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Bartlett-best; but on pear root trees very tender; hardier on quince. Beurré d'Amalis-good, often very good; perfectly hardy, and a prodigious grower and bearer on quince.
Louise Bonne de Jersey-best; hardy and productive; on quince only. Belle Lucrative or Fondante d'Automne-best; productive and deli cious; pear or quince.
Marie Louise-usually very good; somewhat variable; pear root only Beurré Bosc-best; so far as proved; pear only.
Flemish Beauty-best; combines more good qualities than any other pear; grown so far mostly on pear stock.
Rostiezer-best; small, but fine.
Seckel. The cultivation of this popular fruit is, in this State, in four cases out of five, a complete failure; the trees neither grow nor bear; double-worked on the quince, it has succeeded tolerably in some in
Fulton-best; a native of Maine, and is here what the Seckel is in Pennsylvania.
Jalousie de Fontenay Vendée-so far as two years' trial goes, we think very highly of.
White Doyenne-best; on quince, in most localities as good as in olden time.
Urbaniste-very good; pear or quince.
Napoleon-very good; pear or quince.
McLaughlin-a native of Maine, very good on pear only.
Duchesse d'Angouléme-very good, hardy and fine, on quince only. Glout Morceau-very good; more productive on quince than on pear. Passe Colmar-very good; best on quince, very hardy and desirable; liable to overbear.
Winter Nelis-best; productive, and equally good on pear and quince. Beurré d'Aremberg.-Several varieties are cultivated under this name, two of which are similar, yet we think distinct, and answer to the description in standard works; best, very productive on quince, high flavor, and much esteemed.
Vicar of Winkfield-good; often very good; iniproves with age of tree; most productive and profitable; a good cooking pear also, and can be grown cheaper per bushel, for this purpose, than any other.
Fine crops of the apple or orange variety have been grown in the western part of the State and in the valley of the Kennebeck; but in other portions the winter is too severe, and they generally fail.
The finer foreign grapes-as Hamburg, Chasselas, Muscat, &c.-ripen as well under glass in cold houses as in any other State; but for open culture, we greatly need a good variety at least a month earlier than the Isabella, which rarely matures perfectly, and the Catawba never-such a one we are not without hope of obtaining from among the many seedlings now on trial.
Great quantities of this fruit are raised in Maine, but most successfully on the Penobscot river, in Bangor and vicinity, where plums meet a ready sale at prices from three to five dollars per bushel. The following are most cultivated:
McLaughlin-we consider this the best, and is faultless.
Jefferson-firstrate, and a great bearer.
Green Gage-firstrate; well known where the plum is cultivated.
Columbia-good, showy, and a great bearer; large and handsome.
Corse's Nota Bene-firstrate; one of the best purple plums, and hardy.
Lombard or Bleecker's Scarlet-good in all soils, and productive. White Magnum Bonum, or Yellow Egg-second rate, large plum; very popular for preserves.
Among other plums highly esteemed are the Imperial Ottoman, Drap d'Or, Lawrence's Favorite, Smith's Orleans, Yellow Gage, Hudson Gage, and Apricot.
This fruit is not extensively cultivated in Maine, with the exception of the Kentish. This is the hardiest and most reliable in this State, as it will thrive farther north than any other; add to this May Duke, Belle de Choisy, Black Eagle, Downer's Late, Elton, and Downton.
From experiments in progress we hope that the Mahaleb stock may do for us with this fruit what the quince stock has done for the pear.
This fruit is cultivated by many persons in the State somewhat extensively, and thousands of plants have been imported from England, and most of the fine English varieties succeed well in many localities. They grow to a very large size, but for quality and productiveness the Houghton's Seedling and American Hybrid sort surpass them all, and, as they have never been known to mildew in any situation, are deservedly held in high esteem.
Joseph Sinclair, of Levant, in 1848, purchased one plant of this variety, paying therefor twenty-five cents. He has sold from layers and slips which he has multiplied from the said plant over fifty dollars' worth, and has one hundred plants on hand at the date of this report. It would be safe to say he has received a profit of sixty dollars on his outlay of twentyfive cents.
Fustolf, Franconia, and Knevel's Giant are uniformly fine, and give satisfaction Antwerps often fail. River's large-fruited monthly promises
Strawberries are no extensively cultivated in Maine. Our fields
abound with wild ones, which are mostly used. Among those mostly cultivated are,
To conclude, we believe that it is only necessary for us, in order to produce an ample supply of the most delicious fruit, to understand what varieties best suit our climate, combining in the greatest degree the requisites of hardihood, vigor of growth, productiveness, and high quality, and to act accordingly.
All which is respectfully submitted.
HENRY LITTLE, of Bangor.
REPORT FROM VERMONT.
The season the past year in Vermont has been a peculiar one for fruit culture. The winter commenced at least three weeks earlier than usual, suddenly, and when trees had scarcely stopped growing; consequently, they were much winter-killed by the most severe winter with us for many years. Nurserymen suffered severely, particularly in Seedling Pears; many-in fact most of them-were lost by "heaving out," which I had never before known to any extent.
The spring was cold, late, and very dry-very little rain in March and April-less than three-fourths of an inch in May; so that as a whole it may be noted as one of the worst seasons ever known for planting trees of every description.
The season was about ten days later than an average-apple trees not in bloom until the last of May.
Apples are the fruit of Vermont, a large portion of the inhabitants out of villages having no other, excepting the most common plums. The crop this season is perhaps less than half an average. The early part of June was cold and wet, and, although they flowered very full, the cold, wet weather caused a large portion to drop when the size of peas. Pears. The same as apples.
Plums. Very abundant. From the most delicate sorts down to the Canada or native plum of many parts of the State, the trees are literally breaking under their loads of fruit.
Grapes.-Same as plums; no mildew.
Diseases.-The apple under ordinary culture is healthy; no special diseases. The borer in some places is troublesome to young trees, but not generally.
Pears.-Old trees uniformly healthy. Young trees sometimes injured by blight. This is, however, very little known, but increasing. No remedy but cutting off.
Plums.-Generally healthy. In some parts of the State there is some
complaint of black knots; but in Burlington, and north, in the Valley of the lake, all diseases of plum trees are unknown.
Varieties.-The State having apples introduced from Canada by merchants in the lumber trade, and by settlers from Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut without names, has many sorts cultivated extensively with only local names. Among well known varieties, the Rhode Island Greening is most extensively cultivated. Hardy and productive in all parts of the State.
Baldwin.-Hardy and productive. Were I limited to one sort, it should be the Baldwin.
Roxbury Russet.-Hardy, good bearer, but not so great a bearer as the Baldwin.
Esopus Spitzenberg.-Much cultivated; is apt to be spotted; too tender for all parts of the State.
Newtown Pippin.-Too tender, excepting for the most favorable locations. Some seasons good, others worthless.
Northern Spy.-Not yet fully proved; no apple grows better or appears more hardy. Fruit this season fair, and looks as well as any sort whatever; has not before fruited in the State, excepting a few specimens.
Summer Apples.-Early Harvest and Bough are among the most common old sorts, and good in perfection.
Red Astrachan.-Hardy and very fair.
Autumn.-Gravenstein.-Hardy, and one of the best, if not the best
Porter. Hardy and productive.
Many new sorts are in course of trial. Some cultivators can exhibit more than 100 named varieties, but their culture has not been extensive enough to speak with much confidence. Of seedlings there are many on trial in various parts of the State, and some believed to be fully equal to any known sorts.
The White Doyenné is the most common of old sorts, and is healthy in all parts of the State. Fruit fair.
Dearborn's Seedling.-Very hardy and productive.
Bartlett.-Grows well near the lake and warm parts of the State.. Too tender for the colder portions.
Vicar of Winkfield.-Hardy, but requires too long a season for all parts of the State.
Seckel. Very hardy.
Pears on Quince have only been cultivated a few years. Many are now planted yearly. They so far promise well, and have not been injured by winter. The various sorts of pears have not been sufficiently cultivated to speak with confidence of their comparative merits.
Large collections of both foreign and native sorts have been made, and many are bearing; and in a few years reliable notes may be taken. In no part of the country do they promise better than in many parts of this State, and generally, so far, no disease among them.
Many parts of the State are natural places for plums I have
succeeded in growing every variety tried, (more than 50,) excepting the peach plum, which so far has proved too delicate for our climate.
Miller's Burgundy and White Sweet Water are the most common foreign sorts, and ripen well. The Isabella requires favorable location. Catawba, hardy, but too late. The native grapes of New England are generally cultivated, and seedlings are every year increasing, some of which promise well.
There have been introduced within a few years pears and apples from every portion of the United States, which, with many seedlings, are in course of trial. Before another convention, reliable notes of a long number of pears and apples may be made, which, with notes of climate, will be of general interest.
BURLINGTON, August 26, 1852.
REPORT FROM NEW YORK.
A long residence in what is known as Western New York, (at Rochester,) enables me to give some of the early impressions relative to fruit trees, as well as the numerous fruit grown there, within 35 years last past in that location.
Coming from New Hampshire, a State which had hardly grown peaches, I remember with what zest I ate the first peach I ever saw at Rochester; and it is a fact worth remembrance, that 35 years ago, the Royal Kensington peach was grown in the virgin soil of Monroe, then Genesee county.
My father, in the year 1817, purchased the first dozen of peaches which he saw there, and, as he bad just located what he deemed his home lot, he, with great care, kept and planted the pits of the peaches mentioned. From them seven fine, thrifty trees sprung up, which at their bearing proved identical with the peaches he bought, and which were the Royal Kensington variety. Those trees were moved to another lot and most of them lived 25 years, fine bearing trees; and the variety was generally propagated from them.
It is also within my recollection that a tree of the Yellow Melacoton variety was grown in a neighbor's yard, which produced the best fruit of that kind I have ever seen. That was also a seedling tree.
It is also well remembered that so spontaneously did the peach tree grow there, and so plenty was the fruit as early as 1821 to 1825, that growers many times have thrown their peaches from their market wagons into the river sooner than sell them for less than twenty cents per bushel.
It may be asked why peaches now command, in ordinary seasons at this point, from two to three dollars per basket? It is because a second planting of trees did not take place till very recently, and that the trees are more or less affected by the disease known as the yellows, and by the depredations of the borer, which all growers should know and exterminate from the roots.
The curculio, not satisfied with taking the cherries to some extent, as