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never been able to discover positively, and with perfect satisfaction to myself, which condition is primary and which secondary. Is the low condition of the nerves consequent on that of the muscles, or is the reverse the case?

Naturally, one would suppose that perfect rest would benefit these sufferers, but it seldom does. When rest is found to cure a supposed case of this kind, one can safely say that the patient was never truly affected by real writer's cramp.

The means employed in my method of treatment are very simple, consisting in massage and gymnastic exercises. To repeat what Dr. Douglass Graham says in his book "On Massage," the vaguest generalities exist as to the manner of doing massage, even among the best authors on the subject. It is no matter how precisely and carefully worded the description of it may be, it is not likely to be comprehended, unless one sees, feels, and attempts to do massage himself, and compares his efforts with those of others; for massage, though it may be studied as a science, has, like everything else in medicine and surgery, to be practiced as an art; and the same may be said of this that Dr. John Hilton said of surgery: "There is much that cannot be systematized, that cannot be conveyed from mind to mind in books and articles."

The gymnastics are active and passive motions, consisting in stretching and contracting the arm and fingers. The fundamental methods of my treatment can easily be conceived by every medical man, but it is not the same with the execution. This must be adapted to every special case. First of all, the really affected muscles must be recognized and subjected to treatment by massage and gymnastics in a special manner. To do that requires experience, accurate knowledge of the manifold appearances of the writer's cramp, and a certain natural ability.

A leading factor in the development of my method was my experience as a teacher of penmanship, especially as regards the manner of holding and guiding the pen. Both should for each individual be adapted to the individual formation of the hand and forearm, and not according to a general or normal rule. This is not only the main point, but the basis of my

treatment. Writer's cramp cannot be cured according to a general rule, or according to a specified method. No two hands are alike, and while general precepts in writing may be observed, the rules must be modified and adapted to the individual. A method must be found for the hand in question- not the reverse. Each individual hand must be studied, not only by the anatomist as to its form and the formation of all its muscles, not only by the physiologist in reference to the functions and actions of the muscles, but, above all, by the teacher of writing in reference to the special and particular way in which the individual holds his pen and writes, what muscles he prefers to make use of. No two men perform the action of writing in exactly the same manner, and writer's cramp does not affect the very same muscles with equal intensity in all cases. It needs not only a good physician, but a good and experienced teacher of writing to recognize quickly the muscles principally affected, and consequently direct the treatment where it rightly belongs. These muscles have in one sense to be taught writing over again. They must work correctly and coördinate themselves accurately in respect to this occupation alone. I have said before that the patients can perform any other work, except writing, without being seized by cramps. The affected extremity needs no general massage, nogeneral gymnastics, no general tonic treatment, because it is in nowise impaired in its general usefulness; it needs, so to say, restoration of one particular functional ability, and to do this, an adept, or expert conversant with the occupation, and capable of imparting it to others, is, above all, fitted for the task, if he combines his dexterity in that particular occupation with sufficient anatomical and physiological knowledge. Before I begin my treatment, I always examine the patient's mode and style of writing, the way he holds his pen, the position of the arm, hand, and fingers, the movements he makes, the way he has adopted in upward and downward strokes, in vertical, horizontal, or slanting directions. I study his individual method of writing, and notice all the faults in the same.

During the treatment, while the normal functions of the affected muscles are being restored, the patient receives instruction in the correct

position for holding the pen, and in the method of writing, as adapted to his individuality. I have mentioned only penmanship as an example. All other functional disturbances in the occupations of telegraphing, typewriting, piano and violin playing have to be treated exactly in the same manner. I have studied and practiced them all; I can telegraph and I play the piano and violin, I can sew and knit, and am well acquainted with all mechanical manual occupations.

There are more patients afflicted with this complaint in the new world than in the old. America stands preeminent in every kind of work that requires manual dexterity and skill. American workmen, besides, accomplish more

in a given time than those of any other country. The high extent to which division of labor has been carried here has a good deal to do with this. The spirit of competition here is greater than anywhere else.

If one lady writes 2,000 envelopes in one day, another one immediately strives to break the record by an additional hundred. This holds good in all departments of technical labor. Untold numbers of people are affected, partially or completely, by this disease, and lose to a greater or less degree their chance for earning a livelihood. These, I maintain, can almost all be cured. Julius Wolff.



A score and more of years of contributing ought to make it possible for a writer to throw -out some hints that might prove useful to new, if not young, writers; and probably they will not feel hurt if the shoes offered fit so well that they can wear them.

Of course, to be an accepted contributor means more than appears upon the surface, and sharp eyes are needed to look beneath the top of the waters of discouragement to find the real reason why papers are so often declined, with or without thanks. Who cares to receive the printed slips that tell that the editor is grateful for the privilege of reading the rejected manuscript.

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Now, what is the reason that it is returned, that is, allowing that sometimes the hopper is full, or the editorial purse low?

New writers who seize upon some passing fad, some taking item that is of interest, and can work it up to a successful point, often run right up to the top of the ladder that others are still climbing with difficulty. But it is not every one who can write an entertaining letter to a friend, who can write an article that is worth hard cash to a busy editor who has a vast

amount of material at his disposal. Natural gifts count for a great deal, but grammar and punctuation count for quite as much. How tiresome it is to be jerked back by a semi-colon when a comma (only a breath) is all that needs to find place in the lines; and how very unnecessary new writers think it is to study punctuation.

Then the articles often lack snap; they are written in a desultory, letterish style, that makes the editor weary. Editors who sit beyond the closed doors of their sanctums are not half so mean as they are thought to be. They know a desirable thing when they see it, and their fingers are so trained by experience that they can tell a good manuscript almost by touch.

But take the opinion of one who knows, if you will, for it is true: a well-written, wellpunctuated, snappy article, that does not bear the wear and tear of travel, must find a resting place when it arrives at the proper door; for even with plenty on hand, few editors will not push others aside for what pleases their taste and fancy.


Marion Barton Bell.

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282 Washington Street (Rooms 9 and 10), BOSTON, MASS.

(P. O. Box 1905.) VOL. VII.

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The article in this number of THE WRITER on "Writer's Cramp," by Julius Wolff, a teacher of penmanship at Frankfort-on-the Main, who is now in New York, will undoubtedly be read with special interest. Mr. Wolff's method of treatment may be described as follows: It consists of a combined employment of gymnastics and massage. The gymnastics are of two kinds: First, active, in which the patient moves the fingers, hands, forearms, and arms in ail directions possible, each muscle being made to contract from six to twelve times, with considerable force, and with a pause after each movement, the whole exercise not exceeding thirty minutes, and being repeated two or three times daily; second, passive, in which the same movements are made as in the former, except that

each one is arrested by another person in a steady and regular manner. This may be repeated as often as the active exercise. Massage is to be practiced daily for about twenty minutes, beginning at the periphery; percussion of the muscles is considered an essential part of the massage. Combined with this are peculiar lessons in pen-prehension and writing. Mr. Wolff has had great success in the treatment of writer's cramp abroad.

No one has ever yet been able to explain why it is that people who own typewriters, and use them for making manuscripts, so frequently think it necessary to write the letters to accompany them with a pen, or to sign the manuscripts with a pen-written, instead of a machinewritten, name. Every one knows, of course, that a typewritten signature to a business document or an important letter is not regarded as a signature in a court of law, and so there is a reason why important letters or contracts. should be signed with a pen, but for ordinary letters like one submitting a manuscript to an editor, for instance a typewritten signature is all right. Just as a manuscript should never be offered pen-written if typewriting is possible, so a letter sent with a manuscript should always be typewritten, if the writer possesses a machine-signature and all. The reason is, of course, that the typewritten letter is more legible than one written with a pen, and in the signature especially legibility is a matter of some consequence. Even people who write a fairly legible hand often write their names so blindly that a skilful proof-reader would be puzzled to make them out. The typewriter overcomes this difficulty. Why not use it, when it is at hand?

Writing of the incomes of the professional classes in England, Price Collier in the February number of the Forum estimates that there are probably about 250 people in England who are making some kind of a living at writing novels. Of these, about fifty, with this and other work, clear more than $5,000 a year; a dozen make $10,000; and perhaps two or three, $15,000. Essayists and poets, as a rule, make nothing, and the great majority of novelists

make nothing. Journalists of the first rank make $5,000 a year, but, except a very few editors, none reach $10,000. Journalists who are reporters or paragraphists, and do all kinds of work, make from $1,000 to $2,000 a year. It would be interesting to get authentic figures regarding the incomes of literary workers in the United States - but authentic figures of this kind have never been secured as yet. There is a sort of glittering generality, indeed, about the estimates that Mr. Collier gives.

The ability to write with either hand at will, or with both hands at once, used to be a very rare accomplishment, but a good many authors have it now. They use the typewriter.

It is an odd fact that "poetry" is an anagram for "poverty," with one letter lacking - and that letter is a "V"!

So utterly unnecessary an unhappy ending (April WRITER. p. 58) was really so uttterly unnecessary an unhappy sentence, that it is not strange that one of the readers of THE WRITER should devote a postal card to objecting to it.

W. H. H.


He had been writing busily all the evening. At length he came to the last paragraph. After composing an elaborate note to the Editor, he folded his manuscript, sealed and addressed the envelope, and rang for his servant to put it in the post. This done, he "betook himself to his couch."

But the night was warm, and he could not sleep. The air seemed to be filled with voices.

Presently a woman's voice rose higher than the rest and said: "My name is Gladys, yet I am not glad. I am a heroine. My author states that I am beautiful, with a snow-white skin, ebon hair, ruby lips, and emerald eyes. I am appalled at this description, and am afraid to be alone with myself!"

Then a melancholy voice replied: "Thou art not alone, fair Gladys; for I, the heavy villain, am obliged to follow thee over the earth. grow extremely weary, yet find the pursuit not


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Here a third voice cried: "Your shame is great, but scarcely equals mine. I! I use bad grammar on the very first page! I laugh 'every remark I make, or 'frown,' or 'storm,' or 'rage' it; but never, never simply say it, as other people do. I am 'garmented' in men's clothes; I smoke furiously, and from time to time exclaim 'By Jove!' and pull my long moustache — yet I am only an animated broomstick, and not a man."

Whereupon a small, childish voice made moan: "But my trouble is greater still; for behold in me a weird monstrosity. I am a child who never said a childish thing!"

"And we!" cried a whole chorus of voices. "Pray listen to us! From beginning to end, we have been obliged to prattle about the heroine's virtues, the villain's knavery, and the hero's love. Not a word of interest has ever passed our lips, just because we were created to help the plot along.'"

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The astonishing part of it all, however, is the gratitude the editors seem to feel for the "honor" of having been enabled to read the article! To take rejection slips at exactly what they say would be to believe that really your article is quite wonderful, and that the editor is honored and pleased at having been able to read it; furthermore, there is no doubt but that some other editor will find it exactly suited to his needs; for "rejection does not necessarily imply lack of merit."

Now, why can't editors use a simple business form that expresses what they mean, and yet which does not imply that the author is a softhearted creature who will be crushed by a refusal?

If the author is going into the fight, he must expect to be treated in a business-like way.

If the editor doesn't want his goods, that is enough, let him return them; but don't, I beg, enclose those wearisome slips.

How I blessed the editor who enclosed with my rejected story a bit of paper, on which was written, "Not available."

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[The editor of the Journal of Commerce, who recently answered a similar question, took the ground that, according to the technical rules of grammar, the phrase "to-morrow is" is correct. That which is always true in given conditions, he said, should, when stated within those conditions, be put in the present tense. Moreover, he argued, "to-morrow is " is sanctioned by the best usage, which is the ultimate test of correctness in speech. He cited examples from the standard English version of the Bible, as follows: "To-morrow is the rest of the holy Sabbath,” Ex. xvi: 23; "To-morrow is the feast of the Lord," Ex. xxxvi: 5; "Behold, to-morrow is the new moon," I. Samuel xx: 5. And so in

Shakespeare: "To-morrow is the joyful day," "As You Like It," Act iv., scene 3; "Know to-morrow is the wedding day," "Taming of the Shrew," Act iii., scene I; "And say, to-morrow is St. Crispin," "Henry V.," Act iv., scene 3; "For, lords, to-morrow is a busy day,' 66 Richard III.," Act v., scene 3.

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It is hard, of course, to oppose such authorities as the Bible and Shakespeare, but as a matter of fact they are not infallible, so far as their use of English is concerned, and in the case of "to morrow is" it is doubtful if their usage in the passages quoted coincides with that of the language of the present day. It is the habit of English-speaking people to put future things into the future tense, and even though "to-morrow is" may seem technically correct, the futurity of the idea makes the use of the future tense not only allowable, but natural and desirable. The argument that "to-morrow" exists only with relation to "to-day" applies equally well to "yesterday," but no one would think of saying for that reason, "Yesterday is Friday." "Yesterday was Friday" and "To-morrow will be Sunday" are equally correct for common usage. The grammarian and the purist may stick to "Tomorrow is Sunday," if they will. W. H. H. ]

Can THE WRITER, or any reader thereof, tell me the name of the author of a poem entitled "Magdalena"? It is a story of a lady of Seville, in Spain. I have asked for the author's name several times, and of as many publications, in vain; and now I come to THE WRITER for similar information. I shall be grateful to any one for the information desired. N. H.

[The editor of THE WRITER has never seen the poem referred to. Can any reader give "N. H." the information desired?. W. H. H. ]

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