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FORFEITURE OF COMMUNICATIONS DEVICES
SEC. 510. [47 U.S.C 510] (a) Any electronic, electromagnetic, radio frequency, or similar device, or component thereof, used, sent, carried, manufactured, assembled, possessed, offered for sale, sold, or advertised with willful and knowing intent to violate section 301 or 302, or rules prescribed by the Commission under such sections, may be seized and forfeited to the United States.
(b) Any property subject to forfeiture to the United States under this section may be seized by the Attorney General of the United States upon process issued pursuant to the supplemental rules for certain admiralty and maritime claims by any district court of the United States having jurisdiction over the property, except that seizure without such process may be made if the seizure is incident to a lawful arrest or search.
(c) All provisions of law relating to
(1) the seizure, summary and judicial forfeiture, and condemnation of property for violation of the customs laws;
(2) the disposition of such property or the proceeds from the sale thereof;
(3) the remission or mitigation of such forfeitures; and
(4) the compromise of claims with respect to such forfeitures; shall apply to seizures and forfeitures incurred, or alleged to have been incurred, under the provisions of this section, insofar as applicable and not inconsistent with the provisions of this section, except that such seizures and forfeitures shall be limited to the communications device, devices, or components thereof.
(d) Whenever property is forfeited under this section, the Attorney General of the United States may forward it to the Commission or sell any forfeited property which is not harmful to the public. The proceeds from any such sale shall be deposited in the general fund of the Treasury of the United States. 238
238 Section 510, which appears above, was added by Public Law 97-259, 96 Stat. 1087, 1098, Sept. 13, 1982.
A former section 510 ("Forfeiture in Cases of Violations of Certain Rules and Regulations") was repealed by section 4, Public Law 95-234, 92 Stat. 33, 35, Feb. 21, 1978. In addition, section 7 of Public Law 95-234 provided:
The amendments made by this Act shall take effect on the thirtieth day after the date of enactment of this Act (Feb. 21, 1978]; except that the provisions of sections 503(b) and 510 of the Communications Act of 1934, as in effect on such date of enactment, shall continue to constitute the applicable law with the respect to any act or omission which occurs prior to such thirtieth day.
The former section 510 was added by Public Law 81-448, 76 Stat. 68, May 11, 1962, and reads as follows:
FORFEITURE IN CASES OF VIOLATIONS OF CERTAIN RULES AND REGULATIONS
SEC. 510. (a) Where any radio station other than licensed radio stations in the broadcast service or stations governed by the provisions of parts II and III of title III and section 507 of this Act(1) is operated by any person not holding a valid radio operator license or permit of the class prescribed in the rules and regulations of the Commission for the operation of such station;
(2) fails to identify itself at the times and in the manner prescribed in the rules and regulations of the Commission;
(3) transmits any false call contrary to regulations of the Commission;
(4) is operated on a frequency not authorized by the Commission for use by such station; (5) transmits unauthorized communications on any frequency designated as a distress or calling frequency in the rules and regulations of the Commission;
TITLE VI-CABLE COMMUNICATIONS 238A
PART I-GENERAL PROVISIONS
SEC. 601. [47 U.S.C. 521] The purposes of this title are to(1) establish a national policy concerning cable communications;
(2) establish franchise procedures and standards which encourage the growth and development of cable systems and which assure that cable systems are responsive to the needs and interests of the local community;
(3) establish guidelines for the exercise of Federal, State, and local authority with respect to the regulation of cable systems; (4) assure that cable communications provide and are encouraged to provide the widest possible diversity of information sources and services to the public;
(5) establish an orderly process for franchise renewal which protects cable operators against unfair denials of renewal where the operator's past performance and proposal for future performance meet the standards established by this title; and
(6) promote competition in cable communications and minimize unnecessary regulation that would impose an undue economic burden on cable systems.
(6) interferes with any distress call or distress communication contrary to the regulations of the Commission;
(7) fails to attenuate spurious emissions to the extent required by the rules and regulations of the Commission;
(8) is operated with power in excess of that authorized by the Commission;
(9) renders a communication service not authorized by the Commission for the particular station;
(10) is operated with a type of emission not authorized by the Commission;
(11) is operated with transmitting equipment other than that authorized by the Commission; or
(12) fails to respond to official communications from the Commission;
the licensee of the station shall, in addition to any other penalty prescribed by law, forfeit to the United States a sum not to exceed $100. In the case of a violation of clause (2), (3), (5), or (6) of this subsection, the person operating such station shall, in addition to any other penalty prescribed by law, forfeit to the United States a sum not to exceed $100. The violation of the provisions of each numbered clause of this subsection shall constitute a separate offense: Provided, That $100 shall be the maximum amount of forfeiture liability for which the licensee or person operating such station shall be liable under this section for the violation of the provisions of any one of the numbered clauses of this subsection irrespective of the number of violations thereof, occurring within ninety days prior to the date the notice of apparent liability is issued or sent as provided in subsection, (c) of this section: And provided further, That $500 shall be the maximum amount of forfeiture liability for which the licensee or persons operating such station shall be liable under the section for all violations of the provisions of this section, irrespective of the total number thereof, occurring within ninety days prior to the date such notice of apparent liability is issued or sent as provided in subsection (c) of this section.
(b) The forfeiture liability provided for in this section shall attach only for a willful or repeated violation of the provisions of this section by any licensee or person operating a station.
(c) No forfeiture liability under this section shall attach after the lapse of ninety days from the date of the violation unless within such time a written notice of apparent liability, setting forth the facts which indicate apparent liability, shall have been issued by the Commission and received by such person, or the Commission has sent him such notice by registered mail or by certified mail at his last known address. The person so notified of apparent liability shall have the opportunity to show cause in writing why he should not be held liable and, upon his request, he shall be afforded an opportunity for a personal interview with an official of the Commission at the field office of the Commission nearest to the person's place of residence.
238A Title VI of the Communications Act of 1934 was added by the Cable Communications Policy Act of 1984, Public Law 98-549, 98 Stat. 2780, Oct. 30, 1984.
SEC. 602. [47 U.S.C. 522] For purposes of this title
(1) the term "affiliate", when used in relation to any person, means another person who owns or controls, is owned or controlled by, or is under common ownership or control with, such person;
(2) the term "basic cable service" means any service tier which includes the retransmission of local television broadcast signals;
(3) the terms "cable channel" or "channel" means a portion of the electromagnetic frequency spectrum which is used in a cable system and which is capable of delivering a television channel (as television channel is defined by the Commission by regulation);
(4) the term "cable operator" means any person or group of persons (A) who provides cable service over a cable system and directly or through one or more affiliates owns a significant interest in such cable system, or (B) who otherwise controls or is responsible for, through any arrangement, the management and operation of such a cable system;
(5) the term "cable service" means
(A) the one-way transmission to subscribers of (i) video programming, or (ii) other programming service, and
(B) subscriber interaction, if any, which is required for the selection of such video programming or other programming service;
(6) the term "cable system" means a facility, consisting of a set of closed transmission paths and associated signal generation, reception, and control equipment that is designed to provide cable service which includes video programming and which is provided to multiple subscribers within a community, but such term does not include (A) a facility that serves only to retransmit the television signals of 1 or more television broadcast stations; (B) a facility that serves only subscribers in 1 or more multiple unit dwellings under common ownership, control, or management, unless such facility or facilities uses any public right-of-way; (C) a facility of a common carrier which is subject, in whole or in part, to the provisions of title II of this Act, except that such facility shall be considered a cable system (other than for purposes of section 621(c)) to the extent such facility is used in the transmission of video programming directly to subscribers; or (D) any facilities of any electric utility used solely for operating its electric utility systems;
(7) the term "Federal agency" means any agency of the United States, including the Commission;
(8) the term "franchise" means an initial authorization, or renewal thereof (including a renewal of an authorization which has been granted subject to section 626), issued by a franchising authority, whether such authorization is designated as a franchise, permit, license, resolution, contract, certificate, agreement, or otherwise, which authorizes the construction or operation of a cable system;
(9) the term "franchising authority" means any governmental entity empowered by Federal, State, or local law to grant a franchise;
(10) the term "grade B contour" means the field strength of a television broadcast station computed in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Commission;
(11) the term "other programming service" means information that a cable operator makes available to all subscribers generally;
(12) the term "person" means an individual, partnership, association, joint stock company, trust, corporation, or governmental entity;
(13) the term "public, educational, or governmental access facilities" means
(A) channel capacity designated for public, educational, or governmental use; and
(B) facilities and equipment for the use of such channel capacity;
(14) the term "service tier" means a category of cable service or other services provided by a cable operator and for which a separate rate is charged by the cable operator;
(15) the term "State" means any State, or political subdivision, or agency thereof; and
(16) the term "video programming" means programming provided by, or generally considered comparable to programming provided by, a television broadcast station.
PART II-USE OF CABLE CHANNELS AND CABLE OWNERSHIP
CABLE CHANNELS FOR PUBLIC, EDUCATIONAL, OR GOVERNMENTAL USE
SEC. 611. [47 U.S.C. 531] (a) A franchising authority may establish requirements in a franchise with respect to the designation or use of channel capacity for public, educational, or governmental use only to the extent provided in this section.
(b) A franchising authority may in its request for proposals require as part of a franchise, and may require as part of a cable operator's proposal for a franchise renewal, subject to section 626, that channel capacity be designated for public, educational, or governmental use, and channel capacity on institutional networks be designated for educational or governmental use, and may require rules and procedures for the use of the channel capacity designated pursuant to this section.
(c) A franchising authority may enforce any requirement in any franchise regarding the providing or use of such channel capacity. Such enforcement authority includes the authority to enforce any provisions of the franchise for services, facilities, or equipment proposed by the cable operator which relate to public, educational, or governmental use of channel capacity, whether or not required by the franchising authority pursuant to subsection (b).
(d) In the case of any franchise under which channel capacity is designated under subsection (b), the franchising authority shall prescribe
(1) rules and procedures under which the cable operator is permitted to use such channel capacity for the provision of other services if such channel capacity is not being used for the purposes designated, and
(2) rules and procedures under which such permitted use shall cease.
(e) Subject to section 624(d), a cable operator shall not exercise any editorial control over any public, educational, or governmental use of channel capacity provided pursuant to this section.
(f) For purposes of this section, the term "institutional network" means a communication network which is constructed or operated by the cable operator and which is generally available only to subscribers who are not residential subscribers.
CABLE CHANNELS FOR COMMERCIAL USE
SEC. 612. [47 U.S.C. 532] (a) The purpose of this section is to assure that the widest possible diversity of information sources are made available to the public from cable systems in a manner consistent with growth and development of cable systems.
(b)(1) A cable operator shall designate channel capacity for commercial use by persons unaffiliated with the operator in accordance with the following requirements:
(A) An operator of any cable system with 36 or more (but not more than 54) activated channels shall designate 10 percent of such channels which are not otherwise required for use (or the use of which is not prohibited) by Federal law or regulation.
(B) An operator of any cable system with 55 or more (but not more than 100) activated channels shall designate 15 percent of such channels which are not otherwise required for use (or the use of which is not prohibited) by Federal law or regulation.
(C) An operator of any cable system with more than 100 activated channels shall designate 15 percent of all such channels.
(D) An operator of any cable system with fewer than 36 activated channels shall not be required to designate channel capacity for commercial use by persons unaffiliated with the operator, unless the cable system is required to provide such channel capacity under the terms of a franchise in effect on the date of the enactment of this title.
(E) An operator of any cable system in operation on the date of the enactment of this title shall not be required to remove any service actually being provided on July 1, 1984, in order to comply with this section, but shall make channel capacity available for commercial use as such capacity becomes available until such time as the cable operator is in full compliance with this section.
(2) Any Federal agency, State, or franchising authority may not require any cable system to designate channel capacity for commercial use by unaffiliated persons in excess of the capacity specified in paragraph (1), except as otherwise provided in this section.
(3) A cable operator may not be required, as part of a request for proposals or as part of a proposal for renewal, subject to section 626, to designate channel capacity for any use (other than commer