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the farmer has both lime and potash for his fields, in an available condition. The resources of science are constantly increasing, and need no exaggeration to command popular favor. By promising too much, charlatans greatly retard the substantial progress of the interest which they profess to have so much at heart. If men of high attainments in science would labor more to apply professional knowledge to the advancement of the industrial arts, the vocation of quacks would be less injurious, and, perhaps, ultimately cease altogether. Communicate to educated agriculturists a knowledge of the principles of science in their application to the analysis of soils, manures, and agricultural plants, and they will be better able to separate truth from error, and escape imposition. Farmers should not be content with mere theories, however ingenious, like those of Baron Liebig, Dumas, and ohers, but should weigh all the facts and probabilities that bear upon the case. They must bring science and practice together, for experimental purposes, before the true value of science can be known. Science is young, while art is old. It is unjust, therefore, to expect in the infancy of the one more than is accomplished in the ripened experience of the other. It is not altogether improbable that the essential elements of crops may not be separated, by some cheap process, from soils, rocks, and sea-water, and become articles of commerce, like guano, bone-dust, gypsum, and common salt. The general use of guano extracted from the ocean, and of other commercial manures, is a new idea, and one that promises to be fruitful in great results. Careful experiments, performed by reliable men, will gradually demonstrate what is practicable in analytical science, and what is not. The suggestion of Major Lee, and apparently sustained by Professor Booth, to the effect that elements to the millionth part of the mass cannot be separated and weighed, is erroneous. By the skilful use of the solvent powers of acids and alkalies, aided by heat and pure water, and extending through weeks and months, much additional light may be thrown on the properties and capabilities of soils. The error has been in building theories prematurely, without sufficient data or facts to sustain them. Men of science should work more and theorize less.
QUANTITY OF MILK.
Quantity of milk a cow should give in a year.-In your paper of August 1st, I notice a letter from the clerk to the Carrick-on-Suir Board of Guardians, in which he assumes that 23 cows will yield 140,160 quarts of milk in the year, or over 6,000 quarts for each cow. Experienced farmers have informed me that about 2,000 quarts are a fair produce from a cow. I have the care of a dairy farm on which the cows are fed principally on green crops; the average ground for each cow was 1} acre;
and Í annex a statement of the milk from each cow in one year. Milk in one year measured in the cow-house, from the cows. (As the weeks
closed on Saturday night, some months contain five weeks' account.)
A and B were bought new milk in April; C calved in April; D calved in June; E slunk her calf in June; F calved in August; G calved in January. The new milk being sold in town, the cows producing most in winter paid proportionably better than others.-J. F. Youghal, August 7, Dublin Farmers' Gazette.
AGRICULTURAL CIRCULAR AND REPLIES.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE,
Washington, August, 1852. Sir: It being the duty of the undersigned annually to collect information on the various branches of agriculture, you are addressed with the view of eliciting such information as may be useful to embody in the Report for the present year. The questions are intended rather as hints or suggestions, than to be literally followed in shaping replies. Extending, as they do, over the agricultural products of the whole country, no one person can be expected to reply to all, but to such only as relate to subjects with which he is familiar.
The United States Census will furnish reliable data as to the quantity of grain and other crops, the number of domestic animals, &c., so that such questions are omitted in this Circular. But it is desired to obtain the experience of practical men in whatever relates to the cultivation of the staple crops, together with suggestions as to new processes of culture; the introduction of new varieties of grains, seeds, and plants; the improvements in machines and implements of husbandry; and all like topics of interest to the agriculturist.
The wide circulation given to the Patent Office Reports renders it desirable that all new facts and discoveries of practical value relating to American husbandry be recorded in them, and thus preserved in a per
a manent form, for the use of the public. It is confidently hoped that the efforts of this Bureau to collect such information will be seconded by the agricultural community. Very respectfully,
THOMAS EWBANK, Commissioner.
Information is respectfully solicited on the following and other points belonging to rural affairs:
Wheat.—Is guano used in the production of this crop? And if so, what is the gain in bushels per 100 pounds of the manure? What the average product per acre—time of seeding and of harvesting-preparation of seed, and quantity used per acre-how many times and how deep do you plough—is the yield per acre increasing or diminishingyour system of rotation in crops-best remedies for Hessian flies and weevils--average price at your nearest market in 1852? What kinds of grass seeds, if any, do you sow with your wheat, and when?
Corn.-Is guano used in the production of this crop? If so, in what way is it applied? What is the gain in bushels per 100 pounds of guano? State the average product per acre-cost of production per bushel-state
the best system of culture—best method of feeding, whether whole or ground, cooked or raw. State, if you can, how much grain the manure formed by ten bushels of corn consumed by hogs will add to an acre, if carefully saved and skilfully applied at or before the time of planting. How do you prepare your ground for planting corn, and how far distant are your rows and stalks?
Oats, Barley, Rye, Peas, and Beans.-Average yield of these several crops per acre-quantity of seed used—which crop least exhausting to land—are peas cultivated as a renovating crop, and, if so, with what suc
Clover and Grasses.—Quantity of hay cut per acre—best fertilizers for meadows and pastures-the grass seeds preferred in laying down meadows-quantity sown per acre-cost of growing hay per ton. Does your experience show that red clover is injurious to horses?
Dairy Husbandry.-Average yearly produce of butter or cheese per cow-comparative cost per pound of making butter and cheese-treatment of milk and cream-mode of churning-of putting down butter for market-average price of butter and of cheese.
Neat Cattle.—Cost of rearing till three years old-usual price at that age—value of good dairy cows in spring and in fall—how many pounds of beef will 100 pounds of corn produce—will a given amount of food yield more meat in a Durham, Devon, or Hereford, than in a native animal? How do you break steers to the yoke?
Horses and Mules.- Is the growing of these animals profitable? What is the expense of rearing a colt or mule un three years old? How should brood mares and colts be treated? What is the best way to break young horses and mules for service?
Sheep and Wool.—Is wool-growing profitable-cost per pound of growing coarse or fine wool—are large or small sheep more profitable either for mutton or for their fleeces—how much more does it cost to produce a pound of fine Merino than of ordinary coarse wool? The proportion of lambs annually reared to the number of ewes.
Hogs.—What is the best breed—the cheapest method of producing pork and bacon-how many pounds of meat will 100 pounds of corn yield—the best method of putting up pork, and curing bacon and hams?
Cotton.-Average yield of clean cotton per acre-cost of production per pound—what crops best grown in rotation with cotton—best prevent ives against rust, army and boll «vorms-how deep do you usually plough for this crop-have you any exp rience in subsoiling or deep tillage for cotton-your experience in the ise of cotton seed as a fertilizer-how can cotton lands best be impro red without resting them? Is guano used, and, if so, with what result ?
Sugar Cane.--Is the cane losing its vital force, and becoming more
subject to premature decay than formerly-Can you suggest any improvement in the cultivation of the cane, or the manufacture of sugar-cost of producing sugar per pound? Is guano used; and, if so, with what result?
Rice.-Can rice be successfully cultivated on upland—do you know of any varieties, decidedly superior to others, which deserve increased attention-can you suggest any improvement in the management of rice plantations? Quantity grown per acre.
Tobacco.-Average yield per acre-cost of production per hundred weight or hogshead-decribe any new process of cultivation or curingcrops best grown in rotation to maintain the fertility of tobacco land. Is guano used, and with what result?
Hemp.-Is the culture of hemp on the increase or decrease? Describe any new process of culture or preparation for market-average yield per acie-cost of production per pound.
Root Crops ( Turnips, Carrots, Beets, 8c.)—Is the cultivation of these roots, as a field crop, on the increase-can you suggest any improvement in preparing land, seeding, after tillage, and feeding? Average product per acre.
Potatoes (Irish and Sweet.)-Average yield per acre—cost of production per bushel-most prolific and profitable varieties—best system of planting, tillage, and manuring.
Fruit Culture.—Is the culture of fruit receiving increased attentioncannot apples enough be grown on an acre to render the crop a very profitable one to the farmer-comparative value of apples and potatoes for feeding hogs and catttle—what varieties best to keep for winter use, and for exportation-do you know any preventive or remedy for the “ blight” on pear and apple trees, or the yellows" on peach trees? The best method of transplanting, budding, grafting, &c. Make any suggestions on the culture of Grapes and other fruit, the manufacture of Wine, and on Forest Culture.
Manures.—What is regarded as the best plan of making and preserving manures from waste? Are Lime and Plaster used as fertilizers—if so, in what quantity, and how often applied? Is Guano used, and with what success? Quantity usually applied per acre.
Note.- Please to forward replies as early as convenient—if possible, before the 1st of January, 1853-giving the name, date, post office, county, and State.
WASHINGTON, D. C., October, 1852. Sır: If I succeed in inducing even one of my fair countrywomen to turn her attention to the cultivation of flowers, I shall not think I have written in vain. I ought, perhaps, in addressing one so grave and scientific as yourself, write on the nature, cultivation, and qualities of plants; but nothing is farther from my thoughts.
With me the love of flowers is a passion, and when I look around and see their refining influence even upon the uneducated, I can but worship the hand that has placed within the reach of the humblest individual so delightful a pas