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The extent to which the industrial efficiency or earning capacity of employees increases after designated periods of residence in this country is shown in the following table, which shows, by race and length of residence in the United States, the per cent of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount

per week:

Table 104.- Per cent of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over earning each

specified amount per week, by race and length of residence in the United States.

(STUDY OF EMELOYEES.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 200 or more males reporting.]

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

It appears from the percentages of the above table that the proportion of South Italian male employees earning the larger sums specified increases, in general, with length of residence of employees in the United States.

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Literacy-Conjugal condition—Visits abroad—Age classification of employees—[Text

Tables 105 to 110 and General Tables 75 to 79).

LITERACY.

The degree of literacy which prevails among employees in the silkdyeing industry is set forth in the table next presented, which shows, by general nativity and race, the per cent of male employees who were able to read and the per cent who were able to both read and write:

TABLE 105.-Per cent of male employees who read and per cent who read and write, by

general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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From the data presented in the above table it appears that the per cent of male employees who read only and the per cent who both read and write is largest for the native-born of native father, slightly smaller for the native-born of foreign father, and smallest for the foreign-born. Of the foreign-born, the Dutch and Germans, in the order mentioned, have the largest and the South Italians the smallest proportion of individuals in each classification.

CONJUGAL CONDITION.

The table following shows, by general nativity and race, the per cent of male employees 20 years of age or over in each conjugal condition.

Table 106.- Per cent of male employees 20 years of age or over in each conjugal condition,

by general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the male employees 20 years of age or over for whom information was secured, 74.1 per cent are married and only 2.7 per cent are widowed. The proportion of married employees is largest among the foreign-born and considerably larger among the native-born of native father than among the native-born of foreign father. Of the foreign-born, the Germans and Dutch have the largest and the North Italians the smallest proportion of married employees.

The following table divides the totals of the table preceding and shows, by age groups and by general nativity and race, the per cent of male employees in each conjugal condition:

TABLE 107.-Per cent of male employees in each conjugal condition, by age groups and by

general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 100 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The preceding table shows that of 1,068 male employees reporting, 74.1 per cent are married and 2.7 per cent are widowed. In the group from 20 to 29 years of age the native-born whites of native father show the highest per cent, followed by the native-born of foreign father, each exhibiting over 50 per cent married, while the foreignborn show slightly less than 50 per cent married. In the group including employees from 30 to 44 years of age the foreign-born exhibit the greatest proportion married, followed in the order named by the nativeborn whites of native father and the native-born of foreign father. Employees who are native-born of foreign father show the highest per cent widowed in this group, followed by the native-born whites of native father and foreign-born. Of persons 45 years of age or over, employees who are native-born whites of native father show thé highest per cent married, followed in the order mentioned by the foreign-born and the native-born of foreign father, the latter exhibiting 14.3 per cent of males widowed, as contrasted with 6.5 per cent of the foreign-born and none of the native-born whites of native father. Of all male employees who are 20 years of age or over, the foreignborn show the highest per cent who are married, followed by the native-born whites of native father and the native-born of foreign father, the latter showing the highest per cent widowed in this group. Of the foreign-born employees, the South Italians show the highest per cent who are married in the groups including persons from 20 to 29 and from 30 to 44 years of age and the Germans the greatest proportion who are married in the group including persons who are 45 years of age or over.

The most significant fact in connection with the conjugal condition of employees of foreign birth, especially those of recent immigration, is found in the location of the wives of the married males. The following table shows, by race of husband, the per cent of foreignborn husbands who report wife in the United States and per cent who report wife abroad:

TABLE 108.—Per cent of foreign-born husbands who report wife in the United States and

per cent who report wife abroad, by race of husband.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more husbands reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.]

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Of the foreign-born husbands for whom information was secured, 90.6 per cent report wives in the Uạited States. The proportion of husbands reporting wives in this country is largest for the Dutch and Germans and smallest for the South Italians.

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