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general nativity groups the proportion is larger among the females; the native-born of foreign father representing 37.2 per cent and the foreign-born 13.8 per cent. No male negroes native-born of native father are included in the total number of employees and the proportion of females of that race is less than 1 per cent. The native whites born of native father, on the other hand, represent 60 per cent of all males and 48.9 per cent of the total number of females. The second-generation Irish, or native-born of foreign father, show a larger proportion than does any other one race, both of males and of females. The males represent 13.1 per cent of that sex and the females 23.5 per cent of the females. Of the foreign-born races the Armenian, German, and Russian are the only races that show a proportion of more than 1 per cent of the total number of males. The Irish report a larger proportion of females than does any other foreign-born race. This is 4.2 per cent. The French Canadians, Russians, Danes, and Germans follow in the order named. No other race shows a proportion of more than 1 per cent.

REASONS FOR EMPLOYING IMMIGRANTS.

The Poles are employed in laundries because more vacancies occur in that department, on account of the fact that Americans leave it as they work up in the scale of occupations. The Poles are considered good ironers, and have proven very satisfactory. They are contented with their work, and hence are employed by a few firms. The Armenians are employed as buttonhole makers, because they do good work and on contract finish it cheaper than Americans. Further, the Armenians nearly all own machines, and even if the scale of pay is the same as at the factory, the company saves the capital which otherwise would be tied up in the machines, and saves wear and tear, rent of space, interest, etc.

METHOD OF SECURING IMMIGRANT LABOR.

The Poles have resided in Troy for a number of years, the male members of the families being employed in other work. In order to secure a supplementary income the women and girls have applied at the laundries and have been employed from time to time as vacancies occurred. The Armenians, it seems, have merely drifted in; there has been no concerted immigration to Troy on the part of their race, and they have gradually worked into their present position in the collar and cuff industry.

PROGRESS OF IMMIGRANTS.

Very little progress has been made by the Poles and Armenians. The Poles so far have not progressed beyond the laundries, except in one instance, where 40 Polish girls are employed on buttonhole machines by an Armenian. In this case, however, the Poles are employed because they can be secured cheaper than the Armenians. The Armenians have never sought any employment other than making buttonholes and all of them remain in this department.

DISCRIMINATION.

There is no discrimination either for or against the employment of immigrants. The firms who do not employ them say they do not do so simply because they can secure plenty of experienced, highly skilled native labor, and hence do not take on unskilled immigrants, and go to the trouble and expense of training them. They assert that the deciding factor is that of skill. The collar and cuff factories run ten hours a day, and six days a week; some grant a Saturday half holiday, and some do not. About one-third of the work is done by contract outside the factories and these workers regulate their own hours. There are no trade unions in this industry and no movement of any note has ever taken place toward organizing.

CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied-Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United States-General occupation of males at the present time, in the households studied—General occupation of women at the present time, in the households studied-Weekly earnings-Annual earnings of male heads of families studied-Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over, in the households studied-Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual family income-Wives at work-Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of keeping boarders or lodgers-Sources of family income-Relative importance of the different sources of family income-[Text Tables 13 to 35 and General Tables 6 to 18].

INDUSTRIAL CONDITION ABROAD OF MEMBERS OF IMMIGRANT HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

In order that a comparison may be made of the condition of operatives in the collar and cuff industry in this country with their condition while abroad, it is necessary to point out their general industrial status and the principal occupations followed by them before emigrating from their native countries. This is done in the following series of tables, the first of which shows, by race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country.

TABLE 13.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States, of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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The foregoing table shows that 8.2 per cent of the males reporting were without occupation before coming to the United States, 57.5 per cent were working for wages, 8.2 per cent were working without wages, and 26 per cent were working for profit.

The following table analyzes the preceding table into the principal occupations followed before coming to the United States by foreignborn males in the households studied who were 16 years of age or

over at time of coming to this country. The presentation is by race of individual.

TABLE 14.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Of the total number of males shown in the above table, 13.7 per cent were farm laborers, 9.6 per cent were in hand trades, 1.4 per cent were general laborers, and 32.9 per cent were in other occupations, before coming to the United States; 6.8 per cent were working without wages as farm laborers and 1.4 per cent were in other occupations; 5.5 per cent were farming for themselves and 20.5 per cent were working for profit in other occupations. Only 8.2 per cent were without occupation.

The following table shows by race of individual the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born females in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country.

TABLE 15.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born femal who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Of the total number of females reporting their industrial condition before coming to the United States, 73.7 per cent were without occupation, and 26.3 per cent were working for wages.

The table next presented shows by race of individual the occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females in

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