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and (3) to use no more words than are necessary to effect the purpose in hand.

"If it be true that these simple principles underlie all good writing, they may properly be called THE FOUNDATIONS OF RHETORIC. To help young writers to master these principles is the object of the following pages. They are especially intended for those who have had some practice in writing, but who have not yet learned to express themselves well.

"The Introduction sets forth as simply, clearly, and compactly as possible the leading facts of English grammar, including definitions of technical terms. The body of the book is in three Parts. Part I., which treats of WORDS, is divided into two books: in Book I., proper and improper expressions, arranged for convenience in classes that correspond to the several parts of speech, are set side by side; in Book II., questions of choice between words equally proper are considered. Part II., which treats of SENTENCES, is divided into two books: in Book I., good and bad sentences, arranged for convenience in chapters that correspond to the five important qualities of style, are set side by side; in Book II., questions of choice between sentences equally proper are considered. III. treats of PARAGRAPHS."


The plan of the book, as any one can see at a glance, is admirable. As for its quality, the author has been for years at the head of the department for instruction in English at Harvard college, and thousands of those who have been students under him, the editor of THE WRITER included, will be ready to testify that no more competent or interesting teacher of the right use of the English tongue has ever lived. Professor Hill's "Principles of Rhetoric" has long been a standard text-book. This new "Foundations of Rhetoric" is quite as practical, and sensible, and closely-written as the older book, and it is an advance upon that in many ways. It is doubtful, indeed, if any better book than this on the practical use of English has ever been written. The student of it will find some valuable suggestions on every page, and innumerable questions about the matters that puzzle young writers most frequently are answered in it. It is in every way an admirable work. Its value is increased by a thorough index, and by an appendix which gives all the rules of punctuation that any ordinary writer needs to know.

W. H. H.

ENGLISH SYNONYMS EXPLAINED IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER. With copious illustrations and examples drawn from the best writers. By George Crabb, A. M. 638 pp. Cloth, $1.00. New York: George Routledge & Sons. 1893. Study of the nice distinctions in meaning in words closely allied is invaluable to any writer who desires to use exactly and effectively the language in which he writes. Crabb's "Synonyms "does something more than put together

lists of words of similar meaning; besides doing this, the author discusses the differences in meaning between the different words, and by illustrative examples shows their proper use. The origin of words is taken into account, and reasons are given why, in certain places, it is better to use one word rather than another, almost, but not quite, its equivalent. writer, however skilful, can fail to get benefit from careful study of this book. W. H. H. OLIVER WENdell Holmes. By Walter Jerrold. With a portrait. 144 pp. Cloth, 90 cents. New York: Macmillan & Co. 1893.


The cellotype portrait prefixed to Mr. Jerrold's little book is an admirable picture of the "Autocrat." The different chapters of the book treat of Dr. Holmes as "The Man," "The Poet," "The Novelist," "The Autocrat and Teacher," and "The Doctor," with full appreciation of his many-sided ability. As a poet, Mr. Jerrold gives to Holmes the position immediately after Longfellow in point of fame, believing at the same time that in point of popularity he is probably to-day the very first among the poets of America. His sketch of Dr. Holmes' life is the most interesting portion of the book. The volume closes with a bibliography of Dr. Holmes' writings up to 1891.

W. H. H.

BON-MOTS OF CHARLES LAMB AND DOUGLAS JErrold. Edited by Walter Jerrold. With grotesques by Aubrey Beardsley. 191 pp. Cloth, 75 cents. New York: Macmillan & Co. 1893.

A good portrait of Douglas Jerrold and a less satisfactory one of Lamb increase the value of this dainty little volume. As for Mr. Beardsley's drawings, most of them are meant to ornament, rather than to illustrate, as they might more effectively have done. The editor of the little book has prefixed brief sketches of the two wits whose bright sayings are included in it, and he has made an entertaining collection of epigrams and anecdotes, which is issued by the publishers in most attractive form.

W. H. H. Studies of thE STAGE. By Brander Matthews. With porrait. 214 pp. Cloth, $1.00. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1894.

To writers Mr. Matthews' paper on "The Dramatization of Novels " will probably be the most interesting in this little volume of "Studies of the Stage." It is especially valuable because the author of it is a playwright, as well as an essayist, story-teller, and critic, and his suggestions regarding the methods and the difficulties of dramatization are based upon practical experience. Incidentally, many hints about playwriting are given in the essay. The other essays in the book discuss the dramatic outlook in America, the New York Player's Club, Charles Lamb and the Theatre," M. Francisque Sarcey, M. Jules Lemaitre, " Shake


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Catalogue of "A. L. A." Library. Five thousand volumes for a popular library, selected by the American Library Association and shown at the World's Columbian exposition. 592 pp. Washington: Government Printing Office. 1893. The United States Bureau of Education has just published this catalogue of a model library of 5.000 volumes, representing as nearly as possible the 5,000 books that a new library ought to obtain first for its collection. The catalogue, however, does much more than give a desirable list of books. It shows two very complete systems of classification, and, in this respect, is the most instructive volume yet printed on the subject of libraries. It is divided into three parts: Part I., classed catalogue according to the Decimal classification; Part II., classed catalogue according to the Expansive classification; and Part III., Dictionary catalogue. Part I. is preceded by alphabetical lists of biography and fiction. All the books included in the library would cost at retail $12,125.90.

W. H. H.

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Mr. Grandgent is now director of modern language instruction in the Boston public schools, having been formerly a tutor in modern languages in Harvard university. This new grammar of his combines the following advantages: (1) brevity without undue conciseness, (2) treatment of the subject from the point of view of the American pupil, (3) a strictly systematic arrangement, and (4) a scientific but easily intelligible study of French pronunciation.

The "Lessons and Exercises " are based on a little text with which they are published in a pamphlet which accompanies the grammar. There will be one or more similar pamphlets, so that the teacher may not be obliged to use the same exercises with successive classes.

W. H. H. SHIPS THAT PASS IN THE NIGHT. By Beatrice Harraden. 235 pp. Cloth, $1.00. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1894.

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certain, as the Disagreeable Man says further later on, that "there are too many books as it is; and not enough people to dust them." Still "Ships That Pass in the Night" has found a welcome. It is a story of life among the invalids at an Alpine health resort, and its novelty, both as regards its subject and its method of treatment, sufficiently accounts for its success. The Disagreeable Man is an interesting character, but only a little more so than the invalid heroine of the book, Bernardine Holme. Incidentally he gives her some advice, in talking with her one day, which all writers of books might heed with distinct advantage. One of her life wishes is to write a book herself. "Whatever else you may do," says he, "don't make your characters hold long discussions with each other. In real life people do not talk four pages at a time without stopping. Also, if you bring together two clever men, don't make them talk too cleverly. Clever people do not. It is only the stupid ones who think they must talk cleverly all the time. And don't detain your reader too long: if you must have a sunset, let it be a short one.' you have the courage to be simple when you come to the point, you will succeed." author of "Ships That Pass in the Night" lives well up to her literary theories. Her book is straightforward, clear, simple, and direct. It seems a pity, however, that Bernardine should not have seen the Disagreeable Man's pathetic love-letter; and it seems a pity, too, that the book should have so utterly unnecessary an unhappy ending. This edition of the story, by the way, is the authorized American edition. is an attractive one, but it seems strange to find the Putnams' proof-reader allowing "châlet" to pass for "chalet," and "tack" for " tact."




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IN EXILE, AND OTHER STORIES. By Mary Hallock Foote. 253 pp. Cloth, $1.25. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, & Co. 1894.

Mary Hallock Foote has a genius for storytelling, and since she established her reputation with "The Led-Horse Claim," a few years ago, everything that she has written has increased the number of her friends. The present collection of short stories includes "In Exile," "Friend Barton's Concern," ," "The Story of the Alcázar," "A Cloud on the Mountain," "The Rapture of Hetty," and "The Watchman." Four of these are tales of Western life, the

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CAMPFIRE MUSINGS. Life and good times in the woods. By William C. Gray, Ph. D Second edition. 304 pp. Cloth, $1.50 Chicago: The Interior Company. 1894.

To every lover of life in the woods every new book on camp life is a source of keen delight. Every such book is sure to be a good one, for no one who loves the woods well enough to write about them can fail to be an entertaining companion, and no book that has the flavor of woods life in it can fail to call up pleasant recollections in the minds of all among its readers who know by experience what woods life is. Just to look at the camp pictures in Dr. Gray's book will send a pleasant thrill through the veins of every old camper-out, and the text of the book throughout has the flavor of the forest. The author's camping experiences have been varied, and he has made the most of them. He has a lively sense of humor, and a spirit of genuine philosophy pervades sketches odorous with the sweet flavor of the fir balsam and the spruce. It is no wonder that a second edition of the book has already been required.

W. H. H. OUR VILLAGE. By Mary Russell Mitford. 256 pp. Cloth, $2.00. New York: Macmillan & Co. 1893.

This reprint of Miss Mitford's delightful village sketches is made attractive by 100 illustrations by Hugh Thompson, and an introduction by Annie Thackeray Ritchie is prefixed. The story of Miss Mitford's life, as it is told by Miss Thackeray, is pathetically interesting. Her literary work was done under all the disadvantages that unceasing domestic difficulties bring, and it is astonishing that under such circumstances she was able to accomplish what she did. Her pictures of English country life included in this volume appeal to every lover of nature, and are written with a grace and delicacy of literary expression that renders them worthy of the attractive dress in which they have been issued by the publishers. W. H. H. BEAUTIFUL JOE. An autobiography. By Marshall Saunders. With an introduction by Hezekiah Butterworth. 304 pp. Cloth. Philadelphia: Charles H. Banes. 1894.

What "Black Beauty " has done to lessen illtreatment of the horse, "Beautiful Joe" is likely to do to lessen ill-treatment of the dog. It is a story of a real dog, and nearly all its incidents are founded on fact. The manuscript won a prize of $200 in the third competition opened by the American Humane Education Society for the best book illustrating kind and cruel treatment of domestic animals and birds in Northern

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[All books sent to the editor of THE WRITER will be acknowledged under this heading. They will receive such farther notice as may be warranted by their importance to readers of the magazine.]

ELEVENTH CROP, PICKINGS FROM PUCK. 62 pp. Paper, 25 cents. New York: Keppler & Schwarzmann. 1894. HAWAIIAN Life. By Charles Warren Stoddard. 288 PP. Paper, 50 cents. Chicago: F. T. Neely. 1894. REMINGTON TYPEWRITER LESSONS. By Mrs. M. V. Longley.

48 pp. Paper. Cincinnati: The Phonographic Institute

Company. 1893.

CALIGRAPH LESSONS. By Mrs. M. V. Longley. 48 pp. Paper. Cincinnati: The Phonographic Institute Company. 1893.

THE PEERLESS COOK BOOK. By Mrs. T. J. Kirkpatrick. Illustrated. 320 pp. Paper, 25 cents. Springfield, Ohio:: Mast, Crowell, & Kirkpatrick. 1894.


[Under this heading it is intended to describe any handy little contrivance that may be of use in any way to literary workers. Facts about home-made devices particularly are de-sired. Paid descriptions of patented articles will not be printed here on any terms; but this shall not hinder any one from letting others know gratuitously about any invention that is of more than ordinary value to literary workers. Readers of THE WRITER are urged to tell for the benefit of other readers what little schemes they may have devised or used to make their work easier or better. By a free exchange of personal experiences every one will be helped, and, no matter how simple a useful idea is, it is an advantage that every one should know about it. Generally, the simpler the device, the greater is its value.]

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pasteboard cut in strips of convenient size. These strips, which are the full length of the sheet, are placed one on top of the other in a neat pile with a rubber band slipped over each end and one around the centre. This pile of strips has a place in one of the long compartments of my desk. When a manuscript is ready to put by, I measure off ten inches on one of these pieces, place a brass-edged ruler on the mark, and cut through the pasteboard with a knife. In a drawer of my desk is a nursery pin on which are strung several dozen small rubber bands. I place a sheet of pasteboard each side of the manuscript, write the title on the upper one with a lead pencil, and slip a band across each way. If the copy is finished, all I have to do is to enclose it in an envelope or wrap it with manila paper, address it, and attach the stamps. As rubber cannot always be depended upon, I tie the package with linen shoe thread before mailing it.

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Filing Cuts and Biographies. Now that portraits are such a common feature of newspapers, portrait blocks are bound to accumulate in every newspaper composing-room. Unless some system for taking care of them is adopted, the cuts are likely to get injured, and when one is wanted it frequently cannot be found until after long and persistent search. Perhaps the simplest effective plan for handling cuts and the biographies that go with them is that which is described as follows: In a strong pasteboard box are arranged twenty-six envelopes lettered from A to Z. The flap of each envelope is tucked inside, so that the interior of the envelope is accessible. When a

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new portrait cut is made, a proof of it is taken, and the slip, numbered "1," for instance, is filed, with the accompanying biographical matter, in the envelope bearing the initial of the subject's name. The cut is numbered "1," with ink, to correspond, and is put on its edge on a shelf, with the number outside, so that it will show. When a cut is wanted, the editor turns to the proper envelope, and the proofslip enclosed shows the number of the block, which is thus instantly available. If the number of cuts in the office is very large, it will be well to subdivide the initial letters on the "first letter and first vowel" system the five "B" envelopes, for instance, being marked "Ba," "Be," "Bi," "Bo," "Bu." Under this system biographical material relating to "Brown" would be filed in the "Bo" envelope. ELMIRA, N. Y.

J. D. H.

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Saving Manuscript Paper.-C. D. J., and all others who rewrite largely and wish to save manuscript paper, will find the following plan an excellent one: Select the unsealed envelopes that come in nearly every mail, rejecting those that are not gummed. Straighten the flaps and lay the envelopes, addressed side down, in a neat pile, one on top of the other, until there are twelve or fifteen of them. Moisten the gum on the flap of the envelope at the bottom of the heap, press the flap of the next envelope down upon it. Moisten the gum on the second, and press the third down-upon-that, etc., until all are fastened. Then with a pen or paper knife cut the ends of the envelopes, and open each one. This makes a convenient writing tablet or pad upon which to make the first draft of an article, and there is

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WILD FLOWERS OF ENGLISH SPEECH IN AMERICA. Edward Eggleston. Century (38 c.) for April.

MATTHEW ARNOLD. With portrait. Florence Earle Coates. Century (38 c.) for April.


Century (38 c.) for April.

John G. Nicolay.

THE HEAD OF SIR WALTER SCOTT. T. T. Munger. Century (38 c.) for April.

A GENTLE WARNING TO LECTURERS. Agnes Repplier. Forum (28 c.) for April.

TENNYSON'S RELIGION. With portrait. Rev. W. H. Savage. Arena (53 c.) for April.

MR. RUSKIN IN RELATION TO MODERN PROBLEMS. E. T. Cook. Reprinted from National Review in Eclectic Magazine (48 c.) for April.

PRIVATE HISTORY OF THE "JUMPING FROG" STORY. Mark Twain. North American Review ( 53 c.) for April. FRENCH CARICATURE OF TO-DAY. Arsène Alexandre. Scribner's Magazine ( 28 c. ) for April.

MRS. CECILE VIETS JAMISON. With portrait. Olive Otis. St. Nicholas (28 c.) for April.

Reprinted from

MATTHEW ARNOLD. Leslie Stephen. National Review in Eclectic (48 c.) for March.

A WORD FOR HANNAH MORE. Reprinted from Temple Bar in Eclectic ( 48 c. ) for March.

IS THE WEST IN LITERARY BONDAGE? George Hamlin Fitch. Californian ( 28 c. ) for January.

THE MORAL RESPONSIBILITY OF THE Press. William A. Spalding. Californian (28 c. ) for January.

THE ONLY LITERARY SUCCESS WORTH HAVING. Topics of the Time. Century (38 c.) for March.

How I WROTE "LOOKING BACKWARD." With portrait. Edward Bellamy. Ladies' Home Journal ( 13 c. ) for April. MRS. ROBERT LOUIS STEVENSON. With portrait. Alice Graham McCollin. Ladies' Home Journal (13 c.) for April. MY LITERARY PASSIONS. W. D. Howells. Ladies' Home Journal (13 c.) for April.

GEORGE W. CHILDS. With full-page portrait. Leisure Hours (13 c.) for March.

THE LIBRARIAN AMONG HIS BOOKS. R. Spofford). Julian Hawthorne. (28 c.) for April.

(Interview with A. Lippincott's Magazine

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Richard Burton.

NATURE IN OLD ENGLISH POETRY. Atlantic Monthly (38 c.) for April. EARLY LATIN POETRY. R. Y. Tyrrell. Atlantic Monthly (38 c.) for April.

BRONSON ALCOTT. Atlantic Monthly ( 38 c.) for April. A PALE GIRL'S FACE. The history of a scoop. A story. Ewan Macpherson. Harper's Monthly ( 38 c. ) for April. POPULAR TASTE IN LITERATURE.— THE REPORTER AS A DETECTIVE. Editor's Study. Harper's Monthly (38 c.) for April.

SOME GREAT LIBRARIES of the United States. S. G. W. Benjamin. Worthington's Magazine ( 28 c.) for April. AMERICAN ENGLISH. Richard Burton. Worthington's Magazine (28 c.) for April.

C. P.

THE MAKING of a Metropolitan NewsPAPER. Stine. National Printer-Journalist (23 c.) for January. THE STORY OF A LOST LETTER. Facts about the United States Postal Service. Arthur Field. Demorest's Family Magazine (23 c.) for April.

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION. W. Lewis Frazer. American Journal of Photography (28 c.) for March.

A PHILADELPHIA ILLUSTRATOR (Joseph Pennell). American Journal of Photography ( 28 c. ) for March. ARE INTELLECTUAL WOMEN LOVABLE? Junius Henri Browne. Worthington's Magazine ( 28 c. ) for March. THE

PHILOSOPHY OF AUTHORSHIP. Paul Siegvolk. New York Home Journal (8 c.) for January 17.

SIR WALTER SCOTT'S FIRST LOVE. Caroline H. Dall. Nation (13 c.) for March 8.

THE LETTERS OF SIR WALTER SCOTT. Reprinted from Blackwood's Magazine in Littell's Living Age (21 c.) for March 3.

EARLY RECOLLECTIONS OF TENNYSON. Reprinted from Temple Bar in Littell's Living Age (21 c.) for March 10. PHOTO-TELEGRAPHY. Photographic Times (18 c.) for March 30.

WILLIAM D. MCCRACKAN. With portrait. Weekly (13 c.) for January 25.


HAMLIN GARLAND. With portrait. Literary Weekly (13 c.) for March 8.

WALTER BLACKBURN HARTE. With portrait. Ernest Newton Bagg. Literary Weekly (13 c.) for March 15. JAMES WHITCOMB RILEY. With portrait. Literary Weekly (13 c.) for March 22.

JOSEPH HOWARD, JR. With portrait. Journalist (13 c.) for March 24.

THE MAKING OF GREAT PARIS DAILIES. With portraits. R. Lodian. Journalist (13 c. ) for March 24.

MY FIRST BOOK. Reprinted from the Idler in Chicago Graphic (13 c.) for March 10.

WILLIAM FREDERICK POOLE, LL. D. With portrait. H. D. Suddith. Chicago Graphic (13 c. ) for March 10. THOMAS HARDY. With portrait. Chicago Graphic (13 c.') for March 24.

A. CONAN DOYLE. With portrait. Chicago Graphic (13 c. ) for March 31.

JOHN KENDRICK BANGS. Portrait. (13 c.) for March 17.

Harper's Weekly

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