## Alan Turing: Life and Legacy of a Great ThinkerAlan Turing's fundamental contributions to computing led to the development of modern computing technology, and his work continues to inspire researchers in computing science and beyond. This book is the definitive collection of commemorative essays, and the distinguished contributors have expertise in such diverse fields as artificial intelligence, natural computing, mathematics, physics, cryptology, cognitive studies, philosophy and anthropology. The volume spans the entire rich spectrum of Turing's life, research work and legacy. New light is shed on the future of computing science by visionary Ray Kurzweil. Notable contributions come from the philosopher Daniel Dennett, the Turing biographer Andrew Hodges, and the distinguished logician Martin Davis, who provides a first critical essay on an emerging and controversial field termed hypercomputation. A special feature of the book is the play by Valeria Patera which tackles the scandal surrounding the last apple, and presents as an enigma the life, death and destiny of the man who did so much to decipher the Enigma code during the Second World War. Other chapters are modern reappraisals of Turing's work on computability, and deal with the major philosophical questions raised by the Turing Test, while the book also contains essays addressing his less well-known ideas on Fibonacci phyllotaxis and connectionism. |

### Lietotāju komentāri - Rakstīt atsauksmi

#### LibraryThing Review

Lietotāja recenzija - fpagan - LibraryThingThis impressive tome includes fascinating contributions on the mechanization of mathematics, the (im)possibility of super-Turing computability, Kurzweil's singularity-is-near ideas, and much else. Lasīt pilnu pārskatu

### Saturs

an Introductory Biography | 3 |

References | 8 |

Hacking the Turing Test | 9 |

2 Turing and the Apple By Giulio Giorello | 10 |

3 The Play | 12 |

References | 40 |

What Would Alan Turing Have Done After 1954? | 43 |

2 Churchs Thesis and Copelands Thesis | 47 |

3 Postscript 1997 | 314 |

References | 316 |

The Computer Artifrcial Intelligence and the Turing Test | 317 |

2 Artificial Intelligence | 328 |

3 Artificial Life | 335 |

4 The Turing Test | 336 |

5 Postscript | 345 |

References | 346 |

3 Computabiiity and Quantum Physics | 53 |

References | 56 |

From Turing to the Information Society | 59 |

2 An Anthropological Analysis | 60 |

the Disappearing Body? | 61 |

Reproducing Every Bodily Eiement | 65 |

5 Information as the Lowest Common Denominator | 66 |

6 Turing Wiener and Cybernetics | 67 |

7 Intelligence Rationality and Humankind | 68 |

8 From Unorganized to Organized Machines | 69 |

9 Towards a New Human Being? | 71 |

References | 73 |

Computation and Turing Machines | 75 |

The Mechanization of Mathematics | 77 |

2 Before Turing | 82 |

3 Hiibert and the Entscheidungsproblem | 84 |

4 Turings Negative Soiution of the Entscheidungsproblem | 88 |

5 Church and Godei | 90 |

6 The Possible Loopholes | 91 |

7 The First TheoremProvers | 92 |

8 Kinds of Mathematical Reasoning | 95 |

9 Computer Algebra | 100 |

10 Decision Procedures in Algebra and Geometry | 103 |

11 Equality Reasoning | 110 |

12 Proofs Involving Computations | 114 |

13 Searching for Proofs | 117 |

14 Proofs Involving Sets Functions and Numbers | 122 |

15 Conclusion | 124 |

References | 127 |

Hypercomputational Models | 135 |

2 A Taxonomy of Hypercomputation | 138 |

3 Hypercomputer Engineering | 149 |

4 Hypercomputational Characteristics | 150 |

5 Conclusion and Summary | 152 |

Turings Ideas and Models of Computation | 159 |

2 Turings Contributions to Computer Science | 160 |

3 SuperTuring Computation | 170 |

4 Models of SuperTuring Computation | 179 |

5 Towards a New Kind of Computer Science | 185 |

6 Rethinking the Theory of Computation | 188 |

7 Conclusions | 191 |

References | 192 |

The Myth of Hypercomputation | 195 |

2 Algorithms and Infinity | 196 |

3 Turing Machines the ChurchTuring Thesis and Modern Computers | 199 |

4 Hava Siegelmann Ventures Beyond the Turing Limit | 200 |

5 Turings OMachines | 204 |

6 Computing with Randomness and Quantum Computation | 208 |

References | 210 |

the ChurchTuring Hypothesis Versus the Turing Principle | 213 |

2 From Bits to Qubits | 215 |

The Turing Principle Versus the ChurchTuring Hypothesis | 217 |

4 The Computational Analogy | 227 |

5 Deutsch and the Nature of Mathematics | 232 |

6 Conclusion | 238 |

Implementation of a Selfreplicating Universal Turing Machine | 241 |

2 Turing Machines | 242 |

3 Selfreplication of a Universal Turing Machine on a Muiticellular Array | 245 |

4 P1COPASCAL | 253 |

5 Detailed Implementation of a Universal Turing Machine | 259 |

6 Conclusion | 265 |

References | 267 |

an Ecological Perspective | 271 |

2 Turings Analysis of Computation | 273 |

3 The Implications of Turings Analysis for Cognitive Science | 278 |

4 Broadening the Scope of Turings Analysis | 288 |

References | 291 |

Artificial Intelligence and the Turing Test | 293 |

Can Machines Think? | 295 |

Eyes Ears Hands and History | 310 |

A Note on Enjoying Strawberries with Cream Making Mistakes and Other Idiotic Features | 353 |

2 Some Details on Subcomputationality | 355 |

3 Some Details on Concomputationality | 356 |

References | 357 |

Robots and RuleFollowing | 359 |

2 RuleFollowing | 362 |

3 The Argument from Manufacturing History | 370 |

References | 377 |

The Law of Accelerating Returns | 381 |

2 The Law of Accelerating Returns | 383 |

3 The Singularity Is Near | 385 |

4 Where from Moores Law | 387 |

Moores Law Was Not the First but the Fifth Paradigm to Provide for Exponential Growth of Computing | 388 |

6 DNA Sequencing Memory Communications the Internet and Miniaturization | 391 |

8 The Software of Intelligence | 395 |

9 Reverse Engineering the Human Brain | 397 |

10 Scanning from Inside | 398 |

12 Downloading the Human Brain | 399 |

13 Is the Human Brain Different from a Computer? | 401 |

15 The Importance of Having a Body | 402 |

16 So Just Who Are These Peopie? | 403 |

17 A Thought Experiment | 404 |

18 On Tubules and Quantum Computing | 406 |

19 A Clear and Future Danger | 408 |

20 Living Forever | 412 |

21 The Next Step in Evoiution and the Purpose of Life | 413 |

22 Why Intelligence Is More Powerful than Physics | 415 |

The Enigma | 417 |

The Polish Brains Behind the Breaking of the Enigma Code Before and During the Second World War | 419 |

2 The Cryptology Course in Poznari | 420 |

3 The Enigma | 421 |

4 The Internationai Cooperation | 423 |

5 The Breaking of the Enigma System | 424 |

6 The New Devices as a Reaction to Changes in the Enigma Settings | 426 |

7 French and British Efforts at Breaking Enigma | 427 |

8 The Bombe as a Response to Further Changes in the Enigma System | 428 |

9 The Gift to the Aiiies | 429 |

10 The Mathematical Solution of Enigma | 430 |

11 Epilogue | 435 |

References | 438 |

Alan Turing at Bletchley Park in World War II | 441 |

2 Cribs and Opened Out Enigmas | 444 |

3 The E Rack | 451 |

4 Adding the Diagonal Board to the Bombe | 453 |

5 Alan Turing and the German Navys Use of Enigma | 454 |

6 Alan Turing after German Naval Enigma | 460 |

A Appendix H of UK Public Record Office Document HW142 | 461 |

References | 462 |

Alan M Turings Contributions to Cooperation Between the UK and the US | 463 |

References | 472 |

Almost Forgotten Ideas | 475 |

Turing and Fibonacci Phyilotaxis | 477 |

2 Fibonacci Phyllotaxis | 478 |

3 Where Do Spots Come from? The Turing Instability | 481 |

4 Lattice Generation | 484 |

5 Geometricai Phyllotaxis | 485 |

6 Dynamic Phyllotaxis | 487 |

7 Routes to Phyllotaxis | 489 |

8 Turing and Modern Approaches to Fibonacci Phyllotaxis | 493 |

9 Conclusion | 495 |

10 Acknowledgments | 496 |

Turings Connectionism | 499 |

2 Connectionism and Artificial Neural Networks | 501 |

3 Turings Unorganized Machines | 506 |

4 Organizing Unorganized Machines | 519 |

5 Conclusion | 523 |

525 | |

List of Contributors | 531 |

535 | |