Alan Turing: Life and Legacy of a Great Thinker

Pirmais vāks
Springer Science & Business Media, 2004 - 542 lappuses

Alan Turing's fundamental contributions to computing led to the development of modern computing technology, and his work continues to inspire researchers in computing science and beyond. This book is the definitive collection of commemorative essays, and the distinguished contributors have expertise in such diverse fields as artificial intelligence, natural computing, mathematics, physics, cryptology, cognitive studies, philosophy and anthropology.

The volume spans the entire rich spectrum of Turing's life, research work and legacy. New light is shed on the future of computing science by visionary Ray Kurzweil. Notable contributions come from the philosopher Daniel Dennett, the Turing biographer Andrew Hodges, and the distinguished logician Martin Davis, who provides a first critical essay on an emerging and controversial field termed hypercomputation. A special feature of the book is the play by Valeria Patera which tackles the scandal surrounding the last apple, and presents as an enigma the life, death and destiny of the man who did so much to decipher the Enigma code during the Second World War.

Other chapters are modern reappraisals of Turing's work on computability, and deal with the major philosophical questions raised by the Turing Test, while the book also contains essays addressing his less well-known ideas on Fibonacci phyllotaxis and connectionism.

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This impressive tome includes fascinating contributions on the mechanization of mathematics, the (im)possibility of super-Turing computability, Kurzweil's singularity-is-near ideas, and much else. Lasīt pilnu pārskatu

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an Introductory Biography
3
References
8
Hacking the Turing Test
9
2 Turing and the Apple By Giulio Giorello
10
3 The Play
12
References
40
What Would Alan Turing Have Done After 1954?
43
2 Churchs Thesis and Copelands Thesis
47
3 Postscript 1997
314
References
316
The Computer Artifrcial Intelligence and the Turing Test
317
2 Artificial Intelligence
328
3 Artificial Life
335
4 The Turing Test
336
5 Postscript
345
References
346

3 Computabiiity and Quantum Physics
53
References
56
From Turing to the Information Society
59
2 An Anthropological Analysis
60
the Disappearing Body?
61
Reproducing Every Bodily Eiement
65
5 Information as the Lowest Common Denominator
66
6 Turing Wiener and Cybernetics
67
7 Intelligence Rationality and Humankind
68
8 From Unorganized to Organized Machines
69
9 Towards a New Human Being?
71
References
73
Computation and Turing Machines
75
The Mechanization of Mathematics
77
2 Before Turing
82
3 Hiibert and the Entscheidungsproblem
84
4 Turings Negative Soiution of the Entscheidungsproblem
88
5 Church and Godei
90
6 The Possible Loopholes
91
7 The First TheoremProvers
92
8 Kinds of Mathematical Reasoning
95
9 Computer Algebra
100
10 Decision Procedures in Algebra and Geometry
103
11 Equality Reasoning
110
12 Proofs Involving Computations
114
13 Searching for Proofs
117
14 Proofs Involving Sets Functions and Numbers
122
15 Conclusion
124
References
127
Hypercomputational Models
135
2 A Taxonomy of Hypercomputation
138
3 Hypercomputer Engineering
149
4 Hypercomputational Characteristics
150
5 Conclusion and Summary
152
Turings Ideas and Models of Computation
159
2 Turings Contributions to Computer Science
160
3 SuperTuring Computation
170
4 Models of SuperTuring Computation
179
5 Towards a New Kind of Computer Science
185
6 Rethinking the Theory of Computation
188
7 Conclusions
191
References
192
The Myth of Hypercomputation
195
2 Algorithms and Infinity
196
3 Turing Machines the ChurchTuring Thesis and Modern Computers
199
4 Hava Siegelmann Ventures Beyond the Turing Limit
200
5 Turings OMachines
204
6 Computing with Randomness and Quantum Computation
208
References
210
the ChurchTuring Hypothesis Versus the Turing Principle
213
2 From Bits to Qubits
215
The Turing Principle Versus the ChurchTuring Hypothesis
217
4 The Computational Analogy
227
5 Deutsch and the Nature of Mathematics
232
6 Conclusion
238
Implementation of a Selfreplicating Universal Turing Machine
241
2 Turing Machines
242
3 Selfreplication of a Universal Turing Machine on a Muiticellular Array
245
4 P1COPASCAL
253
5 Detailed Implementation of a Universal Turing Machine
259
6 Conclusion
265
References
267
an Ecological Perspective
271
2 Turings Analysis of Computation
273
3 The Implications of Turings Analysis for Cognitive Science
278
4 Broadening the Scope of Turings Analysis
288
References
291
Artificial Intelligence and the Turing Test
293
Can Machines Think?
295
Eyes Ears Hands and History
310
A Note on Enjoying Strawberries with Cream Making Mistakes and Other Idiotic Features
353
2 Some Details on Subcomputationality
355
3 Some Details on Concomputationality
356
References
357
Robots and RuleFollowing
359
2 RuleFollowing
362
3 The Argument from Manufacturing History
370
References
377
The Law of Accelerating Returns
381
2 The Law of Accelerating Returns
383
3 The Singularity Is Near
385
4 Where from Moores Law
387
Moores Law Was Not the First but the Fifth Paradigm to Provide for Exponential Growth of Computing
388
6 DNA Sequencing Memory Communications the Internet and Miniaturization
391
8 The Software of Intelligence
395
9 Reverse Engineering the Human Brain
397
10 Scanning from Inside
398
12 Downloading the Human Brain
399
13 Is the Human Brain Different from a Computer?
401
15 The Importance of Having a Body
402
16 So Just Who Are These Peopie?
403
17 A Thought Experiment
404
18 On Tubules and Quantum Computing
406
19 A Clear and Future Danger
408
20 Living Forever
412
21 The Next Step in Evoiution and the Purpose of Life
413
22 Why Intelligence Is More Powerful than Physics
415
The Enigma
417
The Polish Brains Behind the Breaking of the Enigma Code Before and During the Second World War
419
2 The Cryptology Course in Poznari
420
3 The Enigma
421
4 The Internationai Cooperation
423
5 The Breaking of the Enigma System
424
6 The New Devices as a Reaction to Changes in the Enigma Settings
426
7 French and British Efforts at Breaking Enigma
427
8 The Bombe as a Response to Further Changes in the Enigma System
428
9 The Gift to the Aiiies
429
10 The Mathematical Solution of Enigma
430
11 Epilogue
435
References
438
Alan Turing at Bletchley Park in World War II
441
2 Cribs and Opened Out Enigmas
444
3 The E Rack
451
4 Adding the Diagonal Board to the Bombe
453
5 Alan Turing and the German Navys Use of Enigma
454
6 Alan Turing after German Naval Enigma
460
A Appendix H of UK Public Record Office Document HW142
461
References
462
Alan M Turings Contributions to Cooperation Between the UK and the US
463
References
472
Almost Forgotten Ideas
475
Turing and Fibonacci Phyilotaxis
477
2 Fibonacci Phyllotaxis
478
3 Where Do Spots Come from? The Turing Instability
481
4 Lattice Generation
484
5 Geometricai Phyllotaxis
485
6 Dynamic Phyllotaxis
487
7 Routes to Phyllotaxis
489
8 Turing and Modern Approaches to Fibonacci Phyllotaxis
493
9 Conclusion
495
10 Acknowledgments
496
Turings Connectionism
499
2 Connectionism and Artificial Neural Networks
501
3 Turings Unorganized Machines
506
4 Organizing Unorganized Machines
519
5 Conclusion
523
References
525
List of Contributors
531
Index
535
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Par autoru (2004)

Christof Teuscher holds an electronic engineer degree and received the diploma degree in computer engineering (equivalent to a MSCS degree) from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology at Lausanne (EPFL) in 2000. Since then, he has been a research and teaching assistant in the Logic Systems Laboratory at EPFL, pursuing the Ph.D. degree in the field of biologically-inspired computing machines.

Christof Teuscher's work has been honored with several awards. His first book has been published by Springer-Verlag in 2001: Turing's Connectionism: An Investigation of Neural Network Architectures. He was head of the BioWall project that was widely covered by the media. Christof's second book - Alan Turing: Life and Legacy of a Great Thinker - will be published in 2003. Christof has also been nominated for a fellowship at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University.

Christof Teuscher is the initiator and organizer of the Turing Day and an organizer and program chair of the 5th International Workshop on Information Processing in Cells in Tissues, IPCAT2003. He is also a member of the program committee of the 5th International Conference on Evolvable Systems: From Biology to Hardware, ICES'03, of the 7th European Conference on Artificial Life, ECAL2003, and of the NASA/DoD Conference on Evolvable Hardware, EH-2003.

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