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(b) The radiotelegraph station shall be so located that no harmful interference from extraneous mechanical or other noise will be caused to the proper reception of radio signals, and shall be placed in the upper part of the ship in a position of the greatest possible safety and as high as practicable above the deepest load waterline. The location of the radiotelegraph operating room or rooms shall be approved by the Commandant of the Coast Guard. The radio telegraph installation shall be installed in such a position that it will be protected against the harmful effects of water or extremes of temperature, and shall be readily accessible both for immediate use in case of distress and for repair.

(c) The radiotelegraph operating room shall be of sufficient size and of adequate ventilation to enable the main and reserve radio telegraph installations to be operated efficiently, and shall not be used for any purpose which will interfere with the operation of the radiotelegraph station. The sleeping accommodation of at least one radio officer shall be situated as near as practicable to the radio telegraph operating room. In ships the keels of which are laid on or after May 26, 1965, this sleeping accommodation shall not be within the radiotelegraph operating room.

(d) The main and reserve installations shall be capable of transmitting and receiving on the frequencies, and using the classes of emission, designated by the Commission pursuant to law for the purposes of distress and safety of navigation.

(e) The main and reserve installations shall, when connected to the main antenna, have a minimum normal range of two hundred nautical miles and one hundred nautical miles, respectively; that is, they must be capable of transmitting and receiving clearly perceptible signals from ship to ship by day and under normal conditions and circumstances over the specified ranges.

(f) Sufficient electrical energy shall be available at all times to operate the main installation over the normal range required by subsection (e) of this section as well as for the purpose of charging any batteries forming part of the radiotelegraph station.

(g) The reserve installation shall include a source of electrical energy independent of the propelling power of the ship and of any other electrical system and shall be capable of being put into operation rapidly and of working for at least six continuous hours. The reserve source of energy and its switchboard shall be as high as practicable in the ship and readily accessible to the radio officer.

(h) There shall be provided between the bridge of the ship and the radiotelegraph operating room, and between the bridge and the location of the radio direction finding apparatus, when such apparatus is not located on the bridge, an efficient two-way system for calling and voice communication which shall be independent of any other communication system in the ship.

TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS Sec. 354. The radio installation and the radio direction.finding apparatus required by section 351 of this part shall comply with the following requirements:

(a) The radio installation shall comprise a main and an emergency or reserve installation: Provided, however, That on a cargo ship, if the main installation complies also with all the requirements of an emergency or reserve installation, the emergency or reserve installation may be omitted.

(i) The radio direction finding apparatus shall be efficient and capable of receiving signals with the minimum of receiver noise and of taking bearings from which the true bearing and direction may be determined. It shall be capable of receiving signals on the radio telegraph frequencies assigned by the radio regulations annexed to the International Telecommunication Convention in force for the purpose of distress, direction finding, and maritime radio beacons, and, in installations made after May 26, 1965, such other frequencies as the Commission may for safety purposes designate.

TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS-RADIOTELEPHONE EQUIPPED SHIPS SEC. 356.147 [47 U.S.C. 354a] Cargo ships of three hundred gross tons and upward but less than one thousand six hundred gross tons may, in lieu of the radiotelegraph station prescribed by section 355, be equipped with a radiotelegraph station complying with the following requirements:

(a) The radiotelephone station shall be in the upper part of the ship, so located that it is sheltered to the greatest possible extent from noise which might impair the correct receiption of messages and signals, and, unless such station is situated on the bridge, there shall be efficient communication with the bridge.

(b) The radiotelephone installation shall be capable of transmitting and receiving on the frequencies, and using the classes of emission, designated by the Commission pursuant to law for purposes of distress and safety of navigation.

(c) The radiotelephone installation shall have a minimum normal range of one hundred and fifty nautical miles; that is, it shall be capable of transmitting and receiving clearly perceptible signals from ship to ship by day and under normal conditions and circumstances over this range.

(d) There shall be available at all times a main source of electrical energy sufficient to operate the installation over the normal range required by subsection (c) of this section. If batteries are pro vided they shall have sufficient capacity to operate the transmitter and receiver for at least six continuous hours under normal working conditions. In installations made on or after November 19, 1952, a reserve source of electrical energy shall be provided in the

147 This section was amended to read as above by Public Law 89,121, approved August 13, 1965, 79 Stat. 511. As originally added by Public Law 584, 83d Cong., 20 Sess., approved August 13, 1954, 68 Stat. 704, it read as follows:

TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS-RADIOTELEPHONE EQUIPPED SHIPS SEC. 356. Cargo ships of less than sixteen hundred gross tons may, in lieu of the radiotelephone installation prescribed by section 355, carry a radiotelephone installation meeting the following requirements:

(a) The ship's radiotelephone installation shall be in the upper part of the ship and unless situated on the bridge, there shall be efficient communication with the bridge. (6) The radiotelephone installation shall be capable of transmitting

and receiving on the frequencies and with types of emissions designated by the Commission pursuant to law for the purpose of distress and safety of navigation.

(c) the transmitter shall be capable of transmitting clearly perceptible signals from ship to ship during daytime, under normal conditions and circumstances, over a minimum normal range of one hundred and fifty nautical miles.

(d) There shall be available at all times a source of energy sufficient to operate the installation over the normal range required by paragraph (c). If batteries are provided they shall have suffi. cient capacity to operate the transmitter and receiver for at least six hours continuously under normal working conditions. In new installations an emergency source of energy shall be provided in the upper part of the ship unless the main source of energy is so situated.

upper part of the ship unless the main source of energy is so situated.

SURVIVAL CRAFT

Sec. 357.148 [47 U.S.C. 355] Every ship required to be provided with survival craft radio by treaty to which the United States is a party, by statute, or by regulation made in conformity with a treaty, convention, or statute, shall be fitted with efficient radio equipment appropriate to such requirement under such rules and regulations as the Commission may find necessary for safety of life. For purposes of this section, "radio equipment” shall include portable as well as nonportable apparatus.

APPROVAL OF INSTALLATIONS Sec. 358.149 (47 U.S.C. 356] (a) Insofar as is necessary to carry out the purposes and requirements of this part, the Commission shall have authority, for any ship subject to this part

(1) To approve the details as to the location and manner of installations of the equipment required by this part of equip ment necessitated by reason of the purposes and requirements of this part.

(2) To approve installations, apparatus, and spare parts necessary to comply with the purposes and requirements of this part.

(3) To prescribe such additional equipment as may be determined to be necessary to supplement that specified herein, for the proper functioning of the radio installation installed in accordance with this part or for the proper conduct of radio communication in time of emergency or distress.

TRANSMISSION OF INFORMATION Sec. 359.150 [47 U.S.C. 357] (a) The master of every ship of the United States, equipped with radio transmitting apparatus, which meets with dangerous ice, a dangerous derelict, a tropical storm, or any other direct danger to navigation, or encounters subfreezing air temperatures associated with gale force winds causing severe ice accretion on superstructures, or winds of force 10 or above on the Beaufort scale for which no storm warning has been received, shall cause to be transmitted all pertinent information relating thereto to ships in the vicinity and to the appropriate authorities on land, in accordance with rules and regulations issued by the Commission. When they consider it necessary, such authorities of the United States shall promptly bring the information received by them to the knowledge of those concerned, including interested foreign authorities. 151

118 Public Law 89-121, approved August 13, 1965, 79 Stat. 511, substituted "survival craft" in lieu of “lifeboat" in the version enacted by Public Law 584, 83d Cong., 2d Sess., approved August 13, 1954, 68 Stat. 704. The section previously read as follows:

LIFEBOATS Sec. 355. Every motor lifeboat, required to be equipped with radio by treaty or convention to which the United States is a party, by statute, or by regulation made in conformity with a treaty, convention, or statute, shall be fitted with an efficient radio installation under such rules and regulations as the Commission may find necessary to promote the safety of life.

149 This section was enacted without a subsection (b). See note 131. 150 See note 131.

(b) No charge shall be made by any ship or station in the mobile service of the United States for the transmission, receipt, or relay of the information designated in subsection (a) originating on a ship of the United States or of a foreign country.

(c) The transmission by any ship of the United States, made in compliance with subsection (a), to any station which imposes a charge for the reception, relay, or forwarding of the required information, shall be free of cost to the ship concerned and any communication charges incurred by the ship for transmission, relay, or forwarding of the information may be certified to the Commission for reimbursement out of moneys appropriated to the Commission for that purpose.

(d) No charge shall be made by any ship or station in the mobile service of the United States for the transmission of distress messages and replies thereto in connection with situations involving the safety of life and property at sea.

(e) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any station or carrier may render free service in connection with situations involving the safety of life and property, including hydrographic reports, weather reports, reports regarding aids to navigation and medical assistance to injured or sick persons on ships and aircraft at sea. All free service permitted by this subsection shall be subject to such rules and regulations as the Commission may prescribe, which rules may limit such free service to the extent which the Commission finds desirable in the public interest.

AUTHORITY OF MASTER SEC. 360.152 (47 U.S.C. 358) The radio installation, the operators, the regulation of their watches, the transmission and receipt of messages, and the radio service of the ship except as they may be regulated by law or international agreement, or by rules and regulations made in pursuance thereof, shall in the case of a ship of the United States be under the supreme control of the master.

CERTIFICATES

Sec. 361.153 [47 U.S.C. 359] (a) Each vessel of the United States to which the Safety Convention applies shall comply with the radio and communication provisions of said Convention at all times while the vessel is in use, in addition to all other requirements of law, and shall have on board an appropriate certificate as prescribed by the Safety Convention.

151 Subsection (a) was amended to read as above by Public Law 89,121, approved August 13, 1965, 79 Stat. 511. It formerly read as follows:

(a) The master of every ship of the United States equipped with radio transmitting apparatus, on meeting with dangerous ice, a dangerous derelict, a tropical storm or any other direct danger to navigation, shall cause to be transmitted all pertinent information relating thereto, to ships in the vicinity and to the appropriate authorities, in accordance with rules and regulations issued by the Commission, which authorities of the Uniled States shall, when they consider it necessary, promptly bring the information received by them to the knowledge of those concerned and foreign authorities interested.

182 See note 131.

163 See note 132. Section 361 was amended to read as above by Public Law 89-121, approved August 13, 1965, 79 Stat. 511.

(b) Appropriate certificates concerning the radio particulars pro vided for in said Convention shall be issued upon proper request to any vessel which is subject to the radio provisions of the Safety Convention and is found by the Commission to comply therewith. Cargo ship safety radio telegraphy certificates, cargo ship safety radiotelephony certificates, and exemption certificates with respect to radio particulars shall be issued by the Commission. 154 Other certificates concerning the radio particulars provided for in the said Convention shall be issued by the Commandant of the Coast Guard or whatever other agency is authorized by law to do so upon request of the Commission made after proper inspection or determination of the facts. If the holder of a certificate violates the radio provisions of the Safety Convention or the provisions of this Act, or the rules, regulations, or conditions prescribed by the Commission, and if the effective administration of the Safety Convention or of this part so requires, the Commission, after hearing in accordance with law, is authorized to modify or cancel a certificate which it has issued, or to request the modification or cancellation of a certificate which has been issued by another agency upon the Commission's request. Upon receipt of such request for modification or cancellation, the Commandant of the Coast Guard, or whatever agency is authorized by law to do so, shall modify or cancel the certificate in accordance therewith.

INSPECTION

SEC. 362.166 [47 U.S.C. 360) (a) In addition to any other provisions required to be included in a radio station license, the station license of each ship of the United States subject to this title shall include particulars with reference to the items specifically required by this title.

(b) Every ship of the United States, subject to this part, shall have the equipment and apparatus prescribed therein, inspected at least once each year by the Commission. If, after such inspection, the Commission is satisfied that all relevant provisions of this Act and the station license have been complied with, the fact shall be certified to on the station license by the Commission. The Commission shall make such additional inspections at frequent intervals as may be necessary to insure compliance with the requirements of

184 The second sentence of subsection (b) was amended to read as above by Public Law 89-121, approved August 13, 1965, 79 Stat. 511. As earlier amended by Public Law 584, 83d Cong., 2d Sess., approved August 13, 1954, 68 Stat. 704, the second sentence read as follows: "Safety Radio telegraphy Certificates and Safety Radiotelephony Certificates, as prescribed by the said Convention and Exemption Certificates issued in lieu of such certificates, shall be issued by the Commission "Prior to 1954, subsection (b) read as follows:

(6) Appropriate certificates concerning the radio particulars provided for in said convention shall be issued to any vessel of the United States which is subject to the radio provisions of the safety convention, and is found by the Commission to comply therewith. Such certificates shall be issued by the Commandant of the Coast Guard, or whatever other agency is authorized by law 80 to do, upon request of the Commission made after proper inspection, or determination of the facts. If the holder of such certificate violates the provisions of the safety convention or of this Act, or the rules, regulations, or conditions prescribed by the Commission, and if the effective administration of the safety convention or of this part so requires, the Commission, after hearing in accordance with law, is authorized to request the modification or cancellation of such certificate. Upon receipt of such request the Commandant of the Coast Guard, or whatever other agency is authorized by law to do 80, shall modify or cancel the certificate in accord therewith. The Commission is authorized to issue, modify, or cancel such certificates in the event that no other agency is authorized to do so.

186 See note 122.

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