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before the agency whose interests will be affected if an order of the agency is or is not enjoined, set aside, or suspended, may appear as parties thereto of their own motion and as of right, and be represented by counsel in any proceeding to review the order. Communities, associations, corporations, firms, and individuals, whose interests are affected by the order of the agency, may intervene in any proceeding to review the order. The Attorney General may not dispose of or discontinue the proceeding to review over the objection of any party or intervenor, but any intervenor may prosecute, defend, or continue the proceeding unaffected by the action or inaction of the Attorney General.

§ 2349. Jurisdiction of the proceeding

(a) The court of appeals has jurisdiction of the proceeding on the filing and service of a petition to review. The court of appeals in which the record on review is filed, on the filing, has jurisdiction to vacate stay orders or interlocutory injunctions previously granted by any court, and has exclusive jurisdiction to make and enter, on the petition, evidence, and proceedings set forth in the record on review, a judgment determining the validity of, and enjoining, setting aside, or suspending, in whole or in part, the order of the agency.

(b) The filing of the petition to review does not of itself stay or suspend the operation of the order of the agency, but the court of appeals in its discretion may restrain or suspend, in whole or in part, the operation of the order pending the final hearing and determination of the petition. When the petitioner makes application for an interlocutory injunction restraining or suspending the enforcement, operation, or execution of, or setting aside, in whole or in part, any order reviewable under this chapter, at least 5 days' notice of the hearing thereon shall be given to the agency and to the Attorney General. In a case in which irreparable damage would otherwise result to the petitioner, the court of appeals may, on hearing, after reasonable notice to the agency and to the Attorney General, order a temporary stay or suspension, in whole or in part, of the operation of the order of the agency for not more than 60 days from the date of the order pending the hearing on the application for the interlocutory injunction, in which case the order of the court of appeals shall contain a specific finding, based on evidence submitted to the court of appeals, and identified by reference thereto, that irreparable damage would result to the petitioner and specifying the nature of the damage. The court of appeals, at the time of hearing the application for an interlocutory injunction, on a like finding, may continue the temporary stay or suspension, in whole or in part, until decision on the application. The hearing on an application for an interlocutory injunction shall be given preference and expedited and shall be heard at the earliest practicable date after the expiration of the notice of hearing on the application. On the final hearing of any proceeding to review any order

under this chapter, the same requirements as to precedence and expedition apply.

§ 2350. Review in Supreme Court on certiorari or certification

(a) An order granting or denying an interlocutory injunction under section 2349(b) of this title and a final judgment of the court of appeals in a proceeding to review under this chapter are subject to review by the Supreme Court on a writ of certiorari as provided by section 1254(1) of this title. Application for the writ shall be made within 45 days after entry of the order and within 90 days after entry of the judgment, as the case may be. The United States, the agency, or an aggrieved party may file a petition for a writ of certiorari.

(b) The provisions of section 1254(3) of this title, regarding certification, and of section 2101(f) of this title, regarding stays, also apply to proceedings under this chapter.

§ 2351. Enforcement of orders by district courts

The several district courts have jurisdiction specifically to enforce, and to enjoin and restrain any person from violating any order issued under section 193 of title 7.


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The Parties,

Being concerned with the health and welfare of mankind,

Noting with concern the public health and social problems resulting from the abuse of certain psychotropic substances,

Determined to prevent and combat abuse of such substances and the illicit traffic to which it gives rise.

Considering that rigorous measures are necessary to restrict the use of such substances to legitimate purposes.

Recognizing that the use of psychotropic substances for medical and scientific purposes is indispensable and that their availability for such purposes should not be unduly restricted,

Believing that effective measures against abuse of such substances require co-ordination and universal action,

Acknowledging the competence of the United Nations in the field of control of psychotropic substances and desirous that the international organs concerned should be within the framework of that Organization,

Recognizing that an international convention is necessary to achieve these purposes, Agree as follows:


Use of terms

Except where otherwise expressly indicated, or where the context otherwise requires, the following terms in this Convention have the meanings given below:

(a) "Council" means the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations.

(b) "Commission" means the Commission on Narcotics Drugs of the Council.

(c) "Board" means the International Narcotics Control Board provided for in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961. (d) "Secretary-General" means the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

(e) "Psychotropic substance" means any substance, natural or synthetic, or any natural material in Schedule I, II, III or IV.

(f) "Preparation" means:

(i) any solution or mixture, in whatever physical state, containing one or more psychotropic substances, or

(ii) one or more psychotropic substances in dosage form.

(g) "Schedule I", "Schedule II", "Schedule III" and "Schedule IV" mean the correspondingly numbered lists of psychotropic substances annexed to this Convention, as altered in accordance with article 2.

(h) "Export" and "import" mean in their respective connotations the physical transfer of a psychotropic substance from one State to another State.

(i) "Manufacture" means all processes by which psychotropic substances may be obtained, and includes refining as well as the transformation of psychotropic substances into other psychotropic substances. The term also includes the making of preparations other than those made on prescription in pharmacies.

(j) "Illicit traffic" means manufacture of or trafficking in psychotropic substances contrary to the provisions of this Convention.

(k) "Region" means any part of a State which pursuant to article 28 is treated as a separate entity for the purposes of this Convention.

(1) "Premises" means buildings or parts of buildings, including the appertaining land.


Scope of control of substances

1. If a Party or the World Health Organization has information relating to a substance not yet under international control which in its opinion may require the addition of that substance to any of the Schedules of this Convention, it shall notify the Secretary-General and furnish him with the information in support of that notification. The foregoing procedure shall also apply when a Party or the World Health Organization has information justifying the transfer of a substance from one Schedule to another among those Schedules, or the deletion of a substance from the Schedules.

2. The Secretary-General shall transmit such notification, and any information which he considers relevant, to the Parties, to the Commission and, when the notification is made by a Party, to the World Health Organization.

3. If the information transmitted with such a notification indicates that the substance is suitable for inclusion in Schedule I or Schedule II pursuant to paragraph 4, the Parties shall examine, in the light of all information available to them, the possibility of the provisional application to the substance of all measures of control applicable to substances in Schedule I or Schedule II, as appropriate.

4. If the World Health Organization finds:

(a) that the substance has the capacity to produce

(i)(1) a state of dependence, and

(2) central nervous system stimulation or depression, resulting in hallucinations or disturbances in motor function or thinking or behaviour or perception or mood, or

(ii) similar abuse and similar ill effects as a substance in Schedule I, II, III or IV, and

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