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and Italy will vie with each other in
efficient staff of veterinary surgeons pro-
vided for by the Blue-Cross fund. Re-
garding the work of the Blue Cross, Jr.
I have no hesitation in saying that the
operations of this society for the alleviation
of suffering among army horses are beyond Elmer's Chocolates you want
all praise. What has been greatly apprethis season. But you will be
CHEN crookbacked Richard offered ciated by the various units in France, and glad to know that hundreds
his kingdom for a horse, he paid a
also in Italy, has been the “Veterinary
Chests” which have been sent out by the
They contain a carefully selected
supply of instruments, bandages, and rugs
most frequently needed in giving relief to
dition to above hundreds of bandages,
wither and sheepskin pads, ointments,
and drugs have also been sent to the
on the rein. It has been estimated that front for the benefit of our war-horses.
nearly 5,000,000 horses have taken part in Many other more expensive gifts, such as
portable forges, clipping machines, chaff-
cutters, poultice-boots, pocket veterinary-
cases, special water-proof rugs for winter
use, canvas water-troughs, and fomenting
In The Wide World Magazine (London), pails have also been supplied by the Blue
The hospitals are without question the
largest and most up-to-date institutions of
their kind in existence. Their very sites
and indispensable allies, horses and mules.” close to running streams so that a plentiful
supply of pure water is always available.
They all boast of spacious sheltered tween the war-horse and his master has
meadows where the horses can freely graze. been amply proved, and proceeds:
Each hospital has its own operating-room,
pharmacy, sick-wards, and isolated quarters A driver in the Royal Field Artillery who
for those animals suffering from some had been driving his horses for three years,
contaminated disease, such as mange. The and declared that he “understood them and
most common complaint is saddle-sores. they understood him," related to me the
In the wear and tear of war saddles once following incident: Early in the retreat
put on remain on for many days, and as from Mons a shell crashed right into the
they do not always fit, unequal pressure midst of the section with which he was
causes large surface wounds, so that when moving. His gun was wrecked and the
the saddle is taken off a portion of the driver in front was blown to bits. As he
skin comes away with it. This form of mounted a fresh horse he turned and saw
injury accounts for the disabling of a large his two other horses struggling and kicking
number of animals and is not an easy one
to deal with,
stories of the faithfulness, tenacity, and
sagacity of the army horses. Their wonder-
ful memories have often been described,
but we now hear, probably for the first
time, about a horse suffering from shell-
shock. We quote:
“A very striking instance of memory
came under my personal observation just
before our great offensive at —— Being in
from a brother officer who was returning
He assured me that I could have no better
charger on which to ride forward when we
answering the reins, an absolutely trustGuards who told how, after the fierce
worthy steed,' were the owner's words as
we concluded our bargain. fighting at Loos, a horse was seen standing
And, truth to between the firing-lines. For two whole
tell, I found nothing to complain of in the
behavior of that mare until one afternoon
when, riding out of the ruined village of
in Flanders, I came to a long road standing by the side of the dead body of
where, but a short time before, there had his rider, the horse himself unharmed. It
been a beautiful avenue of poplars, now
“I had no sooner got half-way down than
tremble all over, and, with dilated nostrils, The great outcry raised about the trials
refused to go a step farther, until I had
applied the spurs. of the horse during the South-African War
I put this incident
down to a sudden caprice, and, forgiving has borne fruit in the shape of a highly
Au the the ter Spe and tho
Opis leak the
BY BERT FORD
"The one exception as one chap (International News Service Stall Cor. who asked for thick
socks, addin respondent)
that 11 there is enough room in the
package on candy must be squeciad WITH THE AMERICAN ARMY NORTHWEST OF VERDUN, Oct. 29
Captain Bonbright told of his exCandy is the chief demand of the
periences in battle. American soldier.
The first batlle I was in was noth Captala John Miller Bonbright for ing like I had fancied it would be, mer managing editor of a plladel said he. It is arduous and colorless ha newspaper, she is attached to and utterly unlike the conceptions of sensoring letters lately, told of this looking at platt
or from Waterloo and
The thing that pred I was amared and amused to note that every man in my company with was the pliysical strain Tha one exception asked that candy be greater
clement than fear. The vent. Some of them are asking their of our men has been wonderful
Captain Banbright is a wothers and sisters to send them
fillojne but candy Ware workers w., Bonbright, a New Yories and of the nature of the men 4 and bude
serv revealed in their requests.
master and return to the British lines.
d it from my mind. But e thing happened again a few ade a mental note of the fact, s I got back from the recon-te to my friend. His reply ystery. “Poor Dolly! I had she also was suffering from ne said, in substance. ‘But ot as bad as her old master. he' matter is, it was on that mear the village of —, that which led to my return to
evidently remembers it as Ho. But take her anywhere ce, and I think you will find ce like a thoroughbred lady.'” one instance has been related ch horses have endeavored to unded riders who have fallen
with their teeth and helping to a place of safety. And the
sympathy that exists bend beast has been displayed e instances where a wounded ) mount has managed to hold e or harness of an unwounded tly wounded horse, and has pathetically and understand
in his progress toward a
GERY, MENTAL HEALTH,
OCK, or “war-strain," at
cause shell-shock, the vast lue to psychic causes. This ne of the greatest that has ring the war.
the subject in Munsey's 'eward Carrington says: paper read before the Philalogical Society, and printed al Record, Dr. E. Murray some time was attached to econd General Hospital of Speditionary Force, drew atny cases of this character. e after-effects of shell-shock,
them with such cases as buried by mine-explosions rescued, he stated that in his
accidents or shocks often less permanent effects upon undergo them. It may be
that a greater and greater cases is now cured, under the
of treatment. y all cases which were ob
Auer, the patient had repreciable injury, the effect mental. One such instance boy nineteen years old, who hree days under a sustained Il-fire. At the end of that threatened by his sergeant
OU must get acquainted with the Lift-the
Dot Fastener. Your automobile or carriage is probably equipped with it now. You will very soon meet it in many other places because it is coming into increasingly general use on trunks, bags, sporting goods, awnings, tents, and other articles of canvas and leather.
Wherever you find this fastener, you will admire it for beauty, compactness and ease of operation. You will know it always by the dot stamped on the face of the socket—the Dot which tells you which side to lift.
sentry-duty. This led to an examination, and the sending of the boy to the hospital
. He was in a stupor for ten days. The same was true of another soldier who had seen his chum blown to pieces.
During the period of coma, which in some cases lasted more than a week, the soldiers gave the impression that they again were living through the experiences which had
brought on the stupor. This was evi. denced by their terrified expression. They
crouched, started, and stared wildly when spoken to. One such man rose from his bed in the middle of the night and recited in a one-sided conversation his experience of a charge and of being buried by a mine explosion. Then he relapsed into his state of coma.
Another result of shock is a continued shaking of the entire body accompanied by various pains and severe headaches. In some cases this shaking has been observed to last several days, and even weeks, altho in most instances its duration is only a few hours. One patient had twice been buried in a mine - explosion, had been through an attack and under heavy bombardment in a trench, and finally was hit by a piece of rock, which, while not injuring him, knocked him down. In this case the tremor of the head was marked, and lasted for some time.
Temporary loss of memory is a common thing with men who have been through some extremely trying period or have suffered a sudden shock. The recovery of the faculty is generally as sudden as its loss.
One soldier, after being near a shell which exploded, could remember nothing that happened to him until he came to himself, walking along a road, some time later. Another man in the hospital thought himself back in the trenches and became violent, moving his cupboard about as if it were a machine gun and pointing it at his enemies. When he suddenly returned to a normal state, he could remember nothing of his experience.
One of the most common, and at the same time most pitiful, of the many mental phenomena of the war is the inability to sleep soundly, and the recurrence of socalled “trench-dreams." It is not uncommon to see soldiers start from their beds in the middle of the night, crying out and weeping, their bodies bathed in perspiration, as they dream of being chased by Germans with bayonets, or of being buried under débris by a mine-explosion, or of losing the trench in a fog and being unable to get back.
The fear that is found is not the kind the layman might expect. The soldier does not, as a rule, fear injury to himself. He is afraid of doing something wrong, of an emergency in which he may fail and lose the confidence of his comrades. His fear is the fear of being a coward.
It will be noticed that fear plays a prominent part: one man fears to go to sleep lest he will not awake; another fears noise. Photophobia, the fear of looking, is common. Many complain that they can not see. A curious example of this was the case of a soldier who had a “trench-dream" in which he lived again his experience of the month previous, when he was buried by a mine-explosion, When he awoke he thought he had been blinded by the explosion, yet when his eyelids were lifted his sight was as good
The writer proceeds:
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long way from the subject of shell-shock, but as a matter of fact it is not so. These very symptoms-dreams and all, in factenable us to understand the innermost nature of the disease. They have afforded a key to the mystery, and have enabled our doctors to effect thousands of cures which would never have been made along the old lines of pure pathology and materia medića.
Both the mental and physical symptoms of shell-shock are really mental, or rather emotional, at their basis. The outward manifestations are expressions of injuries and lesions, not of the body, but of the psychic life.
It was long ago pointed out that civilized men seemed to withstand shell-fire better than natives of semicivilized countries; but the cause was not understood. We can now see why it should be so. We can also understand the rationale of most of the so-called miraculous cures-of which there have been many. All this is readily intelligible in the light of the newer psychology. One word more.
Shell-shock-or “warstrain,” which is 'virtually the same thing -has been shown to involve no essentially new disorders. Every one of the symptoms was known beforehand in civil life. If by any stretch of the imagination we could speak of a specific variety of disease called shell-shock, it would be new only in its unusually great number of ingredients; and the most gratifying truth of all is that even this hydra-headed monster, if caught young, can be destroyed.
THE FAITH THAT IS IN THE
sublimity," is the central fact in the modern fighting man's religion, says a writer who has gained a reputation here and in England under the pseudonym of "Centurion." While adı:ting that it is a fact that "a soldier going into action is much more exercised about the condition of his rifle than the state of his soul," he contrasts the modern soldier's creed, “Save others," with the too common religious exhortation to save yourself," very much to the advantage of the soldier.
The last chapter of “Centurion's” new book, "Gentlemen-at-Arms" (Doubleday, Page & Co.), is given up to considerations of questions that might come under the head either of “morale" or "religion" as applied to the fighting man. The writer has this to say regarding the soldier's attitude toward death, and what may come after:
The language in which he speaks of death is, in fact, often picturesque, but it is rarely devout. A pal may have "gone West” or “stopt one" or been "outed”; he is never spoken of as being “with God." Death is rarely alluded to as being the will of God; it is frequently characterized in terms of luck.
There are, of course, exceptions, but the average soldier does not seem to feel any confidence that he is in the hands of a Divine Providence; he is fatalistic rather than religious. After all, if you have looked on the obscene havoc of a battlefield, as the writer has done, and seen all the profana diamomhormont of that which,