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The table next submitted makes possible a comparison by age at time of coming to the United States and race, the per cent of foreignborn male employees who were able to speak English.

TABLE 114.—Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by age at time

of coming to the United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, how.

ever, is for all non-English-speaking races.)

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It appears from the data presented in the above table that 96.3 per cent of the foreign-born male employees who came to the United States when under 14 years of age can speak English, as compared with 65.6 per cent of those who came here when 14 or over. All of the Germans and a larger proportion of the North Italians than of the South Italians who came to the United States when under 14 can speak English, while the proportion of individuals who came when 14 or over who are able to speak English is largest for the Germans, second largest for the South Italians, and smallest for the North Italians. In the case of all three races, for which the percentages are given, a considerably larger proportion of individuals who came to this country when under 14 than of individuals who came here when 14 or over can speak English.

The advancement manifested by employees of foreign birth and non-English-speaking races in acquiring an ability to speak English after designated periods of residence is shown in the table following: The table

shows, by years in the United States and race, the per cent of foreign-born male employees who were able to speak English. Table 115.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by years in the

United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only non-English-speaking races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.)

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The proportion of foreign-born male employees who speak English is 33.8 per cent for individuals who have been in the United States under five years; 57.3 per cent for individuals who have been here from five to nine years, and' 89.6 per cent for individuals who have been here ten years or over.

Of the three races for which the percentages are given the Germans have the largest and the North Italians the smallest proportion of individuals in the United States under five years, and from five to nine years who speak English, while the Germans have the largest and the South Italians the smallest proportion of individuals in the United States ten years or over who speak English. There is in the case of all the races mentioned a steady increase in the proportion of individuals who are able to speak English, with length of residence in the United States.

GENERAL TABLES.

I.-GENERAL SURVEY: TABLES 1–53. II.-PENNSYLVANIA: TABLES 54-69. H.-SILK DYEING: TABLES 70–82.

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GENERAL EXPLANATION OF TABLES.

Persons of native birth have been divided into two general groups and further subdivided under each of the two, as follows:

1. Native-born of native father.

Persons under this group are classified as White, Negro, Indian, Chinese, Hindu, Japanese, and Korean.

2. Native-born of foreign father.

Persons under this group are classified according to race of father in all tables where the data were secured for households, and according to country of birth of father in all tables where the data were secured for employees. Where classification is by race of father the classification used for several years by the United States Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization is followed.

Persons of foreign birth are classified according to race (or people). The classification of the United States Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization is followed.

In the study of households information is presented

1. By general nativity and race of the "individual” in all tables which show facts which are personal in their nature, such as English speaking, occupation, or conjugal condition.

2. By general nativity and race of "head of family” in tables concerned with family matters-for example, family income.

3. By general nativity and race of "head of household” in all tables dealing with living conditions, among which are tables showing the composition of the household and the number of persons per room and per sleeping room. The distinction which has been made throughout this study between "family” and “household” is dependent upon the use of the term “apartment.”.

An "apartment” is a room or rooms within which all the usual daily processes of living, namely, cooking, eating, and sleeping, are carried on by the occupants. According to this definition an apartment may be, for example, a whole house; or it may be a single room of what was originally intended as an apartment; or it may be a corner of a wareroom or the back of a store room partitioned off and set aside for household uses. Two or more groups of occupants with distinctly separate money interests frequently rent a number of rooms jointly, occupying certain rooms separately but sharing one or more, usually the kitchen, or kitchen and living room. Under these conditions neither the rooms used by the one group of occupants nor those used by the other can be considered an apartment, since the room used in common must in such case be considered a room in each apartment, and thus be counted twice. Where these conditions have been encountered, the entire number of rooms has been considered one apartment.

The "household ” includes all persons living within an apartment without regard to the relationships which exist among them. The household may consist of one or more families with or without 48296°—VOL 11-11-10

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