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father show a larger proportion than do the foreign-born in each age group, below 25 years of age, but in each group above that age their proportion is smaller than that of the foreign-born. Among the foreign-born males between the ages of 14 and 19 years the North Italians show the largest proportion, and the Lithuanians the smallest proportion. The Poles show the largest proportion among those between the ages of 20 and 24, while the Lithuanians show the largest proportion among those between 25 and 29 years. No race shows a proportion as high as 21 per cent between the ages of 30 and 34 years. Less than 10 per cent of the males of every foreign-born race except the Bohemian and Moravian and German are between the ages of 45 and 54 years. For those two races the proportions are 10.5 and 20.9 per cent, respectively.

Of the females reported in the above table, 53.4 per cent are from 14 to 19 years of age. None are below 14 years of age and less than 10 per cent are in each of the specified age groups above 20 to 24 years. The native-born of foreign father show a larger proportion than do the foreign-born of females between the ages of 14 and 19, but in each other specified age group the foreign-born show the largest proportions. Among the foreign-born races, the smallest proportion of females between the ages of 14 and 19 is shown by the Germans, the proportion being 24.5 per cent. The highest proportion in this age group is shown by the Hebrews other than Russian, the percentage being 65.2. The Lithuanian females appear in largest proportion among those who are from 20 to 24 years of age. Less than 10 per cent each of the Russian and other Hebrews, Poles, and Russians are between the ages of 25 and 29. None of the Russian or Slovak females are from 35 to 44 years of age, but 13.9 per cent of the South Italians are in that age group. The German, Hebrew other than Russian, and Slovak are the only races showing more than 1 per cent of females who are 55 years

of

age or over.

CHAPTER VI.

GENERAL PROGRESS AND ASSIMILATION.

Citizenship-Ability to speak English--[Text Tables 160 to 164 and General Tables

99 to 101).

CITIZENSHIP.

The interest of immigrant employees in political affairs and the extent to which they have become citizens is set forth in the following series of tables. The first table submitted, which immediately follows, shows, by race, the present political condition of foreignborn male employees who have been in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming.

Table 160.-- Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who have been in

the United States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)
[By years in the l'nited States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.)

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Of the total number in the above table 38.4 per cent are fully naturalized and 27 per cent have first papers only. The Germans show the largest proportion of fully naturalized persons. The percentage is 7.2.4 and is largely in excess of that shown for any other

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race. The Bohemians and Moravians show the second largest proportion of fully naturalized persons. The Poles, Hebrews other than Russian, Russian Hebrews, and Lithuanians follow in the order named. Over 50 per cent of the Hebrews other than Russian have first papers only. The Russian Hebrew, Bohemian and Moravian, Polish, and Lithuanian races follow in the order named.

The relation between citizenship and period of residence in the United States is considered in the following table, which shows, by years in the United States and race of individual, the present political condition of foreign-born male employees who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States:

Table 161.- Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who were 21 years

of age or over at time of coming to the United States, by years in the United States and

race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

In United States 5 to

9 years.

In United States 10

years or over.

In United States 5

years or over.

Race.

Num-
Per cent- Num-
Per cent- Num-

Per cent-
ber re-
ber re-

ber re-
port-
port-

port-
ing
Havinging

Havinging

Fully
Fully

Having

Fully
com-
first com-
first com-

first
natural-
natural-

natural-
plete
ized.
papers plete

ized.
papers plete

papers

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data.
only. data.
only. data.

only.

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The proportion of fully naturalized persons is much greater among those who have been in the United States ten years or over than among those whose residence has been from five to nine years. Among the total number of persons 38.4 per cent are fully naturalized and 27 per cent have first papers only, leaving 34.6 per cent who have shown no interest in naturalization. Among those whose residence in this country has been from five to nine years the Poles show the largest proportion of fully naturalized persons, while the Russian Hebrews show the largest proportion who have taken out first papers only. Over 70 per cent of those of each race who have lived in this country for ten years or more are fully naturalized; 10.6 per cent of the Bohemians and Moravians have first papers only, as compared with 6.7 per cent of the Poles and 3.2 per cent of the Russian Hebrews.

ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH.

The table next presented shows, by sex and race of individual, the proportion of foreign-born employees who were able to speak English. Table 162.-- Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, how

ever, is for all non-English-speaking races.)

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This table contains a report for 5,209 persons, 3,020 of whom are males and 2,189 females. Of the grand total 60.3 per cent speak English, but only 54.9 per cent of the females as compared with 64.3 per cent of the males were able to use the English language. The Germans and Hebrews other than Russian show each over 83 per cent who speak English. Next follows the Russian Hebrew with 78.8 per cent and the Russian with 71 per cent. With only 34.5 per cent speaking English, the Lithuanians show the least efficiency in that regard. The males in all races excepting the Bohemian and Moravian, German, Polish, and Russian show a slightly higher English-speaking proportion than do the females.

The advancement made by the younger as compared with older immigrants in acquiring the ability to speak English according to age when they came to this country is set forth in the table on the following page. It shows, by sex, age at time of coming to the United States, and race of individual, the per cent of foreign-born employees of non-English-speaking races who were able to speak English.

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