499. I. fundamentis: the
substructure to enlarge and level
the rough hill. The temple was
not built till afterwards; see 55. 2.

BIRTH AND EARLY LIFE OF SER-
VIUS TULLIUS.

39. eo tempore: i.e. in the part of the reign of Tarquin just described.-visum: sc. est; the second part (with fuit) is from a different point of view, yet undoubtedly it is the thought of fuit that makes Livy omit the copula. eventu, its fulfillment. · puero: it is not necessarily but naturally implied that he was a slave. Tullio cf. Troiano, 1. 3 n. -arsisse: a common omen among the ancients; cf. Virg. Aen. II. 681 seq.

2. clamore: the means of excitos.ad: cf. ad desiderium, 7. 7 n. -reges, the royal family. - familiarium, servants, in accordance with its derivation from familia, famu

dum ferret, ab regina retentum, sedatoque eam tumultu moveri vetuisse puerum donec sua sponte experrectus 3 esset. Mox cum somno et flammam abisse. Tum abducto in secretum viro Tanaquil 'Viden tu puerum hunc' inquit, quem tam humili cultu educamus? Scire licet hunc lumen quondam rebus nostris dubiis futurum praesidiumque regiae adflictae. Proinde materiam ingentis publice privatimque decoris omni indulgentia nostra nutriamus.'

Inde puerum liberum loco coeptum haberi erudirique artibus quibus ingenia ad magnae fortunae cultum excitantur. Evenit facile quod diis cordi esset: iuvenis evasit vere indolis regiae nec, cum quaereretur gener

lus. retentum : because the queen recognized the supernatural character of the occurrence. - sedato: i.e. at her command. The position of eam gives the ablative absolute the force of a perfect active participle in agreement with the pronoun.moveri, to be disturbed.

experrectus esset: see Gr. 553. N. 2, 580.

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3. in secretum, in private; the regular word for a private interview. viden: the regular colloquial form of videsne; cf. do not and don't in English. inquit: this sudden change from indirect to direct discourse is common in all periods of the language, either with or without the verb of saying. humili: in reference to his position as a slave. - scire licet, it is clear; cf. scilicet, which is often, though not regularly, used in the -lumen: in allusion to the phenomenon; cf. for the figure, lucem adferre rei publicae, Cic. Manil. 12. 33. · hunc (regularly hoc, Gr. 296. a): here equivalent to hunc puerum. quondam, at

same sense.

-

some time; cf. Aen. VI. 876, and the common use of olim. — regiae, the royal house.· -proinde: cf. 9. 4 n. - publice: see Gr. 321. c. N. This use becomes more and more. frequent in later writers.

4. liberum, of a son. The word, denoting collectively the children of the house as opposed to the slaves, is frequently used of one person. coeptum: resuming the indirect discourse. artibus: sc. liberalibus, as a liberal education is still called. magnae fortunae, of a lofty position. — cultum: opposed to cultu in 3, but with a different shade of meaning; there the process, and here the result, as in the much-abused culture. It means everything that belongs to life and its ideals. excitantur, are elevated. esset: characteristic subjunctive, as often happens, giving at the same time the reason why it turned out so. See Gr. 535. indolis: predicate after evasit; cf. incedo regina, and see Gr. 343. b. arte: cf. artibus above, but best translated quality

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