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CONTENTS.

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CHAPTER I.-Introduction:

Growth of the industry....
Increase in the number of employees..
Territory studied.
Households studied.
Members of households for whom detailed information was secured..

Employees for whom information was secured..
CHAPTER II.-Racial displacements:

History of immigration...
Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and

members of their households......
Racial classification of employees at the present time.
Reasons for employing immigrants...
Method of securing immigrant labor.
Progress of immigrants.....

Discrimination...
CHAPTER III.-Economic status:

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied..
Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United

States..
General occupation of males at the present time, in the households studied.
General occupation of women at the present time, in the households studied.
Weekly earnings...
Annual earnings of male heads of families studied.
Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied.
Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied.
Annual family income....
Wives at work...
Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of

keeping boarders or lodgers... Sources of family income...

Relative importance of the different sources of family income. CHAPTER IV.-Working conditions:

Regularity of employment...

The immigrant and organized labor..
CHAPTER V.-Housing and living conditions:

Rent in its relation to standard of living.
Boarders and lodgers....
Size of apartments occupied.
Size of households studied..

Congestion.....
CHAPTER VI.-Salient characteristics:

Literacy...
Conjugal condition.
Visits abroad..

Age classification of employees and members of their households.
CHAPTER VII.-General progress and assimilation:

Ownership of homes..
Status of children in the households studied.
Citizenship......

Ability to speak English..
General tables.....

General explanation of tables.
List of text tables...
List of general tables.

692 693 696

697 698

701 704 706 707 708

713 715 720 721

725 725 726 727

731 733 783 787

COLLAR, CUFF, AND SHIRT MANUFACTURING.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.

Growth of the industry—Increase in the number of employees—Territory studied

Households studied-Members of households for whom detailed information was secured—Employees for whom information was secured—[Text Tables 1 to 7 and General Tables 1 to 3).

GROWTH OF THE INDUSTRY.

More than one-half of the capital engaged in the collar and cuff manufacturing industry at the present time is invested in the State of New York. This fact, together with the growth of the industry in that State and the country as a whole during the period 1880–1905, is set forth in the table below:

Table 1.-Growth of the collarcuff, and shirt manufacturing industry in the State of

New York and in the United States, 1880-1905.

(Compiled from United States Census Reports, Manufactures, 1880–1905.]

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The expansion in the collar and cuff industry, as shown in the preceding table, has been attended by a large demand for labor, which has been met principally by the employment of immigrants of recent and past years. The increase in the operating forces of the industry

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during the period 1880–1905 in the State of New York and in the United States is shown in the table which immediately follows: TABLE 2.Increase in the number of employees in the collar, cuff, and shirt manufactur

ing industry in the State of New York and the United States, 1880–1905.

(Compiled from United States Census Reports, Manufactures, 1880–1905.]

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a Data for collars and cuffs and for shirts given separately in Manufacturing Industries of 1905. o Data for shirts only in Census of Manufactures of 1900. c Data for shirts only in Statistics of Manufactures of 1880.

TERRITORY STUDIED. The investigation of the industry under study was limited to the State of New York and the intensive study was confined to Troy, the principal center of the manufacture in the State and in the United States.

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED. A total of 264 households, the heads of which were engaged in the manufacture of collars, cuffs, or shirts, were studied in detail. The following table shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the number and percentage of households studied. TABLE 3.Households studied, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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Of the total number of households studied in the preceding table 53 per cent were foreign-born, 31.8 per cent were native-born of native father, and 15.2 per cent were native-born of foreign-father. Among the native-born of foreign father the Irish show a considerably higher percentage than do the Germans, while of foreign-born, Armenians, Irish, and Germans show little difference in their percentage, followed by English and Danish in somewhat smaller proportions.

MEMBERS OF HOUSEHOLDS FOR WHOM DETAILED INFORMATION WAS

SECURED The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the persons in the households studied and the persons for whom detailed information was secured. TABLE 4.-Persons in households studied and persons for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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The above table shows that foreign-born persons report 55.7 per cent of the total number of persons in households, native-born of native father show 28 per cent, and native-born of foreign father 16.3 per cent.

Of native-born of foreign father, the Irish show considerably larger proportions than Germans in households, while of the foreign-born, Armenians show the highest percentage and the Danes the lowest.

The table below sets forth, by general nativity and race of head of household, the sex of persons in the households studied for whom detailed information was secured: TABLE 5.-Sex of persons for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity

and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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Total native-born of foreign father
Total native-born...
Total foreign-born..

69 199 242

97 252 324

451 566

41.6 44.1 42.8

58.4 55.9 57.2

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