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aside for me. It is done on somewhat the same principle that a man follows in buying horses — others may recommend, but he must examine the animal himself and try him out before he invests his money in him.

The manuscript accepted for publication, the next point to be determined is, what kind of a book shall be made of it? This means the selection of type, the size of the volume, the choice of artist to illustrate it, and so on.

Book manufacturing details are usually worked out carefully and nothing is left to chance. The number of words is estimated, the size of type is decided upon this being regulated by the number of words the manuscript contains and the number of pages the book is to have — the kind of paper, the style of illustration, the scheme for cover design and paper “jacket," and the size of the edition.

Nowadays, as I have said, fiction is treated from a merchandise standpoint. A story that can be made into a book of four hundred pages

can be retailed for about $1.25 ; a book of five hundred pages for $1.35.

The number of copies ordered for the first edition varies, of course, according to the prominence of the author. My experience is that 7 minimum first edition of at least 3,500 copies is necessary, or the cost per copy will be too high to yield any profit.

The manufacturing cost naturally is affected by the number of copies printed, because the cost of the “plant” – typesetting, the making of electrotype plates, the artist's fee, the engraving, and the other items in getting the book ready to print - is just the same whether 1,000 or 10,000 copies of the book are printed. A 400-page book consumes about a pound

quarter of paper. Our fiction is printed on sheets of paper measuring 301/2 by 41 inches. A sheet that size will print sixty-four pages of the book, 32 pages on each side, giving a volume 574 by 734 inches, which now is the popular fiction size.

The revision of a manuscript and the reading of the printers' proofs often involve

a heavy labor. I have known cases where as many as a thousand changes of individual words and phrases in a single manuscript have been made after its acceptance.

As a rule, three proofs of the type are pulled. One of these is read by the printers to see that it conforms to the manuscript copy, another set is read by the author him. self in order that he may improve the work if possible, and the third set is read in the publisher's office, the final changes made as necessary. All these changes cost money, and usually the publisher has to defray this expense himself.

I have mentioned the paper jacket,” or wrapper. This theoretically is for the purpose of protecting the cloth

cover, but really is treated purely from the advertising standpoint — that is, it is artistically printed and decorated attractively in order to catch the eye of the buyer looking over a table of new novels.

These are some of the more essential details and problems involved in producing a volume of fiction. The author has, to be sure, made the volume possible, but his share in its production is not so burdensome as that of the publisher nor does he risk so much. The publisher risks his capital and his experience and energy, and for a time he must live that book until he can feel that it is going to repay his investment by its sale.

The publisher, of course, has to attend to all the details of selling. Books are sold by means of advance samples which are carried by traveling representatives direct to the book trade. For the use of his own traveling representatives and the travelers of the book jobbing houses the publisher has to have made up at considerable expense a number of "dummy” books -- showing the cover, properly die stamped, a sample picture, and a few sample pages of the contents -- and this often months before the actual printing of the book has begun.

The review copies for the newspapers and periodicals must be distributed shortly before the book is published. This work falls to the lot of the publisher.

The matter of advertising is and always

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will be the big problem with the publisher. He must decide in advance how much he is warranted in spending in promotion and publicity, and he must decide how and where to spend it. Cosmopolitan newspapers of wide circulation in the territory in which they are published are the mediums relied upon to attract the buyer personally.

The publisher must have a pretty good idea of the various proportions of the different items of expense in publishing a book of fiction. For instance, if a volume wholesales at seventy-five cents — the publisher's estimates always are based on the wholesale price of a book, not on the retail price — he must know how much of that amount should go for manufacture, how much for advertising, how much to general overhead expense — in other words, the book's share of the firm's expense of doing business — how much to the author and how much should be left for himself.

An author receives anywhere from ten to twenty per cent of the retail price, and the usual royalty is ten per cent. up to five thousand copies and then twelve and onehalf per cent.

To sum up, the successful publisher must be something of a Jack-of-all-trades. He must have literary and artistic instincts sufficient to enable him to know the real from the false ; he must know something of the mechanical processes by which a book is made --- printing, engraving, paper making, binding ; he must have the ability to invent advertising, he must have the selling ability ; and, last and not least, he must have the courage to risk money on a gamble, for the publishing of a popular fiction nowadays is a great deal of a gamble. - F. G. Browne, in the Chicago Tribune.

Journalist Novelists.- John Lane says in the Bodleian : “I not inclined to say that the journalist makes, as a rule, a good novelist. He is handicapped by his journalistic instincts. He knows too much. The ideal novelist is the man who has a broad knowledge of life and the power of expressing it, but is always and primarily trying to amuse. The journalist is always and primarily crammed full of copy, of which he is anxious to unburden himself.

He is apt to leave little or nothing to the imagination, and his book, as viewed from the standpoint of good fiction, suffers accordingly. Probably the most periect of journalist-novelists is Rudyard Kipling. He has been referred to as a 'glorified journalist.' That is, in my opinion, a libel. I consider Mr. Kipling to be a man who has given a minute study to humanity, who has, in short, viewed life and poetry under a microscope.

Journalism is a profession which serves to feed the novelist. A journalist who runs away from his profession for all time and takes up fiction carries with him an excellent stock-in-trade. To him, as notable precedents have proved, to mention only the name of J. M. Barrie, may come some considerable measure of success. On the other hand, the novelist does not make a successful journalist. I know, in fact, of no case worth quoting. Novelists of repute make too much profit to abandon what is practically a bed of roses for a thorny career in the newspaper world. If there are any professions from which the ranks of novelists are best recruited they are those of the doctor and lawyer. Of the former we have notable instances in Sir A. Conan Doyle, Weir Mitchell, and Benjamin Ward Richardson; of the latter such

Meredith, Watts-Dunton, and Arnold Bennett suffice as examples.”

names

as

LITERARY ARTICLES IN PERIODICALS.

[Readers who send to the publishers of the periodicals indexed for copies of the periodicals containing the articles mentioned in the following reference list will confer a favor if they will mention The WRITER.]

1

am

A PAPER OF Purs. Brander Matthews. Century for June.

NEWSPAPER INVASION OF PRIVACY. Topics of the Tim, Century for June.

ON THE LADY AND HER Book. Helen Minturn Seymour. Open Letters, Century for June. ON THE USE OF

HYPERBOLE IN ADVERTISING. Agnes Repplier. Open Letters, Century for June.

LINGUISTIC CAUSES AMERICANISMS. Thomas R. Lounsbury. Harper's Magazine for June.

Some EARLY MEMORIES. Henry Cabot Lodge. Scribner's for June.

LETTERS AND JOURNALS OF CHARLES Eliot NOR. TON. Scribner's for June.

OF

95

THE NOVELS THAT SELL I00,000. Arthur W. Page. World's Work for June.

LITTLE PICTURES OF O. HENRY, Arthur W. Page. Bookman for June.

THE LITERARY BAEDEKER. Arthur Bartlett Maurice. Bookman for June.

The GRUB Street PROBLEM. Algernon Tassin. Bookman íor June.

WRITING Novels. Arnold Bennett. Metropolitan for June.

WRITING NOVELS. - II. Arnold Bennett. Englislı
Review for June.

THE CORRESPONDENCE OF FRIEDRICH Nietzsche
WITH Georg BRANDES. Translated by Beatrice
Marshall. English Review for June.
THE
New

WAR CORRESPONDENT. Frank Fox
National Review for June.

SYMBOLISTIC POETRY IN FRANCE. William A.
Nitze. North American Review for June.
THE POETRY OF WILLIAM VAUGHN

Moody.
Charlton M. Lewis. Yale Review for June.

THE PoET OF THE SIERRAS. Hamlin Garland.
Sunset for June.
JOURNALISM.” George

Shaw Cook
National Printer-Journalist for May.

CONCERNING THE WEWER PUNCTUATION, Grace McKinstry. National Printer-Journalist for May.

RE-READING Books. Richard Burton. Bellman for
May 10.

WHERE WORLD-FAMOUS SONG WAS WRITTEN
(“My Old Kentucky Home"). J. L. Harbour.
Christian Endeavor World for May 29.
EDWARD EVERETT Hale. Verbatim

report of memorial exercises. Christian Register for May 29.

The personal memoirs of Amelia E. Barr are published by D. Appleton & Co.

“ Mark Twain and the Happy Island," by Elizabeth Wallace, published by A. C. VeClurg & Co., is a personal and appreciative account of Mark Twain in Bermuda.

Duffield & Co. have in preparation “ The Correspondence of Goldwin Smith," selected by his literary executor and secretary. Arnold Haultain, who has added a bibliography of Goldwin Smith's various writings, and will publish also “Goldwin Smith As I Knew Him."

“ The Story of Oscar Wilde," by Walter Winston Kenilworth, is published by R. F. Fenno & Co.

“ CLEAN

А

NEWS AND NOTES.

reserves

Henry Holt & Co. have arranged with Edwin Björkman for a volume on “Scandinavian Literature.” Mr. Björkman contemplates separate treatment oi Ibsen, Björnson, George Brandes, Strindberg, and Jacobsen. There will be collective treatment of the lesser men in Norway, Sweden, and Denmark.

A cash prize of $5,000 is offered for the best American opera by a resident American composer by Cleoionte Campanini, successor of Andreas Dippel, as manager of the Chicago Grand Opera company. The company

the right to produce the prize winning opera in Chicago, Philadelphia, and other cities.

Writers of verse whose work has never been published will have an opportunity to compete for small prizes offered by the Book News Monthly of Philadelphia - $10 and $5 for the two best poems, and $i ior every poem printed. The contest will close August 1.

Particulars regarding the offer by the National Federation of Musical Clubs of $10,000 for an American grand opera may be had of Mrs. Jason Walker, 116 South Michigan avenue, Chicago.

Walter Pulitzer of New York, son of the late Albert Pulitzer, and nephew of the late Joseph Pulitzer, has bought Uncle Remus's Magazine, and will merge it with Pulitzer's Magazine, which he will start in New York in the fall.

A biography of Joseph Pulitzer is being written, and any who have first-hand accurate information about his early days are asked to write to Joseph Pulitzer, Jr., PostDispatch, St. Louis.

George Meredith,” by Constantine Photiades, published by the Scribners, is at once portraiture, biography, anecdote, analysis, and criticism. The opening chapter records "A Visit to Flint Cottage." M. Photiades next recounts his hero's life in greater detail than is customarily to be found in biographical notices of Meredith, and then proceeds with a chapter each devoted to “ His Imagination," His Art,” and “His Teaching."

"The Early Life of George Eliot," by Mary H. Deakin, is published by Longmans, Green, & Co.

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Norman Hapgood, who resigned from the editorship of Collier's Weekly last October, has bought Harper's Weekly, delivery to be made June 1. Colonel George Harvey, president of Harper & Brothers, says: “We sold the Weekly for the same reason that we sold the Bazar. It was losing money, and had been for some time. Our experience is that too many periodicals get in one another's way. Harper's Magazine and the North American Review, both of which are prosperous, are all we need, and all we can publish advantageously in conjunction with our book business. I shall transfer my own editorial work from Harper's Weekly to the North American Review. Mr. Hapgood's associates in the purchase are the McClure Publications, Incorporated, the company which publishes McClure's Magazine, the Ladies' World, and the Housekeeper. The Weekly will continue to be published as it has been for a month or two after Mr. Hapgood takes control, and on August i

thereabouts there will be numerous changes. Mr. Hapgood said that he would not publish fiction, and that "humor would be employed only as it had to do with ideas.” “If I could discover another Dooley," he says, that would please me a great deal, for the kind of humor in which Dooley deals is n't for those who object to thinking." For the present at least the name Harper's Weekly will be retained.

Robert Underwood Johnson has resigned as editor-in-chief of the Century Magazine, and Robert Sterling Yard, of the publishing firm of Moffat, Yard, & Co., has been appointed general manager of the magazine, a place in which he will take up the work relinquished by Mr. Johnson. The July Century will be the last for which Mr. Johnson will be responsible.

James T. Tower has resigned as editor of Good Housekeeping Magazine, and will spend a year in Europe. Mr. Tower is succeeded by W. F. Bigelow, who has been with the Hearst magazines for some time.

Rev. Dr. Curtis Lee Laws has resigned as pastor of the Greene Avenue Baptist Church in Brooklyn, to give his whole time to his work as editor of the Examiner.

The Southern Woman's Magazine, published at Nashville by Robert L. Burch, has issued its second number.

The Congregational religious weekly, the Advance, issued in Chicago, has been purchased by leading Congregational ministers and laymen. The new editor-in-chief is to be Rev. William E. Barton of Chicago, with whom will be associated President 0. S. Davis of Chicago Seminary and Rev. W. T. McElveen of the First church, Evanston, formeriy pastor of Shawmut church, Boston.

The publishers of Vogue (New York) have bought Dress, and will consolidate with it Vanity Fair, which they have also purchased. It is announced that all of the best fashion and society features of Dress will be retained. In addition, the new publishers expect to develop the publication along new lines by handling certain features in the manner of papers like the Sketch and the Tatler in England. Dress will be edited to appeal to men as well as women.

The Drama League of America, with headquarters at 756 Marquette building, Chicago, has an organ in the Drama, a quarterly which Theodore Hinckley edits. Each number contains a translation of a complete play not otherwise accessible in English. All manner of technical problems involved in playwriting and play producing are discussed by persons of experience and books on dramaturgy are candidly reviewed.

In the World's Work for June Arthur W. Page writes on the earnings of authors whose novels reach the 100,000 mark. Aside from serial publication and reprint editions, such a story brings the successful writer about $25,000, which is the minimum. Of Florence

L.

Barclay's “ The Rosary' 500,000 copies have been sold thus far, and 200,000 of its successor, “The Following of the Star."

Francis Fisher Browne died at Santa Barbara, Calif., May II, aged sixty-nine.

John Sergeant Wise died at Princess Anne, Maryland, May 12, aged sixty-six.

Lord Avebury (formerly Sir John Lubbock) died at Ramsgate, England, May 28, aged seventy-nine.

66

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE TO INTEREST AND HELP ALL LITERARY WORKERS.

Vol. XXV.

BOSTON, JULY, 1913.

No. 7.

ENTERED AT THE BOSTON POST OFFICE AS SECOND-CLASS MAIL MATTER.

CONTENTS :

PAGE THE Writer's BARREL. Jacolyn Van Vliet Manning

97 COMMON ERRORS

IN WRITING CORRECTED:-
XXIV. Edward B. Hughes

98 The Publisher's Reader. Calvin Winter

99 EDITORIAL

104 What Magazine Stories Ought Not to Be, 104 — Cheapening an Author's Name, 104 — Why a Writer Should Not Be Discouraged by Rejection

104 WRITERS OF THE DAY

105 Roe L. Hendrick, 105 — Ethelyn Leslie Huston, 105 - Francis M. Kieron

106 PERSONAL Gossip ABOUT AUTHORS

106 Frances Hodgson Burnett, 106 Gilbert Chesterton

106 CURRENT LITERARY Topics

107 How a Successful Play Was Made, 107

Arnold Bennett's Views on Writing LITERARY ARTICLES IN PERIODICALS

IIO News AND Notes

III

110

Charles Darwin's “Life and Letters" may be found the following:

"As in several of my books facts observed by others have been extensively used, and as I have always had several quite distinct subjects in hand at the same time, I may mention that I keep from thirty to forty large folios in cabinets with labeled shelves into which I can at once put a detached reference or memorandum. I have bought many books and at their end I make an index of all the facts that con. cern my work; or if the book is not my own, write out a separate abstract, and of such abstracts I have a large drawer full. Before beginning on any subject, I look at all the short indexes, and make a general and classified index, and by taking the one or more proper portfolios, I have all the in. formation collected during my life ready for use."

The suggestion of a barrel was a very delightful one to me, and yet has been so recently attained, in its compact modern form, that I deduce that many other workers, must, like myself, have failed to have their attention called to the nice adaptation of the vertical file cabinet to their exact need.

A decade ago, feeling an imperative need of more system in the storage of reference material, I devised a shelf-and-drawer combination, based on the pigeon-hole and horizontal filing systems suggested by Darwin and Hillis. This piece of furniture was constructed by the village handy man, but proved to be a mongrel, unhandy, a dirt catcher, with most of its contents inaccessible from the base of operations, the swinging desk chair.

Since that time various makeshifts have been utilized, each one so deficient in some essential point of convenience and utility that time was frequently wasted in assembling material, and unprotected reference papers acquired a coating of gritty dust. This semi-chaos continued up to the present

THE WRITER'S “BARREL."

Twenty years ago I visited a study in Evanston, Illinois. The wall space, with the exception of an area reserved above the writing table, was hilled with books to the ceiling of the room.

The reserved area was divided into many pigeon-holes well filled with notes and references, all within reach of the hand of the worker. The student worker, already recognized for the eloquent character of his sermons and addresses, Dr. Newell Dwight Hillis, referred to this collection as his “barrel," adding that whenever he stood in need of a fresh topic for discussion he could always find it there.

Scientific men as well as literary workers find it necessary to have a "barrel." In

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